|Region||Philippines, Mountain Province|
|41,000 (2007 census)|
lbk – Central Bontok
ebk – Eastern Bontok
rbk – Northern Bontok
obk – Southern Bontok
vbk – Southwestern Bontok
Area where Bontoc is spoken according to Ethnologue
|Plosive||p b||t d||k ɡ||ʔ|
The archiphoneme /r/ has [l], [ɻ], and [ɺ] as its allophones. The allophone [l] occurs word-initially, adjacent to /i/, as the second member of a consonant cluster consisting of a coronal consonant and /r/, and as the second member of any consonant cluster preceded by /i/. [ɻ] occurs in free variation with [l] word-initially, but otherwise occurs in complementary distribution with it. [ɺ] occurs in free variation with [l] and [ɻ] word-initially, and with [ɻ] elsewhere.
The plosives /t/, /ɡ/, /b/, and /d/ have, respectively, [t̪] (representing an interdental consonant), [kʰ], [f], and [t͡s] as their syllable-initial allophones.
The voiced stop /b/ also has [b̪] and [v] as its allophones. Both of these allophones occur as the first member of a geminate cluster. They are in free variation.
The approximant /j/ has one allophone: [ɥ]. [ɥ] occurs after /o/.
/ɥ/ becomes a slightly centralized [e̞] when in a syllable whose coda is /k/. When in the nucleus, /ɡ/ and /o/ are slightly raised and /i/ is lowered.
There are two degrees of stress in Bontoc: primary and secondary. Primary stress is phonemic and secondary stress is predictable. Both types are right-oriented and occur on one of the last three syllables. Stress's effects include higher pitch, louder volume, and lengthening of the syllable nucleus, though these are all subject to certain rules pertaining to word prosody.
- Bontoc at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Central Bontok at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Eastern Bontok at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Northern Bontok at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Southern Bontok at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Southwestern Bontok at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Bontok". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
- Lawrence A. Reid, "The phonology of Central Bontoc", The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 1963
- Nan Kalin Apo Dios, International Bible Society, 1992