|possibly extinct; may be "a very few" L1 speakers (2007)|
Javindo, also known by the pejorative name Krontjong, was a Dutch-based creole language spoken on Java, Indonesia. The name Javindo is a portmanteau of Java and Indo, the Dutch word for a person of mixed Indonesian and Dutch descent. This contact language developed from communication between Javanese speaking mothers and Dutch speaking fathers in Indo families. Its main speakers were Indo Eurasian people. Grammar was based on Javanese while the vocabulary was based on Dutch. Dutch lexicon was pronounced in a Javanese manner.
Even though most words are derived from the Dutch language its grammar and sentence construction is mostly Javanese including elements such as: Morphology; Lack of verbs; No past tense; No finite verb.
It should not be confused with Petjo, a different Dutch- and Malay-based creole also spoken by Indo Eurasians. With the loss of the generation that lived in the Dutch East Indies era this language has almost died out.
- Javindo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Javindo". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Willems, Wim Sporen van een Indisch verleden (1600–1942)., Part III by de Gruiter, V.E. (COMT, Leiden, 1994) ISBN 90-71042-44-8 P.140-143
- Willems, Wim Sporen van een Indisch verleden (1600–1942)., Part III by de Gruiter, V.E. (COMT, Leiden, 1994) ISBN 90-71042-44-8 P.150
- De Gruiter, Miel (1994). "Javindo, a contact language in pre-war Semarang". In Peter Bakker & Maarten Mous. Mixed Languages: 15 Case Studies in Language Intertwining. Amsterdam: IFOTT. pp. 151–159.
- De Gruiter, Victor Emile (1990, 1994). Het Javindo : de verboden taal. Den Haag: Moesson. Check date values in: