Swiss referendums, 1999
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politics and government of
Ten referendums were held in Switzerland during 1999. The first four were held on 7 February on changes to the eligibility for membership of the Federal Council (approved), constitutional regulations on organ transplantation (approved), a popular initiative "house ownership for everyone" (rejected) and an amendment to the federal law on spatial planning (approved). The fifth was held on 18 April on a new Swiss Federal Constitution, which was approved.
The last five referendums were held on 13 June on the asylum law (approved), on a federal resolution on asylum and foreigners (approved), a federal resolution on the medical prescription of heroin (approved), federal laws on disability and maternity insurance (both rejected).
|Turnout||Cantons for||Cantons against|
|February||Federal Council membership eligibility||1,287,081||74.7||436,511||25.3||34,504||5,457||1,764,453||4,641,615||38.0||18||6||2||0|
|Organ transplantation regulations||1,501,925||87.8||209,263||12.2||46,216||5,471||1,762,875||38.0||20||6||0||0|
|House ownership for everyone||721,717||41.3||1,025,025||58.7||19,817||5,410||1,771,969||38.2||3||0||17||6|
|Spatial planning law amendment||952,482||55.9||750,130||44.1||53,715||5,699||1,762,026||38.0|
|Federal resolution on foreigners and asylum||1,447,984||70.8||595,908||29.2||68,695||7,125||2,119,712||45.6|
|Medical prescription of heroin||1,128,393||54.4||944,919||45.6||45,297||6,760||2,125,369||45.7|
|Federal law on disability insurance||620,797||30.3||1,428,986||69.7||63,774||7,102||2,120,659||45.6|
|Federal law on maternity insurance||822,458||39.0||1,286,824||61.0||19,146||6,456||2,134,884||45.9|
The new constitution approved in April made the franc fully fiat, and the Swiss National Bank began selling its gold reserves. Some of the proceeds were used to set up a "solidarity fund" with developing nations. By November, the gold stockpile was reduced to 25%.
- Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1940 ISBN 9783832956097
- Article 39 (7) of the Swiss Federal Constitution of 1874 read that banknotes must be covered by gold and short term securities.
- David Jobbins, "Eye Witness", Times Higher Education Supplement, 16 April 1999.
- "Swiss Narrowly Vote to Drop Gold Standard", The New York Times, April 19, 1999., Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- Dan Atkinson, "Worm's Eye on the Bullion Tactics of Swiss Elite", The Guardian, 12 April 1999., Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Ulrik Bie and Astrid Henneberg Pedersen, "The Role of Gold in the Monetary System", Monetary review - 3rd Quarter 1999, Danmarks Nationalbank
- Robert Mundell, "The International Monetary System in the 21st Century: Could Gold Make A Come Back?", Lecture delivered at St. Vincent College, Letrobe, Pennsylvania, March 12, 1997, at robertmundell.net.
- Paul Krugman, "The Gold Bug Variations", Slate, No. 23, 1996.
- "Swiss Gold - On Hold.". Business Wire. Gale Group. 15 April 1999. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Roth, Jean-Pierre, "A View on Switzerland in the Run up to the Demonetarisation of Gold", 22nd Annual FT World Gold Conference, London, 1999.
- (French)"La loi sur l'unité monétaire et les moyens de paiement supprimera la parité du franc et de l'or", 26. mai 1999, Communiqués de presse, Département fédéral des finances DFF.
- Robert Mundell & Milton Friedman, (2001) "One World, One Money? Robert Mundell and Milton Friedman debate the virtues - or not - of fixed exchange rates, gold, and a world currency", Options Politique, Mai 2001, at robertmundell.net
- "Gold reels after Swiss propose sale of reserves". Business Times. The Sunday Times. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- See (French) Jakob Tanner, "Banque nationale suisse (BNS)" in Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse, 02/10/2006.
- (French) "Circonstances des ventes d’or de la Banque nationale suisse" - Rapport du Conseil fédéral en réponse au postulat 07.3708 Stamm Luzi, 3.09.2008