Forkhead box L2

Aliases FOXL2, BPES, BPES1, PFRK, PINTO, POF3, forkhead box L2
External IDs MGI: 1349428 HomoloGene: 74992 GeneCards: FOXL2
RNA expression pattern
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse









RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 3: 138.94 – 138.95 Mb Chr 9: 98.96 – 98.96 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Forkhead box protein L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXL2 gene.[3][4]


FOXL2 is a forkhead transcription factor. The protein contains a fork-head DNA-binding domain and may play a role in ovarian development and function.[4]

Clinical significance

This protein is involved in sex determination. Female missing the FOXL2 gene appear male. FOXL2 knockout in mature mouse ovaries cause them to develop into testes, however oocytes are still formed.[5]

Mutations in this gene are a cause of blepharophimosis syndrome and premature ovarian failure 3.[4]

See also


  1. "Human PubMed Reference:".
  2. "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  3. de Die-Smulders CE, Engelen JJ, Donk JM, Fryns JP (Oct 1991). "Further evidence for the location of the BPES gene at 3q2". Journal of Medical Genetics. 28 (10): 725. doi:10.1136/jmg.28.10.725. PMC 1017067Freely accessible. PMID 1941972.
  4. 1 2 3 "Entrez Gene: FOXL2 forkhead box L2".
  5. Uhlenhaut NH, Jakob S, Anlag K, Eisenberger T, Sekido R, Kress J, Treier AC, Klugmann C, Klasen C, Holter NI, Riethmacher D, Schütz G, Cooney AJ, Lovell-Badge R, Treier M (Dec 2009). "Somatic sex reprogramming of adult ovaries to testes by FOXL2 ablation". Cell. 139 (6): 1130–42. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.11.021. PMID 20005806. Lay summary Nature News.

Further reading

  • Vaiman D, Schibler L, Oustry-Vaiman A, Pailhoux E, Goldammer T, Stevanovic M, Furet JP, Schwerin M, Cotinot C, Fellous M, Cribiu EP (Feb 1999). "High-resolution human/goat comparative map of the goat polled/intersex syndrome (PIS): the human homologue is contained in a human YAC from HSA3q23". Genomics. 56 (1): 31–9. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5691. PMID 10036183. 
  • Kaestner KH, Knochel W, Martinez DE (Jan 2000). "Unified nomenclature for the winged helix/forkhead transcription factors". Genes & Development. 14 (2): 142–6. doi:10.1101/gad.14.2.142. PMID 10702024. 
  • Crisponi L, Deiana M, Loi A, Chiappe F, Uda M, Amati P, Bisceglia L, Zelante L, Nagaraja R, Porcu S, Ristaldi MS, Marzella R, Rocchi M, Nicolino M, Lienhardt-Roussie A, Nivelon A, Verloes A, Schlessinger D, Gasparini P, Bonneau D, Cao A, Pilia G (Feb 2001). "The putative forkhead transcription factor FOXL2 is mutated in blepharophimosis/ptosis/epicanthus inversus syndrome". Nature Genetics. 27 (2): 159–66. doi:10.1038/84781. PMID 11175783. 
  • De Baere E, Dixon MJ, Small KW, Jabs EW, Leroy BP, Devriendt K, Gillerot Y, Mortier G, Meire F, Van Maldergem L, Courtens W, Hjalgrim H, Huang S, Liebaers I, Van Regemorter N, Touraine P, Praphanphoj V, Verloes A, Udar N, Yellore V, Chalukya M, Yelchits S, De Paepe A, Kuttenn F, Fellous M, Veitia R, Messiaen L (Jul 2001). "Spectrum of FOXL2 gene mutations in blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus (BPES) families demonstrates a genotype--phenotype correlation". Human Molecular Genetics. 10 (15): 1591–600. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.15.1591. PMID 11468277. 
  • Dollfus H, Kumaramanickavel G, Biswas P, Stoetzel C, Quillet R, Denton M, Maw M, Perrin-Schmitt F (Jul 2001). "Identification of a new TWIST mutation (7p21) with variable eyelid manifestations supports locus homogeneity of BPES at 3q22". Journal of Medical Genetics. 38 (7): 470–2. doi:10.1136/jmg.38.7.470. PMC 1757180Freely accessible. PMID 11474656. 
  • Yamada T, Hayasaka S, Matsumoto M, Esa T, Hayasaka Y, Endo M (2002). "Heterozygous 17-bp deletion in the forkhead transcription factor gene, FOXL2, in a Japanese family with blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome". Journal of Human Genetics. 46 (12): 733–6. doi:10.1007/s100380170009. PMID 11776388. 
  • Kosaki K, Ogata T, Kosaki R, Sato S, Matsuo N (Mar 2002). "A novel mutation in the FOXL2 gene in a patient with blepharophimosis syndrome: differential role of the polyalanine tract in the development of the ovary and the eyelid". Ophthalmic Genetics. 23 (1): 43–7. doi:10.1076/opge. PMID 11910558. 
  • Bell R, Murday VA, Patton MA, Jeffery S (2002). "Two families with blepharophimosis/ptosis/epicanthus inversus syndrome have mutations in the putative forkhead transcription factor FOXL2". Genetic Testing. 5 (4): 335–8. doi:10.1089/109065701753617499. PMID 11960581. 
  • Harris SE, Chand AL, Winship IM, Gersak K, Aittomäki K, Shelling AN (Aug 2002). "Identification of novel mutations in FOXL2 associated with premature ovarian failure". Molecular Human Reproduction. 8 (8): 729–33. doi:10.1093/molehr/8.8.729. PMID 12149404. 
  • De Baere E, Lemercier B, Christin-Maitre S, Durval D, Messiaen L, Fellous M, Veitia R (Aug 2002). "FOXL2 mutation screening in a large panel of POF patients and XX males". Journal of Medical Genetics. 39 (8): e43. doi:10.1136/jmg.39.8.e43. PMC 1735205Freely accessible. PMID 12161610. 
  • Ramírez-Castro JL, Pineda-Trujillo N, Valencia AV, Muñetón CM, Botero O, Trujillo O, Vásquez G, Mora BE, Durango N, Bedoya G, Ruiz-Linares A (Nov 2002). "Mutations in FOXL2 underlying BPES (types 1 and 2) in Colombian families". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 113 (1): 47–51. doi:10.1002/ajmg.10741. PMID 12400065. 
  • Cocquet J, Pailhoux E, Jaubert F, Servel N, Xia X, Pannetier M, De Baere E, Messiaen L, Cotinot C, Fellous M, Veitia RA (Dec 2002). "Evolution and expression of FOXL2". Journal of Medical Genetics. 39 (12): 916–21. doi:10.1136/jmg.39.12.916. PMC 1757225Freely accessible. PMID 12471206. 
  • De Baere E, Beysen D, Oley C, Lorenz B, Cocquet J, De Sutter P, Devriendt K, Dixon M, Fellous M, Fryns JP, Garza A, Jonsrud C, Koivisto PA, Krause A, Leroy BP, Meire F, Plomp A, Van Maldergem L, De Paepe A, Veitia R, Messiaen L (Feb 2003). "FOXL2 and BPES: mutational hotspots, phenotypic variability, and revision of the genotype-phenotype correlation". American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (2): 478–87. doi:10.1086/346118. PMC 379240Freely accessible. PMID 12529855. 
  • Mazumdar A, Kumar R (Jan 2003). "Estrogen regulation of Pak1 and FKHR pathways in breast cancer cells". FEBS Letters. 535 (1-3): 6–10. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03846-2. PMID 12560069. 
  • Fokstuen S, Antonarakis SE, Blouin JL (Mar 2003). "FOXL2-mutations in blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES); challenges for genetic counseling in female patients". American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A. 117A (2): 143–6. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.10024. PMID 12567411. 
  • Dollfus H, Stoetzel C, Riehm S, Lahlou Boukoffa W, Bediard Boulaneb F, Quillet R, Abu-Eid M, Speeg-Schatz C, Francfort JJ, Flament J, Veillon F, Perrin-Schmitt F (Feb 2003). "Sporadic and familial blepharophimosis -ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome: FOXL2 mutation screen and MRI study of the superior levator eyelid muscle". Clinical Genetics. 63 (2): 117–20. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0004.2003.00011.x. PMID 12630957. 
  • Udar N, Yellore V, Chalukya M, Yelchits S, Silva-Garcia R, Small K (Sep 2003). "Comparative analysis of the FOXL2 gene and characterization of mutations in BPES patients". Human Mutation. 22 (3): 222–8. doi:10.1002/humu.10251. PMID 12938087. 
  • Crisponi L, Uda M, Deiana M, Loi A, Nagaraja R, Chiappe F, Schlessinger D, Cao A, Pilia G (May 2004). "FOXL2 inactivation by a translocation 171 kb away: analysis of 500 kb of chromosome 3 for candidate long-range regulatory sequences". Genomics. 83 (5): 757–64. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2003.11.010. PMID 15081106. 

External links

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