Kagayanen language

Native to Philippines
Region eastern Palawan
Native speakers
30,000 (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 cgc
Glottolog kaga1256[2]

The Kagayanen language is spoken in the province of Palawan in the Philippines.


Kagayanen consonant phonemes[3]
Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop pb td kg ʔ
Fricative s (h)
ð̞ j w
Rhotic r

[h] occurs only in loan words, proper names, or in words that have [h] in the cognates of neighboring languages.[4] Outside of loanwords, /d/ becomes [r] between vowels.[5]

Comparative and historical evidence suggests that /ð̞/ and /l/ were in complementary distribution before a split occurred with pressure from contact with English, Spanish, and Tagalog.[6]

Vowels of Kagayanen[7]
Front Central Back
Close i ə u
Open a

/i/ ranges between [i] and [e], except in unstressed syllables (as well as before consonant clusters) where it lowers to [ɪ] or [ɛ].[8] Similarly, /u/ lowers to [ʊ] in unstressed syllables, before consonant clusters, and word-finally. It is otherwise [u].[9]


  1. Kagayanen at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Kagayanen". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. Olson et al. (2010:206)
  4. Olson et al. (2010:206), citing MacGregor (1995:365)
  5. Olson et al. (2010:207)
  6. Olson et al. (2010:207–209)
  7. Olson & Mielke (2007)
  8. Olson & Mielke (2007:845)
  9. Olson & Mielke (2007:847)


This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 1/14/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.