G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel
The G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs) are a family of inward-rectifier potassium ion channels which are activated (opened) via a signal transduction cascade starting with ligand-stimulated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs in turn release activated G-protein βγ- subunits (Gβγ) from inactive heterotrimeric G protein complexes (Gαβγ). Finally, the Gβγ dimeric protein interacts with GIRK channels to open them so that they become permeable to potassium ions, resulting in hyperpolarization of the cell membrane. G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels are a type of G protein-gated ion channels because of this direct activation of GIRK channels by G protein subunits.
GIRK1 to GIRK3 are distributed broadly in the central nervous system, where their distributions overlap. GIRK4, instead, is found primarily in the heart.
A wide variety of G-protein coupled receptors activate GIRKs, including the M2-muscarinic, A1-adenosine, α2-adrenergic, D2-dopamine, μ- δ-, and κ-opioid, 5-HT1A serotonin, somatostatin, galanin, m-Glu, GABAB, TAAR1, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors.
Examples of GIRKs include a subset of potassium channels in the heart, which, when activated by parasympathetic signals such as acetylcholine through M2 muscarinic receptors, causes an outward current of potassium, which slows down the heart rate. These are called muscarinic potassium channels (IKACh) and are heterotetramers composed of two GIRK1 and two GIRK4 subunits.
- ↑ Dascal N (1997). "Signalling via the G protein-activated K+ channels". Cell. Signal. 9 (8): 551–73. doi:10.1016/S0898-6568(97)00095-8. PMID 9429760.
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inhibition of firing due to increased release of dopamine; (b) reduction of D2 and GABAB receptor-mediated inhibitory responses (excitatory effects due to disinhibition); and (c) a direct TA1 receptor-mediated activation of GIRK channels which produce cell membrane hyperpolarization.
- ↑ Kobayashi T, Ikeda K, Ichikawa T, Abe S, Togashi S, Kumanishi T (March 1995). "Molecular cloning of a mouse G-protein-activated K+ channel (mGIRK1) and distinct distributions of three GIRK (GIRK1, 2 and 3) mRNAs in mouse brain". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 208 (3): 1166–73. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1995.1456. PMID 7702616.
- ↑ Karschin C, Dissmann E, Stühmer W, Karschin A (June 1996). "IRK(1-3) and GIRK(1-4) inwardly rectifying K+ channel mRNAs are differentially expressed in the adult rat brain". J. Neurosci. 16 (11): 3559–70. PMID 8642402.
- ↑ Chen SC, Ehrhard P, Goldowitz D, Smeyne RJ (December 1997). "Developmental expression of the GIRK family of inward rectifying potassium channels: implications for abnormalities in the weaver mutant mouse". Brain Res. 778 (2): 251–64. doi:10.1016/S0006-8993(97)00896-2. PMID 9459542.
- 1 2 Krapivinsky G, Gordon EA, Wickman K, Velimirović B, Krapivinsky L, Clapham DE (1995). "The G-protein-gated atrial K+ channel IKACh is a heteromultimer of two inwardly rectifying K+-channel proteins". Nature. 374 (6518): 135–41. doi:10.1038/374135a0. PMID 7877685.
- ↑ Kunkel MT, Peralta EG (1995). "Identification of domains conferring G protein regulation on inward rectifier potassium channels". Cell. 83 (3): 443–9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90122-1. PMID 8521474.
- ↑ Wickman K, Krapivinsky G, Corey S, Kennedy M, Nemec J, Medina I, Clapham DE (1999). "Structure, G protein activation, and functional relevance of the cardiac G protein-gated K+ channel, IKACh". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 868 (1): 386–98. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb11300.x. PMID 10414308.
- ↑ Corey S, Krapivinsky G, Krapivinsky L, Clapham DE (1998). "Number and stoichiometry of subunits in the native atrial G-protein-gated K+ channel, IKACh". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (9): 5271–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.9.5271. PMID 9478984.