|3D model (Jmol)||Interactive image|
|ChemSpider|| 18974 |
|Molar mass||143.23 g·mol−1|
|GHS signal word||WARNING|
EU classification (DSD)
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|760 mg kg−1 (oral, rat)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|(what is ?)|
Valnoctamide (INN, USAN) has been used in France as a sedative-hypnotic since 1964. It is a structural isomer of valpromide, a valproic acid prodrug; unlike valpromide, however, valnoctamide is not transformed into its homologous acid, valnoctic acid, in vivo.
In addition to being a sedative, valnoctamide has been investigated for use in epilepsy.
It was studied for neuropathic pain in 2005 by Winkler et al., with good results: it had minimal effects on motor coordination and alertness at effective doses, and appeared to be equally effective as gabapentin.
Valnoctamide is a racemic compound with four stereoisomers, all of which were shown to be more effective than valproic acid in animal models of epilepsy and one of which [(2S,3S]-valnoctamide) was considered to be a good candidate by Isoherranen, et al. for an anticonvulsant in August 2003.
- "valnoctamide - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 26 March 2005. Identification and Related Records. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
- Harl, F. M. (March 1964). "[Clinical Study Of Valnoctamide On 70 Neuropsychiatric Clinic Patients Undergoing Ambulatory Treatment]". La Presse Médicale (in French). 72: 753–754. PMID 14119722.
- Haj-Yehia, Abdullah; Meir Bialer (August 1989). "Structure-pharmacokinetic relationships in a series of valpromide derivatives with antiepileptic activity". Pharmaceutical Research. 6 (8): 683–689. doi:10.1023/A:1015934321764. PMID 2510141.
- Mattos Nda, S. (May 1969). "[Use of Valnoctamide (nirvanil) in oligophrenic erethics and epileptics]". Hospital (Rio J) (in Portuguese). 75 (5): 1701–1704. PMID 5306499.
- Lindekens, H.; Ilse Smolders; Ghous M. Khan; Meir Bialer; Guy Ebinger; Yvette Michotte (November 2000). "In vivo study of the effect of valpromide and valnoctamide in the pilocarpine rat model of focal epilepsy". Pharmaceutical Research. 17 (11): 1408–1413. doi:10.1023/A:1007559208599. PMID 11205735.
- Rogawski, MA (2006). "Diverse mechanisms of antiepileptic drugs in the development pipeline". Epilepsy Res. 69 (3): 273–294. doi:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2006.02.004. PMC 1562526. PMID 16621450.
- Winkler, Ilan; Simcha Blotnik; Jakob Shimshoni; Boris Yagen; Marshall Devor; Meir Bialer (September 2005). "Efficacy of antiepileptic isomers of valproic acid and valpromide in a rat model of neuropathic pain". British Journal of Pharmacology. 146 (2): 198–208. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706310. PMC 1576263. PMID 15997234.
- RH Belmaker; Yuly Bersudsky; Alex Mishory; Beersheva Mental Health Center (2005). "Valnoctamide in Mania". ClinicalTrials.gov. United States National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 25 February 2006.
- Pisani, F; Fazio, A; Artesi, C; Oteri, G; Spina, E; Tomson, T; Perucca, E (1992). "Impairment of carbamazepine-10, 11-epoxide elimination by valnoctamide, a valpromide isomer, in healthy subjects". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 34 (1): 85–87. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1992.tb04114.x. PMC 1381382. PMID 1352988.
- Shimon Barel, Boris Yagen, Volker Schurig, Stephan Sobak, Francesco Pisani, Emilio Perucca and Meir Bialer. Stereoselective pharmacokinetic analysis of valnoctamide in healthy subjects and in patients with epilepsy. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 61, 442–449 (April 1997) doi:10.1016/S0009-9236(97)90194-6
- Isoherranen, Nina; H. Steve White; Brian D. Klein; Michael Roeder; José H. Woodhead; Volker Schurig; Boris Yagen; Meir Bialer (August 2003). "Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of (2S,3S)-valnoctamide and its stereoisomer (2R,3S)-valnoctamide in rodent models of epilepsy". Pharmaceutical Research. 8 (8): 1293–1301. doi:10.1023/A:1025069519218. PMID 12948028.