|AHFS/Drugs.com||International Drug Names|
|ATC code||N01AX05 (WHO)|
|Bioavailability||The alfaxalone molecule is solubilised using SBECD. Cyclodextrins are complex polysaccharides derived from starch that supply a hydrophobic centre for lipophilic drugs like alfaxalone.|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||332.477 g/mol|
|3D model (Jmol)||Interactive image|
|(what is this?)|
Alfaxalone (INN, JAN), also known as alphaxalone or alphaxolone (BAN), is a neuroactive steroid and general anaesthetic. It is used in veterinary practice under the trade name Alfaxan, and is licensed for use in both dogs and cats. Along with alfadolone, it is also one of the constituents of anesthetic drug mixture althesin.
Unlike some of its predecessors alfaxalone is not associated with histamine release and anaphylaxis.
A study 1987 found the primary mechanism for the anaesthetic action of alfaxalone to be modulation of neuronal cell membrane chloride ion transport, induced by binding of alfaxalone to GABAA cell surface receptors.
A 1994 study found that alfaxalone binds to a different region of this receptor than the benzodiazepines. These benzodiazepine-insensitive GABAA receptors are located extrasynaptically and are responsible for tonic inhibition. The occurrence of tonic GABAA inhibition coincides with the expression of relatively rare receptor subunits, particularly the α4, α6, and δ subunits, and as a rule of thumb, δ subunit-containing receptors are extrasynaptic.
Alfaxalone is metabolised rapidly in the liver. It has a very short plasma elimination half-life in dogs and cats.
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