Pearl River Delta

Pearl River Delta (PRD)
Delta do Rio das Pérolas
Metropolitan region

Map of Pearl River Delta in Green
Regions Guangdong
Hong Kong
Major Settlements Guangzhou
Hong Kong
  Governor of Guangdong Zhu Xiaodan
  Chief Executive of Hong Kong CY Leung
  Chief Executive of Macau Fernando Chui
  Metro 39,380 km2 (15,200 sq mi)
  Metro 63,724,157~120,000,000
    Standard Chinese, Cantonese, English, Portuguese, Macanese Patois
Time zone CST, HKT, MST (UTC+8)
Pearl River Delta
Chinese name
Chinese 珠江三角洲
Cantonese Jyutping Zyu1gong1 Saam1gok3zau1
Cantonese Yale Jyūgōng Sāamgokjāu
Hanyu Pinyin Zhūjiāng Sānjiǎozhōu
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese 珠三角
Cantonese Jyutping Zyu1saam1gok3
Cantonese Yale Jyūsāamgok
Hanyu Pinyin Zhūsānjiǎo
Second alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 粤江平原
Traditional Chinese 粵江平原
Hanyu Pinyin Yuèjiāng Píngyuán
Portuguese name
Portuguese Delta do Rio das Pérolas

The Pearl River Delta (PRD), also known as Zhujiang Delta or Zhusanjiao, is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary, where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea. It is one of the most densely urbanised regions in the world and is an economic hub of China. This region is often considered an emerging megacity. The PRD is a megalopolis, with future development into a single mega metropolitan area, yet itself is at the southern end of a larger megalopolis running along the southern coast of China, which include metropolises such as Chaoshan, Zhangzhou-Xiamen, Quanzhou-Putian, and Fuzhou. The nine largest cities of PRD had a combined population of 57.15 million at the end of 2013, comprising 53.69% of the provincial population.[1] According to the World Bank Group, the PRD has become the largest urban area in the world in both size and population.[2]

Recent Development

Since economic liberalisation was adopted by the Chinese government in the late 1970s, the Delta has become one of the leading economic regions and a major manufacturing center of China and the world. The Chinese government hopes that the manufacturing in Guangdong, combined with the financial and service economy and traditional capitalistic influence in Hong Kong, will create an economic gateway attracting foreign capital throughout mainland China.


River delta

The river delta, also known as the Golden Delta of Guangdong,[3] is formed by three major rivers, the Xi Jiang (West River), Bei Jiang (North River), and Dong Jiang (East River). The flat lands of the delta are criss-crossed by a network of tributaries and distributaries of the Pearl River. The Pearl River Delta is actually two alluvial deltas, separated by the core branch of the Pearl River. The Bei Jiang and Xi Jiang converge to flow into the South China Sea and Pearl River in the west, while the Dong Jiang only flows into the Pearl River proper in the east.

The Xi Jiang begins exhibiting delta-like characteristics as far west as Zhaoqing, although this city is not usually considered a part of the PRD region. After passing through the Lingyang Gorge and converging with the Bei Jiang, the Xi Jiang opens up and flows as far east as Nasha Qu and as far west as Xinhui. Major distributaries of the Xi include Donghui Shuidao, Jiya Shuidao, Hutiaomen Shuidao, Yinzhou Hu, and the main branch of the Xi Jiang. Jiangmen and Zhongshan are the major cities found in the western section of the delta.

The Bei Jiang enters the delta plains at Qingyuan but doesn't begin to split until near Sanshui. From here the two main distributaries are Tanzhou Shuidao and Shunde Shuidao which form multiple mouths along the west side of the Pearl River's estuary. Two other distributaries, Lubao Yong and Xinan Yong, split from the Bei further north and converge with the Liuxi He to form the main branch of the Pearl River just north of Guangzhou. The other major city in the north section of the delta is Foshan.

The Dong Jiang flows through Huizhou into the delta. It begins diverging northeast of Dongguan into many distributaries, including the Dongguan Shuidao. Distributuares enter the Pearl River as far north as Luogang and as far south as Hu Men (Tiger Gate).

Saltwater crocodiles were present within the Pearl River estuary during antiquity.

Location and demographics

As well as the delta itself, the term Pearl River Delta refers to the dense network of cities that covers nine prefectures of the province of Guangdong, namely Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Foshan, Huizhou, Jiangmen and Zhaoqing, and the SARs of Hong Kong and Macau. The 2010/2011 State of the World Cities report, published by the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, estimates the population of the delta region at 120 million people; it is rapidly urbanising.[4]

The eastern side of the PRD (Shenzhen, Dongguan), dominated by foreign capital, is the most developed economically. The western areas (Foshan, Zhuhai, Zhongshan, Jiangmen), dominated by local private capital, are open for development. New transport links between Hong Kong, Macau and Zhuhai in the PRD are expected to open up new areas for development, further integrate the cities, and facilitate trade within the region. The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge, currently under construction, and the proposed Shenzhen-Zhongshan Bridge, currently in the planning phase, will be amongst the longest bridges in the world with a total length of approximately 50 km each.

An 1888 map of the mouth of the Pearl River Delta, showing the locations of Macau and Hong Kong

Until c. 1985, the PRD had been mainly dominated by farms and small rural villages, but after the economy was reformed and opened, a flood of investment turned it into the land's economic powerhouse. The PRD's startling growth was fueled by foreign investment coming largely from Hong Kong manufacturers that moved their operations into the PRD. In 2003, Hong Kong companies employed 11 million workers in their PRD operations. Lately there have been extreme labour shortages in the region due to runaway economic growth which caused wages to rise by about 20 to 30 percent in the past two years.[5]


The Pearl River Delta has been one of the most economically dynamic regions of the People's Republic of China since the launch of China’s reform programme in 1979. With annual gross domestic product growth of 13.45 percent over three decades since 1978, it is 3.5 percentage points higher than the national average. Since 1978, almost 30% of all foreign investment in China was in the PRD.[6] By 2007 its GDP rose to US$448 billion which makes its economy about the size of Taiwan's.[7] The abundance of employment opportunities created a pool of wealthy, middle-income, professional consumers with an annual per capita income that puts them among China's wealthiest.[8] Since the onset of China’s reform program, the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone has been the fastest growing portion of the fastest growing province in the fastest growing large economy in the world.[9]

Dongguan, Zhongshan, Nanhai, and Shunde (the later two are now districts of Foshan) the four cities known as the Four Guangdong Dragons for its high growth rates and rapid development from late the 1980s to the 2000s.

According to the 2000 national Census, the Zone had a population of 40.8 million people. Per capita income has been growing substantially in recent years, as have consumer expenditures.

Although the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone encompasses only 0.4 percent of the land area and only 3.2 percent of the 2000 Census population of mainland China, it accounted for 8.7 percent of GDP, 35.8 percent of total trade, and 29.2 percent of utilised foreign capital in 2001. These figures show the remarkable level of economic development that the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone has achieved and the international orientation of the region’s economy. This orientation has attracted numerous investors from all over the world who use the Greater Pearl River Delta region as a platform for serving global and Chinese markets.

As of 2008, the Central Government has introduced new labor laws, environmental and other regulations to reduce pollution, industrial disputes, produce safer working conditions and protect the environment. The costs of producing low margin and commodity goods have increased. This is on top of the rising cost for energy, food, transport and the appreciation of the Renminbi against the falling US Dollar. Some manufacturers will need to cut costs by moving up the value chain or moving to more undeveloped regions.[10]

The industrial cities in the Pearl River Delta has been called the "Factory of the World" or the "World's Factory" due the presence of industrial parks populated with factories from foreign investments.[11][12]

Significance of manufacturing

Several streets in Guangzhou specialize in selling electronic components to the manufacturers of electric and electronic goods

The Pearl River Delta has become the world's workshop and is a major manufacturing base for products such as electronic products (such as watches and clocks), toys, garments and textiles, plastic products, and a range of other goods. Much of this output is invested by foreign entities and is geared for the export market. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone accounts for approximately one third of China's trade value.

Private-owned enterprises have developed quickly in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone and are playing an ever-growing role in the region's economy, particularly after year 2000 when the development environment for private-owned enterprises has been greatly relaxed.

Nearly five percent of the world's goods were produced in the Greater Pearl River Delta in 2001, with a total export value of US$289 billion. Over 70,000 Hong Kong companies have factory plants there.[10]


Public transport

Urban rail transport

PRD is served by five different metro systems throughout the metropolitan area consist of Guangzhou Metro, Shenzhen Metro, MTR, FMetro, and Dongguan Rail Transit. Both Guangzhou and Hong Kong are also served by tram systems: Guangzhou Trams, Hong Kong Tramways, MTR Light Rail, and Peak Tram.

Currently, four additional metro and tram systems are under construction: Macau Light Rail Transit, Shenzhen Trams, Zhuhai Trams, and Foshan Trams. Also three additional system is under planning stage: Zhongshan Metro, Huizhou Metro, and Zhuhai Metro.

Buses, taxis and motorcycles

All cities are served by buses and taxis. While some city may still offer motorcycle services.

Air transport

PRD is metropolitan area covered by 7 civilian airports and four of the airports are international.

Railway and intercity-rail transport

Further information: Pearl River Delta Rapid Transit

The entire PRD is fully covered by railway, high-speed rail, or intercity-rail services.

River transport

There are daily high-speed catamaran services throughout the PRD region.


CityRomanizationStatsInformation & SubdivisionsCity MapImage
Pinyin: Guǎngzhōu
Canton: Guong2zeo1
Yale: Gwóngjāu
Jyutping: Gwong2zau1
Population: 12,700,800
Area: 7,434 km2
Density: 1,708.47/km2
Also known to many English speakers as Canton, Guangzhou is the capital of Guangdong province. It is a port on the Pearl River, navigable to the South China Sea, and is cultural and political center of the Pearl River Delta.

Districts: Yuexiu, Liwan, Haizhu, Tianhe, Baiyun, Huangpu, Panyu, Huadu, Nansha, Zengcheng, Conghua
New Area: Nansha

Pinyin: Shēnzhèn
Canton: Sem1zen3
Yale: Sāmjan
Jyutping: Sam1zan3
Population: 10,357,938
Area: 1,991 km2
Density: 5,202.37/km2
Shenzhen is a Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in China. It has been one of the fastest growing cities in the world. It also has one of the busiest ports in the world.

Districts: Futian, Luohu, Nanshan, Yantian, Bao'an, Longgang, Pingshan, Longhua
New Districts: Guangming, Dapeng

Hong Kong
Pinyin: Xiānggǎng
Canton: Hêng1gong2
Yale: Hēunggóng
Jyutping: Hoeng1gong2
Population: 7,061,200
Area: 1,104 km2
Density: 6396.01/km2
Hong Kong Island was first occupied by British forces in 1841, and then formally ceded from China under the Treaty of Nanjing at the end of the war. Hong Kong remained a crown colony of the United Kingdom until 1997 when it was returned to China. Hong Kong is known as one of the world's leading financial capitals also a major business and cultural hub.

Districts: Central and Western, Eastern, Southern, Wan Chai, Kowloon City, Kwun Tong, Sham Shui Po, Wong Tai Sin, Yau Tsim Mong, Islands, Kwai Tsing, North, Sai Kung, Sha Tin, Tai Po, Tsuen Wan, Tuen Mun, Yuen Long

Pinyin: Àomén
Canton: Ou3mun4
Yale: Oumùhn
Jyutping: Ou3mun4
Population: 544,600
Area: 30 km2
Density: 18,153.33/km2
Macau was first Portuguese settlement in China on 1557. Macau remained a colony of Portugal until 1999 when it was returned to China. Macau has developed into a notable tourist industry that boasts a wide range of hotels, resorts, stadiums, restaurants and casinos. This makes it one of the richest cities in the world.

Freguesia: Nossa Senhora de Fátima, Santo António, São Lázaro, , São Lourenço, Nossa Senhora do Carmo, São Francisco Xavier
Zone: Cotai

Pinyin: Dōngguǎn
Canton: Dung1gun2
Yale: Dūnggún
Jyutping: Dung1gun2
Population: 8,220,237
Area: 2,465 km2
Density: 3,334.78/km2
Dongguan borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, and the Pearl River to the west. It is also home to the world's largest shopping mall, South China Mall.

Subdistricts: Dongcheng, Guancheng, Nancheng, Wanjiang
Towns: Chang'an, Changping, Chashan, Dalang, Dalingshan, Daojiao, Dongkeng, Fenggang, Gaobu, Hengli, Hongmei, Houjie, Huangjiang, Humen, Liaobu, Machong, Qiaotou, Qingxi, Qishi, Shatian, Shijie, Shilong, Shipai, Tangxia, Wangniudun, Xiegang, Zhangmutou, Zhongtang

Pinyin: Fóshān
Canton: Fed1san1
Yale: Fātsāan
Jyutping: Fat1saan1
Population: 7,194,311
Area: 3,848 km2
Density: 1,869.62/km2
Foshan is an old town dated back many centuries. It was famous for its porcelain industry. It is now the third largest city in Guangdong'. The city is relatively affluent when compared to other Chinese cities, and it is home to many large private enterprises. Foshan recently has seen a transformation brought by China's booming economy. City administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment especially in Nanhai District which has closes ties with Guangzhou to form a Guangzhou-Foshan metro in the near future.

Districts: Chancheng, Nanhai, Shunde, Sanshui, Gaoming

Pinyin: Zhūhǎi
Canton: Ju6oi2
Yale: Jyūhói
Jyutping: Zyu1hoi2
Population: 1,560,229
Area: 1,724 km2
Density: 905.00/km2
Zhuhai plays a similar role to Shenzhen and became the first of the Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in China. Since the late 1970s it has been one of the fastest-growing cities in the Pearl River Delta due to its proximity to Macau.

Districts: Xiangzhou, Doumen, Jinwan
New Area: Hengqin

Pinyin: Zhōngshān
Canton: Zung1san1
Yale: Jūngsāan
Jyutping: Zung1saan1
Population: 3,120,884
Area: 1,783 km2
Density: 1,750.35/km2
Zhongshan is a mid-size city named after Sun Yat-sen (who had the alternate name Sun Zhongshan), who is widely considered by both the governments of China and Taiwan to be the "Father of modern China" and was born in Zhongshan's Cuiheng village in 1866. Zhongshan serves as a midway point between Guangzhou and Macau. Zhongshan is known in China for making lamps.

Subdistricts: Dongqu, Nanqu, Shiqi, Xiqu, Wuguishan Subdistrict, ZTHIDZ (Zhongshangang)
Towns: Banfu, Dachong, Dongfeng, Dongsheng, Fusha, Gangkou, Guzhen, Henglan,l Huangpu, Nanlang, Nantou, Minzhong, Sanjiao, Sanxiang, Shaxi, Shenwan, Tanzhou, Xiaolan
New Area: Cuiheng

Pinyin: Jiāngmén
Canton: Gong1mun4
Yale: Gōngmùhn
Jyutping: Gong1mun4
Population: 4,448,871
Area: 9,443 km2
Density: 471.12/km2
Jiangmen Port is the second largest river port in Guangdong province. The local government plans to develop a harbour industrial zone with heavy industries such as petrochemical and machinery industries. The port of Jiangmen was known as Kong-Moon when it was forced to open to western trade in 1902. One legacy of this period is a historic waterfront district lined with buildings in the treaty port style. The city has an ongoing renewal project which has restored many of these buildings.

Districts: Jianghai, Pengjiang, Xinhui
County-level Cities: Enping, Taishan, Kaiping, Heshan

Pinyin: Hùizhōu
Canton: Wei6zeo1
Yale: Waihjāu
Jyutping: Wai6zau1
Population: 4,597,002
Area: 10,922 km2
Density: 420.89/km2
Huizhou is the most eastern city in the Pearl River Delta region. Huizhou is known for its West Lake scenery. Huizhou gained benefit from the Chinese economic reform of the late 1980s. The blossoming real estate market attracted capital investment from Hong Kong and Taiwan. In the provincial economic development strategy, Huizhou is regarded as a site for a world-class petrochemical industry, as well as a hub for developing information technology, and expanding exports and trade.

Districts: Huicheng, Huiyang
Counties: Boluo, Huidong, Longmen

Pinyin: Zhàoqìng
Canton: Xiu6 hing3
Yale: Siuhhing
Jyutping: Siu6 hing3
Population: 3,918,085
Area: 14,891 km2
Density: 263.11/km2
Zhaoqing is the most western city in the Pearl River Delta region. It is well known for being a regional tourist hub, a medium-sized provincial "college town" as well as an up-and-coming manufacturing center. Residents from Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other nearby cities, as well as people from Hong Kong and Macau, are known to visit the city on weekend getaways and excursions.

Districts: Duanzhou, Dinghu, Gaoyao
Counties: Guangning, Huaiji, Fengkai, Deqing
County-level City: Sihui


Baiyun Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict46,768 3.0815,184
Beijing Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict53,135 0.51104,186
Dadong Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict83,491 1.0281,853
Datang Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict46,124 1.0643,513
Dengfeng Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict92,218 4.9818,517
Dongshan Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict74,299 2.3032,303
Guangta Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict68,128 0.44154,836
Hongqiao Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict42,258 1.5227,801
Huale Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict47,126 1.2836,817
Huanghuagang Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict99,569 4.4322,476
Jianshe Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict52,110 0.9356,032
Kuangquan Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict90,036 3.0129,912
Liuhua Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict17,253 1.819,532
Liurong Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict83,996 0.8796,547
Meihuacun Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict85,400 1.7349,364
Nonglin Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict50,152 1.0846,437
Renmin Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict69,274 1.5145,876
Zhuguang Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict56,329 0.9360,568
BaihedongGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict48,238 3.1015,560
CaihongGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict54,348 1.0651,271
ChajiaoGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict54,918 4.0513,560
ChanghuaGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict32,778 1.6120,359
ChongkouGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict48,097 4.2011,451
DongjiaoGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict35,889 4.607,801
DongshaGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict29,013 7.903,672
DuobaoGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict32,581 0.8637,884
FengyuanGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict59,337 0.7876,073
HailongGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict31,801 9.493,351
HuadiGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict39,635 1.6324,315
HualinGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict46,309 0.7264,318
JinhuaGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict54,670 1.1647,129
LingnanGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict27,560 0.9030,622
LongjinGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict43,518 0.5382,109
NanyuanGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict70,066 1.8537,873
QiaozhongGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict31,643 4.4071,91
ShamianGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict3,397 0.3011,323
ShiweitangGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict57,192 5.1811,040
XicunGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict45,069 3.2713,782
ZhanqianGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict27,431 0.9628,573
ZhongnanGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict24,710 7.003,530
BinjiangGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict72,324 16.074,500
ChanggangGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict97,986 1.9649,992
ChigangGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict114,978 5.7320,065
FengyangGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict162,641 9.3017,488
GuanzhouGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict57,869 11.205,166
HaichuangGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict62,884 1.4543,368
HuazhouGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict49,742 12.204,077
JianghaiGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict115,157 5.3021,727
JiangnanzhongGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict75,220 2.3631,872
LongfengGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict102,561 2.3843,092
NanhuaxiGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict37,960 1.1034,509
NanshitouGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict123,043 4.8025,633
NanzhouGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict84,726 12.306,888
PazhouGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict29,851 10.002,985
RuibaoGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict125,399 6.3019,904
ShayuanGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict67,322 1.4446,751
SusheGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict67,103 1.6839,942
XingangGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict111,897 3.8529,064
ChangxingGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict66,098 13.215,003
ChebeiGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict102,787 5.6018,354
FenghuangGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict19,534 22.99849
HuangcunGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict29,501 6.174,781
LiedeGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict22,522 3.107,265
LinheGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict59,732 3.8015,718
LongdongGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict70,055 11.705,987
QianjinGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict59,700 4.9012,183
ShadongGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict29,522 2.1613,667
ShaheGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict42,814 1.2633,979
ShipaiGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict177,198 4.3041,208
TangxiaGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict177,864 7.4223,970
TianhenanGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict62,912 2.0830,246
TianyuanGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict54,769 4.0313,590
WushanGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict131,795 10.5912,445
XiancunGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict51,284 4.0712,600
XinghuaGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict68,139 4.2815,920
XintangGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict41,207 14.952,756
YuancunGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict81,831 5.3715,238
YuangangGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict30,610 3.239,476
ZhujiGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict52,552 10.015,249
JingtaiGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict82,226 11.407,212
SongzhouGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict106,274 9.3011,427
TongdeGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict105,310 3.6029,252
HuangshiGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict117,339 5.7120,549
TangjingGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict89,895 4.2321,251
XinshiGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict76,146 3.3621,449
YunchengGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrictnot established3.74
SanyuanliGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict100,149 6.8014,727
TongheGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict89,362 24.253,685
JingxiGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict91,970 5.5116,691
YongpingGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict124,000 14.448,587
JunheGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict124,909 19.806,308
JinshaGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict52,657 10.205,162
ShijingGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict69,674 3.485,321
BaiyunhuGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrictnot established16.00
ShimenGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrictnot established19.80
JiaheGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict43,848 4.008,769
HelongGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrictnot established6.00
RenheGuangzhou (Baiyun)Town127,795 74.101,724
TaiheGuangzhou (Baiyun)Town208,589 155.371,342
JianggaoGuangzhou (Baiyun)Town161,343 95.711,685
ZhongluotanGuangzhou (Baiyun)Town192,322 169.401,135
DashaGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict44,641 13.103,407
HuangpuGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict64,255 7.388,706
HongshanGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict42,127 7.305,770
YuzhuGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict59,529 9.116,534
WenchongGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict46,877 10.074,655
NangangGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict76,747 13.745,585
ChangzhouGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict36,478 11.503,172
SuidongGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict45,025 13.583,315
LilianGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict42,251 6.586,421
LuogangGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict45,717 80.10570
XiagangGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict44,528 14.543,062
DongquGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict85,235 54.001,578
LianheGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict49,867 51.76963
YongheGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict55,044 34.001,618
JiulongGuangzhou (Huangpu)Town93,265 175.10532
ShiqiaoGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict168,701 20.158,372
ZhongcunGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict104,598 23.414,468
ShibiGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict32,989 27.011,221
DashiGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict116,107 19.346,003
LuopuGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict89,294 25.383,518
DalongGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict129,515 24.805,222
DonghuanGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict52,965 11.004,815
QiaonanGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict72,695 17.854,072
ShatouGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict35,201 18.101,944
XiaoguweiGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict131,470 20.156,524
NancunGuangzhou (Panyu)Town129,076 47.002,746
XinzaoGuangzhou (Panyu)Town27,248 14.121,929
HualongGuangzhou (Panyu)Town53,142 55.70954
ShilouGuangzhou (Panyu)Town90,381 126.50714
ShiqiGuangzhou (Panyu)Town97,434 71.261,367
ShawanGuangzhou (Panyu)Town88,695 37.452,368
XinhuaGuangzhou (Huadu)Subdistrict381,311 29.816,764
HuachengGuangzhou (Huadu)Subdistrictnot established26.56
XinyaGuangzhou (Huadu)Subdistrict20,520 32.98235
XiuquanGuangzhou (Huadu)Subdistrictnot established54.19
TimianGuangzhou (Huadu)Town9,516 91.20104
HuashanGuangzhou (Huadu)Town99,262 116.40852
TanbuGuangzhou (Huadu)Town55,797 113.33492
ChiniGuangzhou (Huadu)Town56,609 160.03353
ShilingGuangzhou (Huadu)Town203,254 136.311,491
HuadongGuangzhou (Huadu)Town118,736 208.44569
NanshaGuangzhou (Nansha)Subdistrict112,151 57.801,940
ZhujiangGuangzhou (Nansha)Subdistrict28,575 41.50688
LongxueGuangzhou (Nansha)Subdistrictnot established128.90
WanqingshaGuangzhou (Nansha)Town44,891 319.20100
HuanggeGuangzhou (Nansha)Town43,791 76.50572
HengliGuangzhou (Nansha)Town30,492 54.00564
DongchongGuangzhou (Nansha)Town147,228 92.001,600
DagangGuangzhou (Nansha)Town125,011 90.071,387
LanheGuangzhou (Nansha)Town73,078 74.48981
JiekouGuangzhou (Conghua)Subdistrict96,846 21.844,434
ChengjiaoGuangzhou (Conghua)Subdistrict79,085 160.00494
JiangbuGuangzhou (Conghua)Subdistrict95,843 127.00754
WenquanGuangzhou (Conghua)Town55,194 210.90261
LiangkouGuangzhou (Conghua)Town32,829 530.6061
LütianGuangzhou (Conghua)Town23,430 393.0059
TaipingGuangzhou (Conghua)Town94,369 210.32448
AotouGuangzhou (Conghua)Town111,308 410.00271
LichengGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Subdistrict191,777 132.271,449
ZengjiangGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Subdistrict78,072 86.18905
ZhucunGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Subdistrict43,557 93.90463
YongningGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Subdistrictnot established104.14
ZhengguoGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Town40,387 236.40170
ShitanGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Town121,674 184.00661
XintangGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Town391,287 85.094,598
ZhongxinGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Town78,293 236.00331
PaitanGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Town58,337 289.50201
XiaolouGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Town33,725 136.00247
XiancunGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Townnot established56.65
HuangbeiShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict113,382 7.5015,117
GuiyuanShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict82,694 10.907,586
DongmenShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict90,454 2.1043,073
CuizhuShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict110,459 3.4532,017
DongxiaoShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict100,779 3.4828,959
NanhuShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict90,500 2.6334,410
SungangShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict64,004 4.0315,881
DonghuShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict84,556 29.052,910
LiantangShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict85,569 13.106,531
QingshuiheShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict101,024 13.627,417
ShatouShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict226,061 18.9011,960
NanyuanShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict108,398 3.0036,132
YuanlingShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict88,261 3.6724,049
HuafuShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict70,834 5.7512,318
FutianShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict234,861 12.2519,172
XiangmihuShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict89,471 9.988,965
LianhuaShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict168,392 9.6017,540
MeilinShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict168,506 34.304,912
HuaqiangbeiShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict54,067 2.9018,643
FubaoShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict106,811 3.7528,482
NantouShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict163,237 16.809,716
NanshanShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict152,312 23.906,372
ShaheShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict121,350 22.325,436
XiliShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict187,832 49.163,820
ShekouShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict87,304 12.297,103
ZhaoshangShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict79,650 18.364,338
YuehaiShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict157,807 14.4010,958
TaoyuanShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict138,853 40.003,471
Xin'anShenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrict410,056 30.9013,270
XixiangShenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrict580,736 106.005,478
SonggangShenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrict398,153 64.006,221
ShajingShenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrict529,041 60.008,817
FuyongShenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrict472,792 66.207,141
ShiyanShenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrict248,139 64.603,841
GuangmingShenzhen (Guangming)Subdistrict66,549 55.801,192
GongmingShenzhen (Guangming)Subdistrict414,358 100.304,131
LonghuaShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict367,521 24.8014,819
MinzhiShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict281,652 30.699,177
DalangShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict277,689 37.207,464
GuanlanShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict452,598 34.6013,080
LongchengShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict260,696 77.683,356
LonggangShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict215,273 64.843,320
HenggangShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict94,801 40.402,346
BujiShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict359,770 30.5811,764
BantianShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict221,767 28.517,778
NanwanShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict197,431 24.687,999
PinghuShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict228,217 41.805,459
PingdiShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict94,765 53.141,783
PingshanShenzhen (Pingshan)Subdistrict205,999 127.221,619
KengziShenzhen (Pingshan)Subdistrict94,801 40.402,346
DapengShenzhen (Dapeng)Subdistrict46,867 82.81565
KuichongShenzhen (Dapeng)Subdistrict61,105 103.90588
Nan'aoShenzhen (Dapeng)Subdistrict18,588 115.06161
HaishanShenzhen (Yantian)Subdistrict61,858 5.5211,206
YantianShenzhen (Yantian)Subdistrict80,641 17.84,530
MeishaShenzhen (Yantian)Subdistrict18,063 16.831,073
ShatoujiaoShenzhen (Yantian)Subdistrict48,798 6.917,061
Central and WesternHong KongDistrict251,51912.420,102
EasternHong KongDistrict588,09418.531,664
SouthernHong KongDistrict278,65538.87,083
Wan ChaiHong KongDistrict152,6089.815,788
Sham Shui PoHong KongDistrict380,8559.339,095
Kowloon CityHong KongDistrict377,35110.036,178
Kwun TongHong KongDistrict622,15211.252,123
Wong Tai SinHong KongDistrict420,1839.345,540
Yau Tsim MongHong KongDistrict307,8786.940,136
Kwai TsingHong KongDistrict511,16723.322,421
NorthHong KongDistrict304,134136.62,055
Sai KungHong KongDistrict436,627129.63,135
Sha TinHong KongDistrict630,27368.78,842
Tai PoHong KongDistrict296,853136.12,156
Tsuen WanHong KongDistrict304,63761.74,679
Tuen MunHong KongDistrict487,54682.86,057
Yuen LongHong KongDistrict578,529138.43,858
IslandsHong KongDistrict141,327175.1783
Nossa Senhora de FátimaMacauFreguesia211,8003.266,187
Santo AntónioMacauFreguesia120,6001.1109,636
São LázaroMacauFreguesia31,9000.653,166
São LourençoMacauFreguesia47,2001.047,200
Nossa Senhora do CarmoMacauFreguesia78,0007.610,263
São Francisco XavierMacauFreguesia4,0007.6526
ZumiaoFoshan (Chancheng)Subdistrict416,800 31.6013,189
ShiwanzhenFoshan (Chancheng)Subdistrict286,226 26.6210,752
ZhangchaFoshan (Chancheng)Subdistrict241,149 26.509,099
NanzhuangFoshan (Chancheng)Town156,902 76.702,045
GuichengFoshan (Nanhai)Subdistrict542,775 84.166,449
LishuiFoshan (Nanhai)Town273,914 75.383,633
JiujiangFoshan (Nanhai)Town170,179 94.751,796
DanzaoFoshan (Nanhai)Town154,955 143.501,079
DaliFoshan (Nanhai)Town614,837 95.906,411
ShishanFoshan (Nanhai)Town610,514 330.601,846
XiqiaoFoshan (Nanhai)Town221,670 176.631,254
DaliangFoshan (Shunde)Subdistrict404,309 80.195,041
RongguiFoshan (Shunde)Subdistrict449,687 80.175,609
LeliuFoshan (Shunde)Subdistrict252,364 90.842,778
LunjiaoFoshan (Shunde)Subdistrict184,479 59.213,115
BeijiaoFoshan (Shunde)Town270,310 92.412,925
LecongFoshan (Shunde)Town259,795 77.553350
Jun'anFoshan (Shunde)Town141,736 79.361,785
XingtanFoshan (Shunde)Town144,537 122.071184
ChencunFoshan (Shunde)Town135,686 50.922,664
LongjiangFoshan (Shunde)Town221,881 73.783,007
XinanFoshan (Sanshui)Subdistrict283,819 178.001,594
YundonghaiFoshan (Sanshui)Subdistrict29,953 56.00534
LubaoFoshan (Sanshui)Town40,626 105.00386
DatangFoshan (Sanshui)Town46,704 98.23475
LepingFoshan (Sanshui)Town134,508 198.50677
BainiFoshan (Sanshui)Town64,425 66.46969
NanshanFoshan (Sanshui)Town22,610 115.62195
HechengFoshan (Gaoming)Subdistrict278,454 178.581,559
YangheFoshan (Gaoming)Town53,224 246.27216
GengheFoshan (Gaoming)Town 46,528 365.00127
MingchengFoshan (Gaoming)Town41,838 186.50224
MeihuaZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict91,172 9.809,303
GongbeiZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict105,130 10.0010,513
JidaZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict81,088 11.706,930
CuixiangZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict106,661 28.003,809
ShishanZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict56,956 8.206,945
XiangwanZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict48,482 32.401,496
QianshanZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict184,738 53.003,485
WanziZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict26,645 30.50873
NanpingZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Town70,934 60.701,168
TangjiawanZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Town109,152 130.00839
HengqinZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Town6,914 476.0014
GuishanZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Town1,745 18.0096
Dan'ganZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Town1,860 40.0046
WanshanZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Town1,208 23.0052
BaitengZhuhai (Doumen)Subdistrictnot established17.00
Jing'anZhuhai (Doumen)Town172,732 142.001,086
BaijiaoZhuhai (Doumen)Town104,568 184.00568
GanwuZhuhai (Doumen)Town57,352 190.60300
DoumenZhuhai (Doumen)Town46,549 105.77440
LianzhouZhuhai (Doumen)Town34,681 88.60391
SanzaoZhuhai (Jinwan)Town82,221 96.00856
HongqiZhuhai (Jinwan)Town67,631 150.00450
PingshaZhuhai (Jinwan)Town67,149 197.00340
NanshuiZhuhai (Jinwan)Town36,962 100.00369
THIDZ (Zhongshangang)ZhongshanSubdistrict229,997158.71,449
TaishanJiangmenCounty-level city941,0873,285.9286
KaipingJiangmenCounty-level city697,3951,658.5422
HeshanJiangmenCounty-level city494,9351,081.3457
EnpingJiangmenCounty-level city492,8141,696.7290
GaoyaoZhaoqingCounty-level city753,3572,185.6344
SihuiZhaoqingCounty-level city542,8821,262.9429

Pearl River mega-city

A 2011 article in British newspaper The Telegraph reported on a "Turn The Pearl River Delta Into One" project. The stated goal was to "mesh the transport, energy, water and telecommunications networks of the nine cities together."[13] (Hong Kong and Macau were not included.) However, the Chinese government denied that such a project existed.[14]


Removal of floating trash from the surface of the Pearl River in Guangzhou

The Pearl River Delta is notoriously polluted, with sewage and industrial waste treatment facilities failing to keep pace with the growth in population and industry in the area. A large portion of the pollution is brought about by factories run by Hong Kong manufacturers in the area. Much of the area is frequently covered with a brown smog. This has a strong effect on the pollution levels in the delta.

Pollution is a great risk to the Chinese white dolphins that inhabit the area.

On March 22, 2007 the World Bank approved a $96 million loan to the PRC government to reduce water pollution in the Pearl River Delta.[15] On December 23, 2008 it was announced that ¥48.6 billion (about $7.1 billion) will be spent on the river by mid-2010 to clean up the river's sewage problems quoted by Zhang Hu, the director of Guangzhou municipal bureau of water affairs. The city will build about 30 water treatment plants, which will treat 2.25 million tonnes of water per day. The program hopes to cut down the amount of sewage in the area by 85%, and was also of fundamental importance for the 2010 Asian Games held in Guangzhou from November 12, 2010 to November 27, 2010.[16]

In October 2009, Greenpeace East Asia released a report, "Poisoning the Pearl River" that detailed the results of a study it conducted in which 25 samples were collected from five manufacturing facilities in the Greater Pearl River Delta. The study concluded that all the facilities sampled were discharging waste-water containing chemicals with proven or suspected hazardous properties including beryllium, copper, manganese, and heavy metals, as well as high levels of organic chemicals.[17] These substances are associated with a long list of health problems such as cancer, endocrine disruption, renal failure and damage to the nervous system as well being known to harm the environment. Three of the five facilities sampled (Qingyuan Top Dragon Co. Ltd, Wing Fung P.C. Board Co. Ltd. and Techwise Qingyuan Circuit Co. Ltd. ) contained concentrations of chemicals which exceeded the limits set by Guangdong provincial effluent standards. These companies were then subjected to a Clean Production Audit according to Article 28 of China's Cleaner Production Promotion Law.[18] Guangdong Environmental Protection Bureau took a stance against the companies by blacklisting them.

See also


  2. World Bank Report Provides New Data to Help Ensure Urban Growth Benefits the Poor, The World Bank Group, 26 Jan 2015
  3. Atlas of China, page 123. SinoMaps Press, 2007.
  4. Vidal, John (March 22, 2010). "UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions'". Retrieved 2010-05-13.
  5. "Labor shortage to affect Pearl River Delta hardest".
  6. "A Stronger Pearl River Delta" (PDF).
  7. "Achievements, challenges in China's Pearl River Delta plan".
  8. "Economic Backdrop of the PRD" (PDF).
  9. "Introducing the Pearl River Delta".
  10. 1 2 China's low costs are on the rise 2008-08-19 Retrieved 2010-01-09
  11. Can China keep its workers happy as strikes and protests rise?,Mukul Devichand, BBC Radio 4, Crossing Continents,, 15 December 2011
  12. Rahul Jacob, 30 November 2011, Talk is cheap in the world’s factory,
  13. China to create largest mega city in the world with 42 million people 2011-01-29 Retrieved 2011-01-29
  14. Guandong denies ambitious megacity plan CCTV News English 2011-01-30
  15. World Bank loans China $96 mln for delta environment Reuters 2007-03-22 Retrieved 2010-01-09
  16. Guangzhou contributes 48.6 bln yuan to clean up Pearl River 2008-12-24 Retrieved 2010-01-09

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Pearl River Delta
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pearl River Delta.

Coordinates: 22°32′N 113°44′E / 22.533°N 113.733°E / 22.533; 113.733

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