|Biological half-life||20 min|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||347.236 g/mol|
|3D model (Jmol)||Interactive image|
|(what is this?)|
Its selectivity to the cerebral D2 receptors is characterized by its respective Ki-values, which are as follows: 1.8, 3.5, 2400 and 18000 nM for D2, D3, D4 and D1 receptors respectively.
It can be radiolabelled with radioisotopes, e.g. 3H or 11C and used as a tracer for in vitro imaging (autoradiography) as well as in vivo imaging positron emission tomography (PET). Images obtained by cerebral PET scanning (e.g. PET/CT or PET/MRI) allow the non-invasive assessment of the binding capacity of the cerebral D2 dopamine receptor, which can be useful for the diagnosis of movement disorders. In particular, cerebral D2 receptor binding as measured by carbon-11-raclopride (11C-raclopride) has shown to reflect disease severity of Huntington's disease, a genetical disease characterized by selective degeneration of cerebral D2 receptors.
Other studies have investigated the relationship of D2 receptor binding capacity and personality disorders. For example, one study found decreasing binding with the personality trait detachment. Radiolabelled raclopride is also commonly used to determine the efficacy and neurotoxicity of dopaminergic drugs.
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- Antonini A, Leenders KL, Spiegel R, Meier D, Vontobel P, Weigell-Weber M, Sanchez-Pernaute R, de Yébenez JG, Boesiger P, Weindl A, Maguire RP (1996). "Striatal glucose metabolism and dopamine D2 receptor binding in asymptomatic gene carriers and patients with Huntington's disease". Brain. 119 (6): 2085–95. doi:10.1093/brain/119.6.2085. PMID 9010012.
- Farde L, Gustavsson JP, Jönsson E (1997). "D2 dopamine receptors and personality traits". Nature. 385 (6617): 590. doi:10.1038/385590a0. PMID 9024656.