(250,000 cited 1987)|
1.4 million L2 speakers
Ambonese Malay is a Malay creole that has been apparent since the 17th century. It was first brought by traders from Western Indonesia, then developed when the Dutch Empire colonized the Maluku Islands. This was the first example of the transliteration of Malay into Roman script, and used as a tool of the missionaries in Eastern Indonesia. Malay has been taught in schools and churches in Ambon, and because of this, has become a lingua franca in Ambon and its surroundings.
Christian speakers use Ambonese Malay as their mother tongue, while Muslims speak it as second language as they have their own language. Muslims in Ambon island particularly live in several areas in Municipality of Ambon, dominant in Salahutu and Leihitu Peninsula. While in the Lease (/leɪ-a-seɪ/) islands, Christian Ambonese-speaking community is dominant in part of Haruku, Saparua and Nusa Laut islands. Ambonese Malay Creole has also become lingua franca in Buru, Seram, Geser-Gorom and south-western Maluku Islands, though with different accents.
Ambonese Malay is based on Malay with a great influences from both European languages (Dutch and Portuguese) as well as the vocabularies or grammatical structures of indigenous languages. It is famous for its melodious accent. Muslims and Christian speakers tend to make different choices in vocabulary. Papuan Malay, a Malay creole spoken on the Indonesian part of Papua is said to be derived from Ambon Malay or Manado Malay or a mixture of both.
- Beta pung nama Ahmad = My name is Ahmed
- Ose su tau Ahmad pung maitua? = Do you know Ahmed's wife?
- Jang bakudapa deng dia dolo, dia ada gagartang deng ose = Never see him for a moment, he's angry with you.
- Susi dong pung kaka mo pi kamari = Susi's brother will come
- Ini beta kasi akang voor ose = This is for you.
- Ale badiang jua, beta cumang mo tipu-tipu Tuang Ala = Shut up, I am tricking God ( for joking )
- Beta seng tau = I don't know
Ambonese word samples
- Beta = I
- Ose, Ale = you (ose is based on voce in Portuguese)
- Dia = he, she
- Akang = (may) it
- Katong = we (cut from kita orang)
- Dong = they (cut from dia orang)
- Kamong, kamorang = you (pl) (cut from kamu orang)
- Antua = he, she (respectful form)
- iyo = yes
- seng = no
- bakubae = peace
- nanaku = pay attention to something
- su = already (indicating something has already happened or has been done)
Pronouns and Person Markers
In Ambonese Malay, personal pronouns typically have a full form, as well as another one or more shortened and/or variant forms. The pronouns vary in terms of number, that is singular and plural, as well as clusivity, such as exclusive forms, i.e. forms that exclude the addressee, and inclusive forms, i.e. forms that include the addressee. Such distinction is relatively typical of Austronesian languages. The following table provides a summary of all the pronouns found in Malay Ambon:
|Full (and Variant) Form||Short Form||Full (and Variant) Form||Short Form|
|1st Person||Exclusive||Beta||bet; be||Bat'ong (dialectical form recorded at Booi, Saparua Island)|
|2nd Person|| Ose
| os; se
| 3rd Person
3rd Person Neuter
Ontua; Ongtua; Antua; Angtua Akang
| di; de
ont'o; ant'u; ant'o kang; ang
A number of observations can be made from the pronouns of Ambonese Malay, which demonstrate etymology of certain pronouns:
1) There is a number of pronouns that are historically compounded. They are:
2) The 2nd Person singular form ose is derived from Portuguese pronoun voce, meaning 'you; thou'.
Similarly to other Austronesian languages, such as Malay and Indonesian, the 2nd person singular and one of the 3rd person singular pronouns in Ambonese Malay vary in their degree of politeness. They are summarised in the following table:
|Person||Politeness Marking||Full Singular Form||Short Singular Form|
|2nd|| Markedly impolite
Used in familiar and intimate relationships and when no outspoken respect needs to be expressed
Expresses intimacy. Used among peers, or to people of lower status
|3rd||Markedly polite. used by people of younger age to refer to adults, and by adults to refer to people of equal or higher social rank||Ontua; ongtua; antua; angtua|
As previously mentioned, Malay Ambon pronouns consist of a full and one or more variant form. Full forms occur in every syntactic position, variant form have a more restricted distribution and may be functionally different. The following table summarises the set of full personal pronouns plus (in brackets) their variant forms according to context and syntactic function:
|Person||One-word Sentence||Subject||Object (of verb or prep.)|
|1S||beta||beta (bet; be)||beta|
|2S|| ose (os; se)
| ose (os; se)
| ose (os; se)
antua (etc.) ontua (etc.)
| dia (di; de)
antua (etc.) ontua (etc.) akang
antua (etc.) ontua (etc.) akang (kang; ang)
|2P||dorang (dong)||dorang (dong)||dorang (dong)|
|3P||dorang (dong)||dorang (dong)||dorang (dong)|
From this table it follows that two factors determine whether a personal pronoun can be shortened: syntactic construction and syntactic position:
- Except for the first person singular beta, first person plural kat'ong and third person singular dia, all pronouns can be shortened in one-word sentences. Third person singular neuter akang cannot form a one-word sentence altogether.
- In clauses all personal pronouns in Subject position may be shortened, except for third person singular neutral akang.
- In clauses all personal pronouns in Object position may be shortened, except for first person singular beta, first person plural kat'ong, second person ale and third person singular dia.
- Likewise, as preposition object all personal pronouns except for beta, ale, kat'ong and dia may be shortened.
These facts show that se, os 'you', dong 'you', ont'o, ant'o, ant'u 'he; she' and dong 'they' have developed into doublets which are functionally (but not semantically) on a par with their full forms, while other short forms (bet, al, kang, ang) are phonological variants with a more restricted distribution.
It is also important to note a number of syntactic variations within the functions of personal pronouns in Malay Ambon:
3) The third form, akang, is a neater pronoun 'it', which also functions as a determiner. This form links up with the demonstratives ini and itu for deictic reference: it occurs as a single attribute before nouns, and in combination with postnominal tu.
(1) De seng datang lia kat'ong-kat'ong 3S not come see Red#1P He doesn't come to visit people like us
(2) Macang ose-ose bagini seng bisa dapa akang kind Red#2S like this not can get 3Sn People like you now can't get it
- Ambonese Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Ambonese Malay". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Minde, D. (1997). Malayu Ambong (p. 68). Leiden, the Netherlands: Research School CNWS
- Ethnologue. (2015). Malay, Ambonese. Retrieved 8 May 2015, from https://www.ethnologue.com/language/abs
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Ambonese Malay". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Minde, D. (1997). Malayu Ambong. Leiden, the Netherlands: Research School CNWS.