Aliases MTF1, MTF-1, ZRF, metal-regulatory transcription factor 1
External IDs MGI: 101786 HomoloGene: 4347 GeneCards: MTF1
Genetically Related Diseases
RNA expression pattern

More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse









RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 1: 37.81 – 37.86 Mb Chr 4: 124.8 – 124.85 Mb
PubMed search [2] [3]
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Metal regulatory transcription factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTF1 gene.[4][5]


This gene encodes a transcription factor that induces expression of metallothioneins and other genes involved in metal homeostasis in response to heavy metals such as cadmium, zinc, copper, and silver. The protein is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that accumulates in the nucleus upon heavy metal exposure and binds to promoters containing a metal-responsive element (MRE).[5]


Further reading

  • Westin G, Schaffner W (Dec 1988). "A zinc-responsive factor interacts with a metal-regulated enhancer element (MRE) of the mouse metallothionein-I gene". The EMBO Journal. 7 (12): 3763–70. PMC 454951Freely accessible. PMID 3208749. 
  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (Jan 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171–4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. 
  • Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano S (Oct 1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149–56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. 
  • Chen X, Chu M, Giedroc DP (Sep 1999). "MRE-Binding transcription factor-1: weak zinc-binding finger domains 5 and 6 modulate the structure, affinity, and specificity of the metal-response element complex". Biochemistry. 38 (39): 12915–25. doi:10.1021/bi9913000. PMID 10504263. 
  • Otsuka F, Okugaito I, Ohsawa M, Iwamatsu A, Suzuki K, Koizumi S (Jul 2000). "Novel responses of ZRF, a variant of human MTF-1, to in vivo treatment with heavy metals". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1492 (2-3): 330–40. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(00)00110-x. PMID 11004505. 
  • Saydam N, Georgiev O, Nakano MY, Greber UF, Schaffner W (Jul 2001). "Nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 is regulated by diverse stress signals". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (27): 25487–95. doi:10.1074/jbc.M009154200. PMID 11306562. 
  • Saydam N, Adams TK, Steiner F, Schaffner W, Freedman JH (Jun 2002). "Regulation of metallothionein transcription by the metal-responsive transcription factor MTF-1: identification of signal transduction cascades that control metal-inducible transcription". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (23): 20438–45. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110631200. PMID 11923282. 
  • Majumder S, Ghoshal K, Summers D, Bai S, Datta J, Jacob ST (Jul 2003). "Chromium(VI) down-regulates heavy metal-induced metallothionein gene transcription by modifying transactivation potential of the key transcription factor, metal-responsive transcription factor 1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (28): 26216–26. doi:10.1074/jbc.M302887200. PMC 2365495Freely accessible. PMID 12716893. 
  • Saydam N, Steiner F, Georgiev O, Schaffner W (Aug 2003). "Heat and heavy metal stress synergize to mediate transcriptional hyperactivation by metal-responsive transcription factor MTF-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (34): 31879–83. doi:10.1074/jbc.M302138200. PMID 12805380. 
  • Chen X, Zhang B, Harmon PM, Schaffner W, Peterson DO, Giedroc DP (Feb 2004). "A novel cysteine cluster in human metal-responsive transcription factor 1 is required for heavy metal-induced transcriptional activation in vivo". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (6): 4515–22. doi:10.1074/jbc.M308924200. PMID 14610091. 
  • Balamurugan K, Egli D, Selvaraj A, Zhang B, Georgiev O, Schaffner W (Jul 2004). "Metal-responsive transcription factor (MTF-1) and heavy metal stress response in Drosophila and mammalian cells: a functional comparison". Biological Chemistry. 385 (7): 597–603. doi:10.1515/BC.2004.074. PMID 15318808. 
  • Joshi B, Ordonez-Ercan D, Dasgupta P, Chellappan S (Mar 2005). "Induction of human metallothionein 1G promoter by VEGF and heavy metals: differential involvement of E2F and metal transcription factors". Oncogene. 24 (13): 2204–17. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208206. PMID 15735762. 
  • Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP, Vidal M (Oct 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173–8. doi:10.1038/nature04209. PMID 16189514. 

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.

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