Alcuronium chloride

Alcuronium chloride
Clinical data
AHFS/ International Drug Names
ATC code M03AA01 (WHO)
Pharmacokinetic data
Metabolism not metabolized
Excretion 70–90% unchanged in urine 1.3ml/kg/min t1/2 2–4 hours
CAS Number 23214-96-2 N
PubChem (CID) 5311001
ChemSpider 20118193 YesY
UNII 490DW6501Y N
ChEBI CHEBI:31185 YesY
Chemical and physical data
Formula C44H50N4O2+2
Molar mass 666.894 g/mol
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
 NYesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Alcuronium is a neuromuscular blocking (NMB) agent, alternatively referred to as a skeletal muscle relaxant. It is a semi-synthetic substance prepared from C-toxiferine I,[1] a bis-quaternary alkaloid obtained from Strychnos toxifera. C-toxiferine I itself has been tested for its pharmacological action and noted to be a very long acting neuromuscular blocking agent[2] For a formal definition of the durations of actions associated with NMB agents, see page for gantacurium. The replacement of both the N-methyl groups with N-allyl moieties yielded N,N-diallyl-bis-nortoxiferine, now recognized as alcuornium (and at one time marketed as the proprietary agent called Alloferin).

Inclusion of the allylic functions presented an enhanced potential area of biotransformation, and thus alcuronium is observed to have a much shorter duration of neuromuscular blocking action than its parent C-toxiferine I.[3] It also has a more rapid onset of action, and is ~1.5 times as potent as tubocurarine.[4] The pharmacological action of alcuronium is readily reversed by neostigmine, and it produced little histamine release.[5] The major disadvantage of alcuronium is that it elicits a vagolytic effect produced by a selective atropoine-like blockade of cardiac muscarinic receptors.[4][6][7]


Special points


  1. Foldes FF (1954). "The Mode of Action of Quaternary Ammonium Type Neuromuscular Blocking Agents". Br. J. Anaesth. 26 (6): 394–398. doi:10.1093/bja/26.6.394.
  2. Waser PG (1950). Helv. Physiol. Pharmacol. Acta. 8: 342.
  3. Martin-Smith M (1971), In: Ariens EJ (ed.), "Drug Design". Vol. 2. Academic Press. New York and London. pp.453-530.
  4. 1 2 Speight TM, Avery GS (1972). "Pancuronium Bromide: A Review of its Pharmacological Properties and Clinical Application". Drugs. 4 (3-4): 163–226. doi:10.2165/00003495-197204030-00002.
  5. Thompson MA (1980). Br. J. Hosp Med. 23: 153.
  6. Coleman AJ, Downing JW, Leary WP, Moyes DG, Styles M (1972). "The immediate cardiovascular effects of pancuronium, alcuronium and tubocurarine in man". Anaesthesia. 27 (4): 415–22. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.1972.tb08247.x. PMID 4264060.
  7. Hughes R, Chapple DJ (1976). "Effects of Non-Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Agents on Peripheral Autonomic Mechanisms in Cats". Br. J. Anaesth. 48 (2): 59–68. doi:10.1093/bja/48.2.59.

Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 5/20/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.