| IUPAC name
| Other names
|3D model (Jmol)||Interactive image|
|Molar mass|| 973.67 g/mol|
1,017.65 g/mol (sodium salt)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|(what is ?)|
Rose bengal (4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2',4',5',7'-tetraiodofluorescein) is a stain. Its sodium salt is commonly used in eye drops to stain damaged conjunctival and corneal cells and thereby identify damage to the eye. The stain is also used in the preparation of Foraminifera for microscopic analysis, allowing the distinction between forms that were alive or dead at the time of collection.
A form of rose bengal is also being studied as a treatment for certain cancers and skin conditions. The cancer formulation of the drug, known as PV-10, is currently undergoing clinical trials for melanoma and breast cancer. The company also has formulated a drug based on rose bengal for the treatment of eczema and psoriasis; this drug, PH-10, is currently in clinical trials as well.
History and etymology
Rose bengal was originally prepared in 1882 by Ghnem, as an analogue of fluorescein. Its name derives from rose (flower) and Bengal (region); it is printed as rose bengal or Rose Bengal in the scientific literature.
Rose bengal is also used in synthetic chemistry to generate singlet oxygen from triplet oxygen. The singlet oxygen can then undergo a variety of useful reactions, particularly [2 + 2] cycloadditions with alkenes and similar systems.
Derivatives and salts
Rose bengal can be used to form many derivatives that have important medical functions. One such derivative was created so to be sonosensitive but photoinsensitive, so that with a high intensity focused ultrasound, it could be used in the treatment of cancer. The derivative was formed by amidation of rose bengal, which turned off the fluorescent and photosensitive properties of rose bengal, leading to a usable compound, named in the study as RB2.
PV-10 (an injectable form of rose bengal) was found to cause an observable response in 60% of tumors treated, according to researchers in a phase II melanoma study. Locoregional disease control was observed in 75% of patients. Also confirmed was a "bystander effect", previously observed in the phase I trial, whereby untreated lesions responded to treatment as well, potentially due to immune system response. These data were based on the interim results (in 2009) of the first 40 patients treated in an 80 patient study. As of April 2016 a phase 3 study of PV-10 as a single agent therapy for patients with locally advanced cutaneous melanoma (Clinical Trials ID NCT02288897) is enrolling patients.
Rose bengal has been shown to not just prevent the growth and spread of ovarian cancer, but also to cause apoptotic cell death of the cancer cells. This has been proven in vitro, in order to prove that rose bengal is still a possible option in the treatment of cancer, and further research should be done.
Rose bengal is also used in animal models of ischemic stroke (photothrombotic stroke models) in biomedical research. A bolus of the compound is injected into the venous system. Then the region of interest (e.g., the cerebral cortex) is exposed and illuminated by LASER light of 561 nm. A thrombus is formed in the illuminated blood vessels, causing a stroke in the dependent brain tissue.
Rose bengal is able to stain cells whenever the surface epithelium is not being properly protected by the preocular tear film, because rose bengal has been proven to not be able to stain cells because of the protective functioning of these preocular tear films. This is why rose bengal is often useful as a stain in diagnosing certain medical issues, such as conjunctival and lid disorders.
Rose bengal is being researched as an agent in creating nano sutures. Wounds are painted on both sides with it and then illuminated with an intense light. This links the tiny collagen fibers together sealing the wound. Healing is faster and the seal reduces chances of infection.
Rose bengal is used to suppress bacterial growth in several microbiological media, including Cooke's rose bengal agar.
- Provectus Biopharmaceuticals Reports Data On PV-10 in Combination Therapy and T Cell Mediated Immunity Presented at American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2016. April 2016
- Metastatic Melanoma PV-10 Trial Results Encouraging Says Drug Company, Medical News Today, 09 Jun 2009
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- "Rose Bengal Sodium Salt". Sigma-Aldrich. Sigma Aldrich Co. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
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- Capinera, John L.; Squitier, Jason M. (2000). "Insecticidal Activity of Photoactive Dyes to American and Migratory Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae)". Journal of Economic Entomology. 93 (3): 662–666. doi:10.1603/0022-0493-93.3.662. PMID 10902313.
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- Yokoi, Norihiko (2012). "Vital staining for disorders of conjunctiva and lids". Atarashii Ganka. 29: 1599–1605.
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- O’Neill A.C., Winograd J.M, Zeballos J.M., Johnson T.S., Randolph M.A., Bujold K.E., Kochevar I.E., Redmond R.W. (2007). "Microvascular anastomosis using a photochemical tissue bonding technique". Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 39 (9): 716–722. doi:10.1002/lsm.20548. PMID 17960755.
- Mulroy L.; Kim J.; Wu I.; Scharper P.; Melki S.A.; Azar D.A.; Redmond R.W.; Kochevar I.E. (2000). "Photochemical keratodesmos for repair of lamellar corneal incisions". Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 41 (11): 3335–3340. PMID 11006222.
- Proano C.E.; Mulroy L.; Erika Jones E.; Azar D.A.; Redmond R.W.; Kochevar I.E. (2004). "Characterization of paracellular penetration routes". Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 38: 2177–2181. PMID 9344340.
- Laser Show in the Surgical Suite, Technology Review, March/April 2009
- Laser Show in the Surgical Suite, Technology Review, 02.11.2009
- Walton, W (1952). "Techniques for recognition of living foraminifera". Contrib. Cushman Found. Foraminiferal Res. 3: 56–60.
- Rose Bengal acetate photodynamic therapy (RBAc-PDT) induces exposure and release of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) in human HeLa cells. Aug 2014
- Rose Bengal at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Absorption and extinction data