Clinical data
AHFS/ International Drug Names
Routes of
ATC code N05BB02 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal status
  • ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Excretion Renal
CAS Number 486-17-9 YesY
PubChem (CID) 10240
DrugBank DB09014 N
ChemSpider 9823 YesY
UNII H93K9455DD YesY
KEGG D07316 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.006.936
Chemical and physical data
Formula C21H29NS2
Molar mass 359.594 g/mol
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
 NYesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Captodiame (INN), also known as captodiamine, is an antihistamine sold under the trade names Covatine, Covatix, and Suvren which is used as a sedative and anxiolytic. It is a derivative of diphenhydramine.[1]

A 2004 study suggested captodiame may be helpful in preventing benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in people discontinuing benzodiazepine treatment.[1]

In addition to its actions as an antihistamine, captodiamine has been found to act as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and σ1 receptor and D3 receptor agonist.[2] It produces antidepressant-like effects in rats.[2] However, captodiamine is unique among antidepressant-like drugs in that it increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hypothalamus but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus.[2] This unique action may be related to its ability to attenuate stress-induced anhedonia and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the hypothalamus.[2]


The oxygen atom in these molecules can in many cases be dispensed with as well; substitution of sulfur for nitrogen affords a molecule whose salient biologic properties are those of a sedative and tranquilizer.

Captodiamine synthesis: Hubner Oluf Herman, Petersen Povl Viggo. U.S. Patent 2,830,088 (1958).

Friedel-Crafts acylation of the n-butyl ether of thiophenol with benzoyl chloride gives the corresponding benzophenone. Reduction of the ketone with zinc/NaOH followed by treatment with HCl in ether affords the benzhydryl chloride. Displacement of the halogen with thiourea gives, by reaction of the last at its most nucleophilic center, the isothiouronium salt. Hydrolysis of the salt leads to the sulfur analog of a benzhydrol. Alkylation of the sodium salt of this last with N-(2-chloroethyl)dimethylamine affords captodiame.

See also


  1. 1 2 Mercier-Guyon C, Chabannes JP, Saviuc P (2004). "The role of captodiamine in the withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment". Curr Med Res Opin. 20 (9): 1347–55. doi:10.1185/030079904125004457. PMID 15383182. Free full text with registration
  2. 1 2 3 4 Ring RM, Regan CM (October 2013). "Captodiamine, a putative antidepressant, enhances hypothalamic BDNF expression in vivo by synergistic 5-HT2c receptor antagonism and sigma-1 receptor agonism". J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford). 27 (10): 930–9. doi:10.1177/0269881113497614. PMID 23863923.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 5/24/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.