Timeline of LGBT history

The following is a timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) history.

Pre-history

9660 to 5000 BCE

7000 to 1700 BCE

Antiquity

25th century BCE

22nd century BCE

11th century BCE

7th century BCE

6th century BCE

5th century BCE

4th century BCE

3rd century BCE

3rd or 2nd century BCE

2nd century BCE

1st century BCE

1st century CE

Wall painting of female couple from the Suburban Baths at Pompeii

2nd century

3rd century

4th century

5th century

6th century

7th century

9th century

11th century

12th century

13th century

14th century

15th century

16th century

17th century

18th century

19th century

Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825–1895), a pioneer of LGBT rights

20th century

1900s

1910s

1920s

1930s

1940s

1950s

Main article: 1950s in LGBT rights
Mattachine Review published by the Mattachine Society

1960s

Main article: 1960s in LGBT rights

1970s

Main article: 1970s in LGBT rights
Gay rights protesters in New York City, protesting at the United States' 1976 Democratic National Convention

1980s

1990s

(See individual year page for more info)

21st century

2000s

Worldwide laws regarding same-sex intercourse and freedom of expression and association
Same-sex intercourse legal Same-sex intercourse illegal
  
Marriage1
  
Unenforced penalty
  
Marriage recognized but not performed1
  
Imprisonment
  
Civil unions1
  
Up to life in prison
  
Unregistered cohabitation1
  
Death penalty
  
Same-sex unions not recognized
  
Laws restricting freedom of expression and association
Rings indicate areas where local judges have granted or denied marriages or imposed the death penalty in a jurisdiction where that is not otherwise the law or areas with a case-by-case application.
1Some jurisdictions in this category may currently have other types of partnerships.

(See individual year page for more info)

In 2006 Kim Coco Iwamoto became the first transgender official to win statewide office in Hawaii.
Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir became the Prime Minister of Iceland in 2009, and thus became the first openly gay head of government in modern times.

2010

2011

2012

Kyrsten Sinema became the first openly bisexual person elected to the U.S. Congress in 2012.

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to LGBT history by century.

Footnotes

  1. Margherita Mussi, Earliest Italy: An Overview of the Italian Paleolithic and Mesolithic (Kluwer Academic, 2002), pp. 340ff., especially pp. 343–344.
  2. Lauren E. Talalay, "The Gendered Sea: Iconography, Gender, and Mediterranean Prehistory," in The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory (Blackwell, 2005), pp. 130–148, especially p. 136.
  3. "Grave of stone age transsexual excavated in Prague". Archeology News Network. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  4. 1 2 Greenberg, David, The Construction of Homosexuality, 1988; Parkinson, R.B.,‘Homosexual’ Desire and Middle Kingdom Literature Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol. 81, 1995, p. 57-76; Montserrat, Dominic, Akhenaten: History, Fantasy, and Ancient Egypt, 2000. More details at &
  5. Lynn Meskell, when writing about homosexuality, calls it "Another well documented example" (Archaeologies of social life: age, sex, class et cetera in ancient Egypt, Wiley-Blackwell, 1999, p.95)
  6. "Internet History Sourcebooks".
  7. "Tritiya-Prakriti: People of the Third Sex".
  8. Was homosexuality accepted in ancient Assyria prior to Christianity?
  9. Kenneth Dover, Greek Homosexuality (Harvard University Press, 1978, 1898), pp. 205-7
  10. Boswell, John (1994). Same-Sex Unions in Pre-Modern Europe. New York: Vintage Books
  11. Stephan Steingräber, Abundance of Life: Etruscan Wall Painting (Getty Publications, 2006), pp. 67, 70, 91–92; Otto Brendel, Etruscan Art, translated by R. Serra Ridgway (Yale University Press, 1978, 1995), pp. 165–170; Fred S. Kleiner, A History of Roman Art (Wadsworth, 2007, 2010), p. xxxii.
  12. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, Volume 2
  13. The History By Herodotus
  14. Plato. "Symposium". Symposium 189c. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  15. Plato. "Symposium 201d". Symposium.
  16. Plato. "Symposium 214e". Symposium.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Fone, Byrne R. S. (2000). Homophobia: a history. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-4559-7.
  18. Joseph Roisman, Ancient Greece from Homer to Alexandria, Blackwell, 2011
  19. Haggerty, George E. (2000). Gay histories and cultures: an encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 418. ISBN 978-0-8153-1880-4.
  20. Ervad Behramshah Hormusji Bharda (1990). "The Importance of Vendidad in the Zarathushti Religion". tenets.zoroastrianism.com. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  21. Ervad Marzban Hathiram. "Significance and Philosophy of the Vendidad" (PDF). frashogard.com. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  22. "Ranghaya, Sixteenth Vendidad Nation & Western Aryan Lands". heritageinstitute.com. Heritage Institute. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  23. Jones, Lesley-Ann. Freddie Mercury: The Definitive Biography: The Definitive Biography. Hachette UK, 2011. p. 28. ISBN 9781444733709. Retrieved 3 January 2015. In the sacred Zoroastrian text[,] the Vendidad, it is stated: 'The man that lies with mankind as man lies with womankind, or as woman lies with mankind, is a man that is a Daeva (demon): this man is a worshipper of the Daevas, a male paramour of the Daevas
  24. Darmesteter, James (1898). Sacred Books of the East (American ed.). Vd 8:32. Retrieved 3 January 2015. Ahura Mazda answered: 'The man that lies with mankind as man lies with womankind, or as woman lies with mankind, is the man that is a Daeva; this one is the man that is a worshipper of the Daevas, that is a male paramour of the Daevas, that is a female paramour of the Daevas, that is a wife to the Daeva; this is the man that is as bad as a Daeva, that is in his whole being a Daeva; this is the man that is a Daeva before he dies, and becomes one of the unseen Daevas after death: so is he, whether he has lain with mankind as mankind, or as womankind. The guilty may be killed by any one, without an order from the Dastur (see § 74 n.), and by this execution an ordinary capital crime may be redeemed.
  25. The Origins and Role of Same-Sex Relations in Human Societies
  26. Thomas A.J. McGinn, Prostitution, Sexuality and the Law in Ancient Rome (Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 140–141; Amy Richlin, The Garden of Priapus: Sexuality and Aggression in Roman Humor (Oxford University Press, 1983, 1992), pp. 86, 224; John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century (University of Chicago Press, 1980), pp. 63, 67–68; Craig Williams, Roman Homosexuality: Ideologies of Masculinity in Classical Antiquity (Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 116.
  27. James L. Butrica, "Some Myths and Anomalies in the Study of Roman Sexuality," in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition (Haworth Press, 2005), p. 231.
  28. Eva Cantarella, Bisexuality in the Ancient World (Yale University Press, 1992, 2002, originally published 1988 in Italian), p. 120; Edward Courtney, The Fragmentary Latin Poets (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), p. 75.
  29. Digest 48.6.3.4 and 48.6.5.2.
  30. Richlin, "Not before Homosexuality," pp. 562–563. See also Digest 48.5.35 [34] on legal definitions of rape that included boys.
  31. Richlin, "Not before Homosexuality," pp. 558–561.
  32. Cantarella, Bisexuality in the Ancient World, pp. 99, 103; McGinn, Prostitution, Sexuality and the Law, p. 314.
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  34. Ornamentis Augustarum: Suetonius, Life of Nero 28–29, discussed by Craig A. Williams, Roman Homosexuality (Oxford University Press, 1999), p. pp. 284, 400, 424.
  35. Dio Cassius, Epitome of Book 68.6.4; 68.21.2–6.21.3
  36. Apologia I, 27, UTA, RANKE-HEINEMANN, Eunuchi per il regno dei cieli, Rizzoli 1990, p. 66.
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  41. Theodosian Code 9.8.3: "When a man marries and is about to offer himself to men in womanly fashion (quum vir nubit in feminam viris porrecturam), what does he wish, when sex has lost all its significance; when the crime is one which it is not profitable to know; when Venus is changed to another form; when love is sought and not found? We order the statutes to arise, the laws to be armed with an avenging sword, that those infamous persons who are now, or who hereafter may be, guilty may be subjected to exquisite punishment.
  42. (Theodosian Code 9.7.6): All persons who have the shameful custom of condemning a man's body, acting the part of a woman's to the sufferance of alien sex (for they appear not to be different from women), shall expiate a crime of this kind in avenging flames in the sight of the people.
  43. Evagrius Ecclesiastical History 3.39
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  47. Visigothic Code 3.5.5, 3.5.6; "The doctrine of the orthodox faith requires us to place our censure upon vicious practices, and to restrain those who are addicted to carnal offences. For we counsel well for the benefit of our people and our country, when we take measures to utterly extirpate the crimes of wicked men, and put an end to the evil deeds of vice. For this reason we shall attempt to abolish the horrible crime of sodomy, which is as contrary to Divine precept as it is to chastity. And although the authority of the Holy Scriptures, and the censure of earthly laws, alike, prohibit offences of this kind, it is nevertheless necessary to condemn them by a new decree; lest if timely correction be deferred, still greater vices may arise. Therefore, we establish by this law, that if any man whosoever, of any age, or race, whether he belongs to the clergy, or to the laity, should be convicted, by competent evidence, of the commission of the crime of sodomy, he shall, by order of the king, or of any judge, not only suffer emasculation, but also the penalty prescribed by ecclesiastical decree for such offences, and promulgated in the third year of our reign."
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