Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases HSF1, HSTF1, heat shock transcription factor 1
External IDs MGI: 96238 HomoloGene: 74556 GeneCards: HSF1
Species Human Mouse









RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 8: 144.29 – 144.31 Mb Chr 15: 76.48 – 76.5 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
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Heat shock factor protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HSF1 gene.[3]


The product of this gene is a heat-shock transcription factor. Transcription of heat-shock genes is rapidly induced after temperature stress. Hsp90, by itself and/or associated with multichaperone complexes, is a major repressor of this gene.[4]

Mechanism of action

HSF1 exists as an inactive monomer in a complex with Hsp40/Hsp70 and Hsp90. Upon stress, such as elevated temperature, HSF1 is released from the chaperone complex and trimerizes. HSF1 is then transported into the nucleus where it is hyperphosphorylated and binds to DNA containing heat shock elements (NGAAN). HSF1's target genes include major inducible heat shock proteins such as Hsp72, and noncoding RNA within Satellite III repeat regions. Its attenuation phase is initiated as a negative feedback loop with its gene product Hsp70 binding to its transactivation domain.[5]


HSF1 is a promising drug target in cancer and proteopathy.[6]


HSF1 has been shown to interact with:

See also


  1. "Human PubMed Reference:".
  2. "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  3. Rabindran SK, Giorgi G, Clos J, Wu C (Sep 1991). "Molecular cloning and expression of a human heat shock factor, HSF1". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 88 (16): 6906–6910. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.16.6906. PMC 52202Freely accessible. PMID 1871105.
  4. "Entrez Gene: HSF1 heat shock transcription factor 1".
  5. Shamovsky I, Nudler E (March 2008). "New insights into the mechanism of heat shock response activation". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 65 (6): 855–861. doi:10.1007/s00018-008-7458-y. PMID 18239856.
  6. Anckar J, Sistonen L (March 2011). "Regulation of HSF1 function in the heat stress response: implications in aging and disease". Annu Rev Biochem. 80: 1089–1115. doi:10.1146/annurev-biochem-060809-095203. PMID 21417720.
  7. Xie Y, Chen C, Stevenson MA, Auron PE, Calderwood SK (Apr 2002). "Heat shock factor 1 represses transcription of the IL-1beta gene through physical interaction with the nuclear factor of interleukin 6". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (14): 11802–10. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109296200. PMID 11801594.
  8. He H, Soncin F, Grammatikakis N, Li Y, Siganou A, Gong J, Brown SA, Kingston RE, Calderwood SK (Sep 2003). "Elevated expression of heat shock factor (HSF) 2A stimulates HSF1-induced transcription during stress". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (37): 35465–75. doi:10.1074/jbc.M304663200. PMID 12813038.
  9. Shi Y, Mosser DD, Morimoto RI (Mar 1998). "Molecular chaperones as HSF1-specific transcriptional repressors". Genes Dev. 12 (5): 654–66. doi:10.1101/gad.12.5.654. PMC 316571Freely accessible. PMID 9499401.
  10. Zhou X, Tron VA, Li G, Trotter MJ (Aug 1998). "Heat shock transcription factor-1 regulates heat shock protein-72 expression in human keratinocytes exposed to ultraviolet B light". J. Invest. Dermatol. 111 (2): 194–8. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.1998.00266.x. PMID 9699716.
  11. 1 2 Nair SC, Toran EJ, Rimerman RA, Hjermstad S, Smithgall TE, Smith DF (Dec 1996). "A pathway of multi-chaperone interactions common to diverse regulatory proteins: estrogen receptor, Fes tyrosine kinase, heat shock transcription factor Hsf1, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor". Cell Stress Chaperones. 1 (4): 237–50. doi:10.1379/1466-1268(1996)001<0237:apomci>2.3.co;2. PMC 376461Freely accessible. PMID 9222609.
  12. Abravaya K, Myers MP, Murphy SP, Morimoto RI (Jul 1992). "The human heat shock protein hsp70 interacts with HSF, the transcription factor that regulates heat shock gene expression". Genes Dev. 6 (7): 1153–64. doi:10.1101/gad.6.7.1153. PMID 1628823.
  13. 1 2 Hu Y, Mivechi NF (May 2003). "HSF-1 interacts with Ral-binding protein 1 in a stress-responsive, multiprotein complex with HSP90 in vivo". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (19): 17299–306. doi:10.1074/jbc.M300788200. PMID 12621024.
  14. Hong S, Kim SH, Heo MA, Choi YH, Park MJ, Yoo MA, Kim HD, Kang HS, Cheong J (Feb 2004). "Coactivator ASC-2 mediates heat shock factor 1-mediated transactivation dependent on heat shock". FEBS Lett. 559 (1-3): 165–70. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(04)00028-6. PMID 14960326.
  15. Xing H, Mayhew CN, Cullen KE, Park-Sarge OK, Sarge KD (Mar 2004). "HSF1 modulation of Hsp70 mRNA polyadenylation via interaction with symplekin". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (11): 10551–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M311719200. PMID 14707147.

Further reading

External links

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