|State of Montana|
|Nickname(s): Big Sky Country, The Treasure State|
|Motto(s): Oro y Plata (Gold and Silver)|
|Largest metro||Billings Metropolitan Area|
147,040 sq mi |
|• Width||630 miles (1,015 km)|
|• Length||255 miles (410 km)|
|• % water||1|
|• Latitude||44° 21′ N to 49° N|
|• Longitude||104° 2′ W to 116° 3′ W|
|• Total||1,032,949 (2015 est)|
6.86/sq mi (2.65/km2)|
|• Highest point||
12,807 ft (3903.5 m)
|• Mean||3,400 ft (1040 m)|
|• Lowest point||
Kootenai River at Idaho border|
1,804 ft (557 m)
|Before statehood||Montana Territory|
|Admission to Union||November 8, 1889 (41st)|
|Governor||Steve Bullock (D)|
|Lieutenant Governor||Mike Cooney (D)|
|• Upper house||Senate|
|• Lower house||House of Representatives|
Jon Tester (D)|
Steve Daines (R)
|U.S. House delegation||Ryan Zinke (R) (list)|
|Time zone||Mountain: UTC -7/-6|
|Montana state symbols|
The Flag of Montana
The Seal of Montana
|Fish||Westslope cutthroat trout|
Spanish: Oro Y Plata|
(Gold and Silver)
|Slogan||Big Sky Country|
|State route marker|
Released in 2007
|Lists of United States state symbols|
Montana i// is a state in the Western region of the United States. The state's name is derived from the Spanish word montaña (mountain). Montana has several nicknames, although none official, including "Big Sky Country" and "The Treasure State", and slogans that include "Land of the Shining Mountains" and more recently "The Last Best Place". Montana has a 545-mile (877 km) border with three Canadian provinces: British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan, the only state to do so. It also borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, and Idaho to the west and southwest. Montana is ranked 4th in size, but 44th in population and 48th in population density of the 50 United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In total, 77 named ranges are part of the Rocky Mountains. The eastern half of Montana is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands.
The economy is primarily based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic activities include oil, gas, coal and hard rock mining, lumber, and the fastest-growing sector, tourism. The health care, service, and government sectors also are significant to the state's economy. Millions of tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, and Yellowstone National Park.
Etymology and naming history
The name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña and the Latin word Montana, meaning "mountain", or more broadly, "mountainous country". Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the entire mountainous region of the west. The name Montana was added to a bill by the United States House Committee on Territories, which was chaired at the time by Rep. James Ashley of Ohio, for the territory that would become Idaho Territory. The name was successfully changed by Representatives Henry Wilson (Massachusetts) and Benjamin F. Harding (Oregon), who complained that Montana had "no meaning". When Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox, also of Ohio, objected to the name. Cox complained that the name was a misnomer given that most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one. Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was eventually decided that the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, so the original name of Montana was adopted.
With a total area of 147,040 square miles (380,800 km2), Montana is slightly larger than Japan. It is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska, Texas, and California; the largest landlocked U.S. state; and the 56th largest national state/province subdivision in the world. To the north, Montana shares a 545-mile (877 km) border with three Canadian provinces: British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan, the only state to do so. It borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south and Idaho to the west and southwest.
The topography of the state is roughly defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montana's 100 or more named mountain ranges are concentrated in the western half of the state, most of which is geologically and geographically part of the Northern Rocky Mountains. The Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the south-central part of the state are technically part of the Central Rocky Mountains. The Rocky Mountain Front is a significant feature in the north-central portion of the state, and there are a number of isolated island ranges that interrupt the prairie landscape common in the central and eastern parts of the state. About 60 percent of the state is prairie, part of the northern Great Plains.
The Bitterroot Mountains—one of the longest continuous ranges in the entire Rocky Mountain chain from Alaska to Mexico—along with smaller ranges, including the Coeur d'Alene Mountains and the Cabinet Mountains, divide the state from Idaho. The southern third of the Bitterroot range blends into the Continental Divide. Other major mountain ranges west of the Divide include the Cabinet Mountains, the Anaconda Range, the Missions, the Garnet Range, Sapphire Mountains, and Flint Creek Range.
The northern section of the Divide, where the mountains give way rapidly to prairie, is part of the Rocky Mountain Front. The front is most pronounced in the Lewis Range, located primarily in Glacier National Park. Due to the configuration of mountain ranges in Glacier National Park, the Northern Divide (which begins in Alaska's Seward Peninsula) crosses this region and turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak. It causes the Waterton River, Belly, and Saint Mary rivers to flow north into Alberta, Canada. There they join the Saskatchewan River, which ultimately empties into Hudson Bay.
East of the divide, several roughly parallel ranges cover the southern part of the state, including the Gravelly Range, the Madison Range, Gallatin Range, Absaroka Mountains and the Beartooth Mountains. The Beartooth Plateau is the largest continuous land mass over 10,000 feet (3,000 m) high in the continental United States. It contains the highest point in the state, Granite Peak, 12,799 feet (3,901 m) high. North of these ranges are the Big Belt Mountains, Bridger Mountains, Tobacco Roots, and several island ranges, including the Crazy Mountains and Little Belt Mountains.
Between many mountain ranges are rich river valleys. The Big Hole Valley, Bitterroot Valley, Gallatin Valley, Flathead Valley, and Paradise Valley have extensive agricultural resources and multiple opportunities for tourism and recreation.
East and north of this transition zone are the expansive and sparsely populated Northern Plains, with tableland prairies, smaller island mountain ranges, and badlands. The isolated island ranges east of the Divide include the Bear Paw Mountains, Bull Mountains, Castle Mountains, Crazy Mountains, Highwood Mountains, Judith Mountains, Little Belt Mountains, Little Rocky Mountains, the Pryor Mountains, Snowy Mountains, Sweet Grass Hills, and—in the southeastern corner of the state near Ekalaka—the Long Pines. Many of these isolated eastern ranges were created about 120 to 66 million years ago when magma welling up from the interior cracked and bowed the earth's surface here.
The area east of the divide in the north-central portion of the state is known for the Missouri Breaks and other significant rock formations. Three buttes south of Great Falls are major landmarks: Cascade, Crown, Square, Shaw and Buttes. Known as laccoliths, they formed when igneous rock protruded through cracks in the sedimentary rock. The underlying surface consists of sandstone and shale. Surface soils in the area are highly diverse, and greatly affected by the local geology, whether glaciated plain, intermountain basin, mountain foothills, or tableland. Foothill regions are often covered in weathered stone or broken slate, or consist of uncovered bare rock (usually igneous, quartzite, sandstone, or shale). The soil of intermountain basins usually consists of clay, gravel, sand, silt, and volcanic ash, much of it laid down by lakes which covered the region during the Oligocene 33 to 23 million years ago. Tablelands are often topped with argillite gravel and weathered quartzite, occasionally underlain by shale. The glaciated plains are generally covered in clay, gravel, sand, and silt left by the proglacial Lake Great Falls or by moraines or gravel-covered former lake basins left by the Wisconsin glaciation 85,000 to 11,000 years ago. Farther east, areas such as Makoshika State Park near Glendive and Medicine Rocks State Park near Ekalaka contain some of the most scenic badlands regions in the state.
The Hell Creek Formation in Northeast Montana is a major source of dinosaur fossils. Paleontologist Jack Horner of the Museum of the Rockies in Bozeman brought this formation to the world's attention with several major finds.
Rivers, lakes and reservoirs
Montana contains thousands of named rivers and creeks, 450 miles (720 km) of which are known for "blue-ribbon" trout fishing. Montana's water resources provide for recreation, hydropower, crop and forage irrigation, mining, and water for human consumption. Montana is one of few geographic areas in the world whose rivers form parts of three major watersheds (i.e. where two continental divides intersect). Its rivers feed the Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and Hudson Bay. The watersheds divide at Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park.
Pacific Ocean drainage basin
West of the divide, the Clark Fork of the Columbia (not to be confused with the Clarks Fork of the Yellowstone River) rises near Butte and flows northwest to Missoula, where it is joined by the Blackfoot River and Bitterroot River. Farther downstream, it is joined by the Flathead River before entering Idaho near Lake Pend Oreille. The Pend Oreille River forms the outflow of Lake Pend Oreille. The Pend Oreille River joined the Columbia River, which flows to the Pacific Ocean—making the 579-mile (932 km) long Clark Fork/Pend Oreille (considered a single river system) the longest river in the Rocky Mountains. The Clark Fork discharges the greatest volume of water of any river exiting the state. The Kootenai River in northwest Montana is another major tributary of the Columbia.
Gulf of Mexico drainage basin
East of the divide the Missouri River, which is formed by the confluence of the Jefferson, Madison and Gallatin rivers near Three Forks, flows due north through the west-central part of the state to Great Falls. From this point, it then flows generally east through fairly flat agricultural land and the Missouri Breaks to Fort Peck reservoir. The stretch of river between Fort Benton and the Fred Robinson Bridge at the western boundary of Fort Peck Reservoir was designated a National Wild and Scenic River in 1976. The Missouri enters North Dakota near Fort Union, having drained more than half the land area of Montana (82,000 square miles (210,000 km2)). Nearly one-third of the Missouri River in Montana lies behind 10 dams: Toston, Canyon Ferry, Hauser, Holter, Black Eagle, Rainbow, Cochrane, Ryan, Morony, and Fort Peck.
The Yellowstone River rises on the continental divide near Younts Peak in Wyoming's Teton Wilderness. It flows north through Yellowstone National Park, enters Montana near Gardiner, and passes through the Paradise Valley to Livingston. It then flows northeasterly across the state through Billings, Miles City, Glendive, and Sidney. The Yellowstone joins the Missouri in North Dakota just east of Fort Union. It is the longest undammed, free-flowing river in the contiguous United States, and drains about a quarter of Montana (36,000 square miles (93,000 km2)).
Other major Montana tributaries of the Missouri include the Smith, Milk, Marias, Judith, and Musselshell Rivers. Montana also claims the disputed title of possessing the world's shortest river, the Roe River, just outside Great Falls. Through the Missouri, these rivers ultimately join the Mississippi River and flow into the Gulf of Mexico.
Hudson Bay drainage basin
The Northern Divide turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak, causing the Waterton River, Belly, and Saint Mary rivers to flow north into Alberta. There they join the Saskatchewan River, which ultimately empties into Hudson Bay.
Lakes and reservoirs
There are at least 3,223 named lakes and reservoirs in Montana, including Flathead Lake, the largest natural freshwater lake in the western United States. Other major lakes include Whitefish Lake in the Flathead Valley and Lake McDonald and St. Mary Lake in Glacier National Park. The largest reservoir in the state is Fort Peck Reservoir on the Missouri river, which is contained by the second largest earthen dam and largest hydraulically filled dam in the world. Other major reservoirs include Hungry Horse on the Flathead River; Lake Koocanusa on the Kootenai River; Lake Elwell on the Marias River; Clark Canyon on the Beaverhead River; Yellowtail on the Bighorn River, Canyon Ferry, Hauser, Holter, Rainbow; and Black Eagle on the Missouri River.
Flora and fauna
Vegetation of the state includes lodgepole pine, ponderosa pine; Douglas fir, larch, spruce; aspen, birch, red cedar, hemlock, ash, alder; rocky mountain maple and cottonwood trees. Forests cover approximately 25 percent of the state. Flowers native to Montana include asters, bitterroots, daisies, lupins, poppies, primroses, columbine, lilies, orchids, and dryads. Several species of sagebrush and cactus and many species of grasses are common. Many species of mushrooms and lichens are also found in the state.
Montana is home to a diverse array of fauna that includes 14 amphibian, 90 fish, 117 mammal, 20 reptile and 427 bird species. Additionally, there are over 10,000 invertebrate species, including 180 mollusks and 30 crustaceans. Montana has the largest grizzly bear population in the lower 48 states. Montana hosts five federally endangered species–black-footed ferret, whooping crane, least tern, pallid sturgeon and white sturgeon and seven threatened species including the grizzly bear, Canadian lynx and bull trout. The Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks manages fishing and hunting seasons for at least 17 species of game fish including seven species of trout, walleye and smallmouth bass and at least 29 species of game birds and animals including ring-neck pheasant, grey partridge, elk, pronghorn antelope, mule deer, whitetail deer, gray wolf and bighorn sheep.
Montana contains Glacier National Park, "The Crown of the Continent"; and portions of Yellowstone National Park, including three of the park's five entrances. Other federally recognized sites include the Little Bighorn National Monument, Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, Big Hole National Battlefield, and the National Bison Range. Approximately 31,300,000 acres (127,000 km2), or 35 percent of Montana's land is administered by federal or state agencies. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service administers 16,800,000 acres (68,000 km2) of forest land in ten National Forests. There are approximately 3,300,000 acres (13,000 km2) of wilderness in 12 separate wilderness areas that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System established by the Wilderness Act of 1964. The U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management controls 8,100,000 acres (33,000 km2) of federal land. The U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service administers 110,000 acres (450 km2) of 1.1 million acres of National Wildlife Refuges and waterfowl production areas in Montana. The U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation administers approximately 300,000 acres (1,200 km2) of land and water surface in the state. The Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks operates approximately 275,265 acres (1,113.96 km2) of state parks and access points on the state's rivers and lakes. The Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation manages 5,200,000 acres (21,000 km2) of School Trust Land ceded by the federal government under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to the state in 1889 when Montana was granted statehood. These lands are managed by the state for the benefit of public schools and institutions in the state.
Areas managed by the National Park Service include:
- Big Hole National Battlefield near Wisdom
- Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area near Fort Smith
- Glacier National Park
- Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site at Deer Lodge
- Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail
- Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument near Crow Agency
- Nez Perce National Historical Park
- Yellowstone National Park
Montana is a large state with considerable variation in geography, and the climate is, therefore, equally varied. The state spans from below the 45th parallel (the line equidistant between the equator and North Pole) to the 49th parallel, and elevations range from under 2,000 feet (610 m) to nearly 13,000 feet (4,000 m) above sea level. The western half is mountainous, interrupted by numerous large valleys. Eastern Montana comprises plains and badlands, broken by hills and isolated mountain ranges, and has a semi-arid, continental climate (Köppen climate classification BSk). The Continental Divide has a considerable effect on the climate, as it restricts the flow of warmer air from the Pacific from moving east, and drier continental air from moving west. The area west of the divide has a modified northern Pacific coast climate, with milder winters, cooler summers, less wind and a longer growing season. Low clouds and fog often form in the valleys west of the divide in winter, but this is rarely seen in the east.
Average daytime temperatures vary from 28 °F or −2.2 °C in January to 84.5 °F or 29.2 °C in July. The variation in geography leads to great variation in temperature. The highest observed summer temperature was 117 °F or 47.2 °C at Glendive on July 20, 1893, and Medicine Lake on July 5, 1937. Throughout the state, summer nights are generally cool and pleasant. Extremely hot weather is less common above 4,000 feet or 1,200 metres. Snowfall has been recorded in all months of the year in the more mountainous areas of central and western Montana, though it is rare in July and August.
The coldest temperature on record for Montana is also the coldest temperature for the entire contiguous U.S. On January 20, 1954, −70 °F or −56.7 °C was recorded at a gold mining camp near Rogers Pass. Temperatures vary greatly on such cold nights, and Helena, 40 miles (64 km) to the southeast had a low of only −36 °F or −37.8 °C on the same date, and an all-time record low of −42 °F or −41.1 °C. Winter cold spells are usually the result of cold continental air coming south from Canada. The front is often well defined, causing a large temperature drop in a 24-hour period. Conversely, air flow from the southwest results in "chinooks". These steady 25–50 mph (40–80 km/h) (or more) winds can suddenly warm parts of Montana, especially areas just to the east of the mountains, where temperatures sometimes rise up to 50–60 °F (10.0–15.6 °C) for periods of ten days or longer.
Loma is the location of the most extreme recorded temperature change in a 24-hour period in the United States. On January 15, 1972, a chinook wind blew in and the temperature rose from −54 to 49 °F (−47.8 to 9.4 °C).
Average annual precipitation is 15 inches (380 mm), but great variations are seen. The mountain ranges block the moist Pacific air, holding moisture in the western valleys, and creating rain shadows to the east. Heron, in the west, receives the most precipitation, 34.70 inches (881 mm). On the eastern (leeward) side of a mountain range, the valleys are much drier; Lonepine averages 11.45 inches (291 mm), and Deer Lodge 11.00 inches (279 mm) of precipitation. The mountains themselves can receive over 100 inches (2,500 mm), for example the Grinnell Glacier in Glacier National Park gets 105 inches (2,700 mm). An area southwest of Belfry averaged only 6.59 inches (167 mm) over a sixteen-year period. Most of the larger cities get 30 to 50 inches or 0.76 to 1.27 metres of snow each year. Mountain ranges themselves can accumulate 300 inches or 7.62 metres of snow during a winter. Heavy snowstorms may occur any time from September through May, though most snow falls from November to March.
The climate has become warmer in Montana and continues to do so. The glaciers in Glacier National Park have receded and are predicted to melt away completely in a few decades. Many Montana cities set heat records during July 2007, the hottest month ever recorded in Montana. Winters are warmer, too, and have fewer cold spells. Previously these cold spells had killed off bark beetles, but these are now attacking the forests of western Montana. The warmer winters in the region have allowed various species to expand their ranges and proliferate. The combination of warmer weather, attack by beetles, and mismanagement during past years has led to a substantial increase in the severity of forest fires in Montana. According to a study done for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Science, portions of Montana will experience a 200-percent increase in area burned by wildfires, and an 80-percent increase in related air pollution.
The table below lists average temperatures for the warmest and coldest month for the seven largest cities in Montana. The coldest month varies between December and January depending on location, although figures are similar throughout.
|Location||July (°F)||Coldest month (°F)||July (°C)||Coldest month (°C)|
Montana is one of only two continental US states (along with Colorado) which is antipodal to land. The Kerguelen Islands are antipodal to the Montana–Saskatchewan–Alberta border. No towns are precisely antipodal to Kerguelen, though Chester and Rudyard are close.
Various indigenous peoples lived in the territory of the present-day state of Montana for thousands of years. Historic tribes encountered by Europeans and settlers from the United States included the Crow in the south-central area; the Cheyenne in the southeast; the Blackfeet, Assiniboine and Gros Ventres in the central and north-central area; and the Kootenai and Salish in the west. The smaller Pend d'Oreille and Kalispel tribes lived near Flathead Lake and the western mountains, respectively.
The land in Montana east of the continental divide was part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Subsequent to and particularly in the decades following the Lewis and Clark Expedition, American, British and French traders operated a fur trade, typically working with indigenous peoples, in both eastern and western portions of what would become Montana. These dealings were not always peaceful, and though the fur trade brought some material gain for indigenous tribal groups it also brought exposure to European diseases and altered their economic and cultural traditions. Until the Oregon Treaty (1846), land west of the continental divide was disputed between the British and U.S. and was known as the Oregon Country. The first permanent settlement by Euro-Americans in what today is Montana was St. Mary's (1841) near present-day Stevensville. In 1847, Fort Benton was established as the uppermost fur-trading post on the Missouri River. In the 1850s, settlers began moving into the Beaverhead and Big Hole valleys from the Oregon Trail and into the Clark's Fork valley.
The first gold discovered in Montana was at Gold Creek near present-day Garrison in 1852. A series of major mining discoveries in the western third of the state starting in 1862 found gold, silver, copper, lead, coal (and later oil) that attracted tens of thousands of miners to the area. The richest of all gold placer diggings was discovered at Alder Gulch, where the town of Virginia City was established. Other rich placer deposits were found at Last Chance Gulch, where the city of Helena now stands, Confederate Gulch, Silver Bow, Emigrant Gulch, and Cooke City. Gold output from 1862 through 1876 reached $144 million; silver then became even more important. The largest mining operations were in the city of Butte, which had important silver deposits and gigantic copper deposits.
Before the creation of Montana Territory (1864–1889), various parts of what is now Montana were parts of Oregon Territory (1848–1859), Washington Territory (1853–1863), Idaho Territory (1863–1864), and Dakota Territory (1861–1864). Montana became a United States territory (Montana Territory) on May 26, 1864. The first territorial capital was at Bannack. The first territorial governor was Sidney Edgerton. The capital moved to Virginia City in 1865 and to Helena in 1875. In 1870, the non-Indian population of Montana Territory was 20,595. The Montana Historical Society, founded on February 2, 1865, in Virginia City is the oldest such institution west of the Mississippi (excluding Louisiana). In 1869 and 1870 respectively, the Cook–Folsom–Peterson and the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expeditions were launched from Helena into the Upper Yellowstone region and directly led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park in 1872.
As white settlers began populating Montana from the 1850s through the 1870s, disputes with Native Americans ensued, primarily over land ownership and control. In 1855, Washington Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens negotiated the Hellgate treaty between the United States Government and the Salish, Pend d'Oreille, and the Kootenai people of western Montana, which established boundaries for the tribal nations. The treaty was ratified in 1859. While the treaty established what later became the Flathead Indian Reservation, trouble with interpreters and confusion over the terms of the treaty led whites to believe that the Bitterroot Valley was opened to settlement, but the tribal nations disputed those provisions. The Salish remained in the Bitterroot Valley until 1891.
The first U.S. Army post established in Montana was Camp Cooke in 1866, on the Missouri River, to protect steamboat traffic going to Fort Benton, Montana. More than a dozen additional military outposts were established in the state. Pressure over land ownership and control increased due to discoveries of gold in various parts of Montana and surrounding states. Major battles occurred in Montana during Red Cloud's War, the Great Sioux War of 1876, the Nez Perce War and in conflicts with Piegan Blackfeet. The most notable of these were the Marias Massacre (1870), Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876), Battle of the Big Hole (1877) and Battle of Bear Paw (1877). The last recorded conflict in Montana between the U.S. Army and Native Americans occurred in 1887 during the Battle of Crow Agency in the Big Horn country. Indian survivors who had signed treaties were generally required to move onto reservations.
Simultaneously with these conflicts, bison, a keystone species and the primary protein source that Native people had survived on for centuries were being destroyed. Some estimates say there were over 13 million bison in Montana in 1870. In 1875, General Philip Sheridan pleaded to a joint session of Congress to authorize the slaughtering of herds in order to deprive the Indians of their source of food. By 1884, commercial hunting had brought bison to the verge of extinction; only about 325 bison remained in the entire United States.
Cattle ranching has been central to Montana's history and economy since Johnny Grant began wintering cattle in the Deer Lodge Valley in the 1850s and traded cattle fattened in fertile Montana valleys with emigrants on the Oregon Trail. Nelson Story brought the first Texas Longhorn cattle into the territory in 1866. Granville Stuart, Samuel Hauser and Andrew J. Davis started a major open range cattle operation in Fergus County in 1879. The Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site in Deer Lodge is maintained today as a link to the ranching style of the late 19th century. Operated by the National Park Service, it is a 1,900-acre (7.7 km2) working ranch.
Tracks of the Northern Pacific Railroad (NPR) reached Montana from the west in 1881 and from the east in 1882. However, the railroad played a major role in sparking tensions with Native American tribes in the 1870s. Jay Cooke, the NPR president launched major surveys into the Yellowstone valley in 1871, 1872 and 1873 which were challenged forcefully by the Sioux under chief Sitting Bull. These clashes, in part, contributed to the Panic of 1873, a financial crisis that delayed construction of the railroad into Montana. Surveys in 1874, 1875 and 1876 helped spark the Great Sioux War of 1876. The transcontinental NPR was completed on September 8, 1883, at Gold Creek.
Tracks of the Great Northern Railroad (GNR) reached eastern Montana in 1887 and when they reached the northern Rocky Mountains in 1890, the GNR became a significant promoter of tourism to Glacier National Park region. The transcontinental GNR was completed on January 6, 1893, at Scenic, Washington.
In 1881, the Utah and Northern Railway a branch line of the Union Pacific completed a narrow gauge line from northern Utah to Butte. A number of smaller spur lines operated in Montana from 1881 into the 20th century including the Oregon Short Line, Montana Railroad and Milwaukee Road.
Under Territorial Governor Thomas Meagher, Montanans held a constitutional convention in 1866 in a failed bid for statehood. A second constitutional convention was held in Helena in 1884 that produced a constitution ratified 3:1 by Montana citizens in November 1884. For political reasons, Congress did not approve Montana statehood until 1889. Congress approved Montana statehood in February 1889 and President Grover Cleveland signed an omnibus bill granting statehood to Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Washington once the appropriate state constitutions were crafted. In July 1889, Montanans convened their third constitutional convention and produced a constitution accepted by the people and the federal government. On November 8, 1889 President Benjamin Harrison proclaimed Montana the forty-first state in the union. The first state governor was Joseph K. Toole. In the 1880s, Helena (the current state capital) had more millionaires per capita than any other United States city.
The Homestead Act of 1862 provided free land to settlers who could claim and "prove-up" 160 acres (0.65 km2) of federal land in the midwest and western United States. Montana did not see a large influx of immigrants from this act because 160 acres was usually insufficient to support a family in the arid territory. The first homestead claim under the act in Montana was made by David Carpenter near Helena in 1868. The first claim by a woman was made near Warm Springs Creek by Gwenllian Evans, the daughter of Deer Lodge Montana pioneer, Morgan Evans. By 1880, there were farms in the more verdant valleys of central and western Montana, but few on the eastern plains.
The Desert Land Act of 1877 was passed to allow settlement of arid lands in the west and allotted 640 acres (2.6 km2) to settlers for a fee of $.25 per acre and a promise to irrigate the land. After three years, a fee of one dollar per acre would be paid and the land would be owned by the settler. This act brought mostly cattle and sheep ranchers into Montana, many of whom grazed their herds on the Montana prairie for three years, did little to irrigate the land and then abandoned it without paying the final fees. Some farmers came with the arrival of the Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railroads throughout the 1880s and 1890s, though in relatively small numbers.
In the early 1900s, James J. Hill of the Great Northern began promoting settlement in the Montana prairie to fill his trains with settlers and goods. Other railroads followed suit. In 1902, the Reclamation Act was passed, allowing irrigation projects to be built in Montana's eastern river valleys. In 1909, Congress passed the Enlarged Homestead Act that expanded the amount of free land from 160 to 320 acres (0.6 to 1.3 km2) per family and in 1912 reduced the time to "prove up" on a claim to three years. In 1916, the Stock-Raising Homestead Act allowed homesteads of 640 acres in areas unsuitable for irrigation. This combination of advertising and changes in the Homestead Act drew tens of thousands of homesteaders, lured by free land, with World War I bringing particularly high wheat prices. In addition, Montana was going through a temporary period of higher-than-average precipitation. Homesteaders arriving in this period were known as "Honyockers", or "scissorbills." Though the word "honyocker", possibly derived from the ethnic slur "hunyak," was applied in a derisive manner at homesteaders as being "greenhorns", "new at his business" or "unprepared", the reality was that a majority of these new settlers had previous farming experience, though there were also many who did not.
However, farmers faced a number of problems. Massive debt was one. Also, most settlers were from wetter regions, unprepared for the dry climate, lack of trees, and scarce water resources. In addition, small homesteads of fewer than 320 acres (130 ha) were unsuited to the environment. Weather and agricultural conditions are much harsher and drier west of the 100th meridian. Then, the droughts of 1917–1921 proved devastating. Many people left, and half the banks in the state went bankrupt as a result of providing mortgages that could not be repaid. As a result, farm sizes increased while the number of farms decreased
By 1910, homesteaders filed claims on over five million acres, and by 1923, over 93 million acres were farmed. In 1910, the Great Falls land office alone saw over 1,000 homestead filings per month, and the peak of 1917– 1918 saw 14,000 new homesteads each year. But significant drop occurred following drought in 1919.
Honyocker, scissorbill, nester ... He was the Joad of a [half] century ago, swarming into a hostile land: duped when he started, robbed when he arrived; hopeful, courageous, ambitious: he sought independence or adventure, comfort and security ... The honyocker was farmer, spinster, deep-sea diver; fiddler, physician, bartender, cook. He lived in Minnesota or Wisconsin, Massachusetts or Maine. There the news sought him out—Jim Hill's news of free land in the Treasure State ...— Joseph Kinsey Howard, Montana, High, Wide, and Handsome
Montana and World War I
As World War I broke out, Jeannette Rankin, the first woman in the United States to be a member of Congress, was a pacifist and voted against the United States' declaration of war. Her actions were widely criticized in Montana, where public support for the war was strong, and wartime sentiment reached levels of hyper-patriotism among many Montanans. In 1917–18, due to a miscalculation of Montana's population, approximately 40,000 Montanans, ten percent of the state's population, either volunteered or were drafted into the armed forces. This represented a manpower contribution to the war that was 25 percent higher than any other state on a per capita basis. Approximately 1500 Montanans died as a result of the war and 2437 were wounded, also higher than any other state on a per capita basis. Montana's Remount station in Miles City provided 10,000 cavalry horses for the war, more than any other Army post in the US. The war created a boom for Montana mining, lumber and farming interests as demand for war materials and food increased.
In June 1917, the U.S. Congress passed the Espionage Act of 1917 which was later extended by the Sedition Act of 1918, enacted in May 1918. In February 1918, the Montana legislature had passed the Montana Sedition Act, which was a model for the federal version. In combination, these laws criminalized criticism of the U.S. government, military, or symbols through speech or other means. The Montana Act led to the arrest of over 200 individuals and the conviction of 78, mostly of German or Austrian descent. Over 40 spent time in prison. In May 2006, then-Governor Brian Schweitzer posthumously issued full pardons for all those convicted of violating the Montana Sedition Act.
The Montanans who opposed U.S. entry into the war included certain immigrant groups of German and Irish heritage as well as pacifist Anabaptist people such as the Hutterites and Mennonites, many of whom were also of Germanic heritage. In turn, pro-War groups formed, such as the Montana Council of Defense, created by Governor Samuel V. Stewart as well as local "loyalty committees."
War sentiment was complicated by labor issues. The Anaconda Copper Company, which was at its historic peak of copper production, was an extremely powerful force in Montana, but also faced criticism and opposition from socialist newspapers and unions struggling to make gains for their members. In Butte, a multi-ethnic community with significant European immigrant population, labor unions, particularly the newly formed Metal Mine Workers' Union, opposed the war on grounds that it mostly profited large lumber and mining interests. In the wake of ramped-up mine production and the Speculator Mine disaster in June 1917, Industrial Workers of the World organizer Frank Little arrived in Butte to organize miners. He gave some speeches with inflammatory anti-war rhetoric. On August 1, 1917, he was dragged from his boarding house by masked vigilantes, and hanged from a railroad trestle, considered a lynching. Little's murder and the strikes that followed resulted in the National Guard being sent to Butte to restore order. Overall, anti-German and anti-labor sentiment increased and created a movement that led to the passage of the Montana Sedition Act the following February. In addition, the Council of Defense was made a state agency with the power to prosecute and punish individuals deemed in violation of the Act. The Council also passed rules limiting public gatherings and prohibiting the speaking of German in public.
In the wake of the legislative action in 1918, emotions rose. U.S. Attorney Burton K. Wheeler and several District Court Judges who hesitated to prosecute or convict people brought up on charges were strongly criticized. Wheeler was brought before the Council of Defense, though he avoided formal proceedings, and a District Court judge from Forsyth was impeached. There were burnings of German-language books and several near-hangings. The prohibition on speaking German remained in effect into the early 1920s. Complicating the wartime struggles, the 1918 Influenza epidemic claimed the lives of over 5,000 Montanans. The period has been dubbed "Montana's Agony" by some historians due to the suppression of civil liberties that occurred.
An economic depression began in Montana after World War I and lasted through the Great Depression until the beginning of World War II. This caused great hardship for farmers, ranchers, and miners. The wheat farms in eastern Montana make the state a major producer; the wheat has a relatively high protein content and thus commands premium prices.
Montana and World War II
When the U.S. entered World War II on December 8, 1941, many Montanans already had enlisted in the military to escape the poor national economy of the previous decade. Another 40,000-plus Montanans entered the armed forces in the first year following the declaration of war, and over 57,000 joined up before the war ended. These numbers constituted about 10 percent of the state's total population, and Montana again contributed one of the highest numbers of soldiers per capita of any state. Many Native Americans were among those who served, including soldiers from the Crow Nation who became Code Talkers. At least 1500 Montanans died in the war. Montana also was the training ground for the First Special Service Force or "Devil's Brigade," a joint U.S-Canadian commando-style force that trained at Fort William Henry Harrison for experience in mountainous and winter conditions before deployment. Air bases were built in Great Falls, Lewistown, Cut Bank and Glasgow, some of which were used as staging areas to prepare planes to be sent to allied forces in the Soviet Union. During the war, about 30 Japanese balloon bombs were documented to have landed in Montana, though no casualties nor major forest fires were attributed to them.
In 1940, Jeannette Rankin was again elected to Congress. In 1941, as she had in 1917, she voted against the United States' declaration of war after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Hers was the only vote against the war, and in the wake of public outcry over her vote, Rankin required police protection for a time. Other pacifists tended to be those from "peace churches" who generally opposed war. Many individuals claiming conscientious objector status from throughout the U.S. were sent to Montana during the war as smokejumpers and for other forest fire-fighting duties.
During World War II, the planned battleship USS Montana was named in honor of the state. However, the battleship was never completed. Montana is the only one of the first 48 states lacking a completed battleship being named for it. Alaska and Hawaii have both had nuclear submarines named after them. Montana is the only state in the union without a modern naval ship named in its honor. However, in August 2007 Senator Jon Tester made a request to the Navy that a submarine be christened USS Montana. Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced on September 3, 2015 that Virginia Class attack Submarine SSN-794 will bear the state's namesake. This will be the second commissioned warship to bear the name Montana.
Cold War Montana
In the post-World War II Cold War era, Montana became host to U.S. Air Force Military Air Transport Service (1947) for airlift training in C-54 Skymasters and eventually, in 1953 Strategic Air Command air and missile forces were based at Malmstrom Air Force Base in Great Falls. The base also hosted the 29th Fighter Interceptor Squadron, Air Defense Command from 1953 to 1968. In December 1959, Malmstrom AFB was selected as the home of the new Minuteman I ballistic missile. The first operational missiles were in-place and ready in early 1962. In late 1962 missiles assigned to the 341st Strategic Missile Wing would play a major role in the Cuban Missile Crisis. When the Soviets removed their missiles from Cuba, President John F. Kennedy said the Soviets backed down because they knew he had an "Ace in the Hole," referring directly to the Minuteman missiles in Montana. Montana eventually became home to the largest ICBM field in the U.S. covering 23,500 square miles (61,000 km2).
The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Montana was 1,032,949 on July 1, 2015, a 4.40% increase since the 2010 United States Census. The 2010 census put Montana's population at 989,415 which is an increase of 43,534 people, or 4.40 percent, since 2010. During the first decade of the new century, growth was mainly concentrated in Montana's seven largest counties, with the highest percentage growth in Gallatin County, which saw a 32 percent increase in its population from 2000-2010. The city seeing the largest percentage growth was Kalispell with 40.1 percent, and the city with the largest increase in actual residents was Billings with an increase in population of 14,323 from 2000-2010.
On January 3, 2012, the Census and Economic Information Center (CEIC) at the Montana Department of Commerce estimated Montana had hit the one million population mark sometime between November and December 2011. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Montana was 1,005,141 on July 1, 2012, a 1.6 percent increase since the 2010 United States Census.
According to the 2010 Census, 89.4 percent of the population was White (87.8 percent Non-Hispanic White), 6.3 percent American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.9 percent Hispanics and Latinos of any race, 0.6 percent Asian, 0.4 percent Black or African American, 0.1 percent Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 0.6 percent from Some Other Race, and 2.5 percent from two or more races. The largest European ancestry groups in Montana as of 2010 are: German (27.0 percent), Irish (14.8 percent), English (12.6 percent), Norwegian (10.9 percent), French (4.7 percent) and Italian (3.4 percent).
| Native Hawaiian and|
other Pacific Islander
|Two or more races||-||1.7%||2.5%|
English is the official language in the state of Montana, as it is in many U.S. states. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 94.8 percent of the population aged 5 and older speak English at home. Spanish is the language most commonly spoken at home other than English. There were about 13,040 Spanish-language speakers in the state (1.4 percent of the population) in 2011. There were also 15,438 (1.7 percent of the state population) speakers of Indo-European languages other than English or Spanish, 10,154 (1.1 percent) speakers of a Native American language, and 4,052 (0.4 percent) speakers of an Asian or Pacific Islander language. Other languages spoken in Montana (as of 2013) include Assiniboine (about 150 speakers in the Montana and Canada), Blackfoot (about 100 speakers), Cheyenne (about 1,700 speakers), Plains Cree (about 100 speakers), Crow (about 3,000 speakers), Dakota (about 18,800 speakers in Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota), German Hutterite (about 5,600 speakers), Gros Ventre (about 10 speakers), Kalispel-Pend d'Oreille (about 64 speakers), Kutenai (about 6 speakers), and Lakota (about 6,000 speakers in Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota). The United States Department of Education estimated in 2009 that 5,274 students in Montana spoke a language at home other than English. These included a Native American language (64 percent), German (4 percent), Spanish (3 percent), Russian (1 percent), and Chinese (less than 0.5 percent).
|Language|| Percentage of population|
(as of 2000)
|French and Crow (tied)||0.4%|
|Scandinavian languages (including Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish)||0.2%|
|Italian, Japanese, Russian, Native American languages (other than Crow; significantly Cheyenne), Slavic languages (including Czech, Slovak, and Ukrainian) (tied)||0.1%|
Montana has a larger Native American population numerically and percentage-wise than most U.S. states. Although the state ranked 45th in population (according to the 2010 U.S. Census), it ranked 19th in total native people population. Native people constituted 6.5 percent of the state's total population, the sixth highest percentage of all 50 states. Montana has three counties in which Native Americans are a majority: Big Horn, Glacier, and Roosevelt. Other counties with large Native American populations include Blaine, Cascade, Hill, Missoula, and Yellowstone counties. The state's Native American population grew by 27.9 percent between 1980 and 1990 (at a time when Montana's entire population rose just 1.6 percent), and by 18.5 percent between 2000 and 2010. As of 2009, almost two-thirds of Native Americans in the state live in urban areas. Of Montana's 20 largest cities, Polson (15.7 percent), Havre (13.0 percent), Great Falls (5.0 percent), Billings (4.4 percent), and Anaconda (3.1 percent) had the greatest percentage of Native American residents in 2010. Billings (4,619), Great Falls (2,942), Missoula (1,838), Havre (1,210), and Polson (706) have the most Native Americans living there. The state's seven reservations include more than twelve distinct Native American ethnolinguistic groups.
While the largest European-American population in Montana overall is German, pockets of significant Scandinavian ancestry are prevalent in some of the farming-dominated northern and eastern prairie regions, parallel to nearby regions of North Dakota and Minnesota. Farmers of Irish, Scots, and English roots also settled in Montana. The historically mining-oriented communities of western Montana such as Butte have a wider range of European-American ethnicity; Finns, Eastern Europeans and especially Irish settlers left an indelible mark on the area, as well as people originally from British mining regions such as Cornwall, Devon and Wales. The nearby city of Helena, also founded as a mining camp, had a similar mix in addition to a small Chinatown. Many of Montana's historic logging communities originally attracted people of Scottish, Scandinavian, Slavic, English and Scots-Irish descent.
The Hutterites, an Anabaptist sect originally from Switzerland, settled here, and today Montana is second only to South Dakota in U.S. Hutterite population with several colonies spread across the state. Beginning in the mid-1990s, the state also saw an influx of Amish, who relocated to Montana from the increasingly urbanized areas of Ohio and Pennsylvania.
Montana's Hispanic population is concentrated around the Billings area in south-central Montana, where many of Montana's Mexican-Americans have been in the state for generations. Great Falls has the highest percentage of African-Americans in its population, although Billings has more African American residents than Great Falls.
The Chinese in Montana, while a low percentage today, have historically been an important presence. About 2000–3000 Chinese miners were in the mining areas of Montana by 1870, and 2500 in 1890. However, public opinion grew increasingly negative toward them in the 1890s and nearly half of the state's Asian population left the state by 1900. Today, there is a significant Hmong population centered in the vicinity of Missoula. Montanans who claim Filipino ancestry amount to almost 3,000, making them currently the largest Asian American group in the state.
According to the Pew Forum, the religious affiliations of the people of Montana are as follows: Protestant 47%, Catholic 23%, LDS (Mormon) 5%, Jehovah's Witness 2%, Buddhist 1%, Jewish 0.5%, Muslim 0.5%, Hindu 0.5% and Non-Religious at 20%.
The largest denominations in Montana as of 2010 were the Catholic Church with 127,612 adherents, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 46,484 adherents, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 38,665 adherents, and non-denominational Evangelical Protestant with 27,370 adherents.
Native American population
Approximately 66,000 people of Native American heritage live in Montana. Stemming from multiple treaties and federal legislation, including the Indian Appropriations Act (1851), the Dawes Act (1887), and the Indian Reorganization Act (1934), seven Indian reservations, encompassing eleven federally recognized tribal nations, were created in Montana. A twelfth nation, the Little Shell Chippewa is a "landless" people headquartered in Great Falls; it is recognized by the state of Montana but not by the U.S. government. The Blackfeet nation is headquartered on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation (1851) in Browning, Crow on the Crow Indian Reservation (1851) in Crow Agency, Confederated Salish and Kootenai and Pend d'Oreille on the Flathead Indian Reservation (1855) in Pablo, Northern Cheyenne on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation (1884) at Lame Deer, Assiniboine and Gros Ventre on the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation (1888) in Fort Belknap Agency, Assiniboine and Sioux on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation (1888) at Poplar, and Chippewa-Cree on the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation (1916) near Box Elder. Approximately 63% of all Native people live off the reservations, concentrated in the larger Montana cities, with the largest concentration of urban Indians in Great Falls. The state also has a small Métis population, and 1990 census data indicated that people from as many as 275 different tribes lived in Montana.
Montana's Constitution specifically reads that "the state recognizes the distinct and unique cultural heritage of the American Indians and is committed in its educational goals to the preservation of their cultural integrity." It is the only state in the U.S. with such a constitutional mandate. The Indian Education for All Act (IEFA) was passed in 1999 to provide funding for this mandate and ensure implementation. It mandates that all schools teach American Indian history, culture, and heritage from preschool through college. For kindergarten through 12th-grade students, an "Indian Education for All" curriculum from the Montana Office of Public Instruction is available free to all schools. The state was sued in 2004 because of lack of funding, and the state has increased its support of the program. South Dakota passed similar legislation in 2007, and Wisconsin was working to strengthen its own program based on this model - and the current practices of Montana's schools. Each Indian reservation in the state has a fully accredited tribal colleges. The University of Montana "was the first to establish dual admission agreements with all of the tribal colleges and as such it was the first institution in the nation to actively facilitate student transfer from the tribal colleges"
The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Montana's total state product in 2014 was $44.3 billion. Per capita personal income in 2014 was $40,601, 35th in the nation.
Montana is a relative hub of beer microbrewing, ranking third in the nation in number of craft breweries per capita in 2011. There are significant industries for lumber and mineral extraction; the state's resources include gold, coal, silver, talc, and vermiculite. Ecotaxes on resource extraction are numerous. A 1974 state severance tax on coal (which varied from 20 to 30 percent) was upheld by the Supreme Court of the United States in Commonwealth Edison Co. v. Montana, 453 U.S. 609 (1981).
Tourism is also important to the economy with over ten million visitors a year to Glacier National Park, Flathead Lake, the Missouri River headwaters, the site of the Battle of Little Bighorn and three of the five entrances to Yellowstone National Park.
Montana's personal income tax contains 7 brackets, with rates ranging from 1 percent to 6.9 percent. Montana has no sales tax. In Montana, household goods are exempt from property taxes. However, property taxes are assessed on livestock, farm machinery, heavy equipment, automobiles, trucks, and business equipment. The amount of property tax owed is not determined solely by the property's value. The property's value is multiplied by a tax rate, set by the Montana Legislature, to determine its taxable value. The taxable value is then multiplied by the mill levy established by various taxing jurisdictions—city and county government, school districts and others.
Many well-known artists, photographers and authors have documented the land, culture and people of Montana in the last 100 years. Painter and sculptor Charles Marion Russell, known as "the cowboy artist" created more than 2,000 paintings of cowboys, Native Americans, and landscapes set in the Western United States and in Alberta, Canada. The C. M. Russell Museum Complex located in Great Falls, Montana houses more than 2,000 Russell artworks, personal objects, and artifacts.
Evelyn Cameron, a naturalist and photographer from Terry documented early 20th century life on the Montana prairie, taking startlingly clear pictures of everything around her: cowboys, sheepherders, weddings, river crossings, freight wagons, people working, badlands, eagles, coyotes and wolves.
Many notable Montana authors have documented or been inspired by life in Montana in both fiction and non-fiction works. Pulitzer Prize winner Wallace Earle Stegner from Great Falls was often called "The Dean of Western Writers". James Willard Schultz ("Apikuni") from Browning is most noted for his prolific stories about Blackfeet life and his contributions to the naming of prominent features in Glacier National Park.
Major cultural events
Montana hosts numerous arts and cultural festivals and events every year. Major events include:
- Bozeman was once known as the "Sweet Pea capital of the nation" referencing the prolific edible pea crop. To promote the area and celebrate its prosperity, local business owners began a "Sweet Pea Carnival" that included a parade and queen contest. The annual event lasted from 1906 to 1916. Promoters used the inedible but fragrant and colorful sweet pea flower as an emblem of the celebration. In 1977 the "Sweet Pea" concept was revived as an arts festival rather than a harvest celebration, growing into a three-day event that is one of the largest festivals in Montana.
- Montana Shakespeare in the Parks has been performing free, live theatrical productions of Shakespeare and other classics throughout Montana since 1973. The Montana Shakespeare Company is based in Helena.
- Since 1909, the Crow Fair and Rodeo, near Hardin, has been an annual event every August in Crow Agency and is currently the largest Northern Native American gathering, attracting nearly 45,000 spectators and participants. Since 1952, North American Indian Days has been held every July in Browning.
- Lame Deer hosts the annual Northern Cheyenne Powwow.
Colleges and universities
The Montana University System consists of:
Tribal colleges in Montana include:
There are three private, non-profit colleges in Montana:
The Montana Territory was formed on April 26, 1864, when the U.S. passed the Organic Act. Schools started forming in the area before it was officially a territory as families started settling into the area. The first schools were subscription schools that typically held in the teacher's home. The first formal school on record was at Fort Owen in Bitterroot valley in 1862. The students were Indian children and the children of Fort Owen employees. The first school term started in early winter and only lasted until February 28. Classes were taught by Mr. Robinson. Another early subscription school was started by Thomas Dimsdale in Virginia City in 1863. In this school students were charged $1.75 per week. The Montana Territorial Legislative Assembly had its inaugural meeting in 1864. The first legislature authorized counties to levy taxes for schools, which set the foundations for public schooling. Madison County was the first to take advantage of the newly authorized taxes and it formed fhe first public school in Virginia City in 1886. The first school year was scheduled to begin in January 1866, but severe weather postponed its opening until March. The first school year ran through the summer and didn't end until August 17. One of the first teachers at the school was Sarah Raymond. She was a 25-year-old woman who had traveled to Virginia City via wagon train in 1865. To become a certified teacher, Raymond took a test in her home and paid a $6 fee in gold dust to obtain a teaching certificate. With the help of an assistant teacher, Mrs. Farley, Raymond was responsible for teaching 50 to 60 students each day out of the 81 students enrolled at the school. Sarah Raymond was paid at a rate of $125 per month, and Mrs. Farley was paid $75 per month. There were no textbooks used in the school. In their place was an assortment of books brought in by various emigrants. Sarah quit teaching the following year, but would later become the Madison County superintendent of schools.
There are no major league sports franchises in Montana due to the state's relatively small and dispersed population, but a number of minor league teams play in the state. Baseball is the minor-league sport with the longest heritage in the state, and Montana is currently home to four Minor League Baseball teams, all members of the Pioneer Baseball League: Billings Mustangs, Great Falls Voyagers, Helena Brewers, and Missoula Osprey.
All of Montana's four-year colleges and universities field intercollegiate sports teams. The two largest schools, the University of Montana and Montana State University, are members of the Big Sky Conference and have enjoyed a strong athletic rivalry since the early twentieth century. Six of Montana's smaller four-year schools are members of the Frontier Conference. One is a member of the Great Northwest Athletic Conference.
A variety of sports are offered at Montana high schools. Montana allows the smallest—"Class C"—high schools to utilize six-man football teams, dramatized in the independent 2002 film, The Slaughter Rule.
There are junior ice hockey teams in Montana, five of which are affiliated with the North American 3 Hockey League: Billings Bulls, Bozeman Icedogs, Glacier Nationals, Great Falls Americans, and Helena Bighorns. Others are in the Western States Hockey League: Butte Cobras and the Whitefish Wolverines.
- Ski jumping champion and United States Skiing Hall of Fame inductee Casper Oimoen was captain of the U.S. Olympic team at the 1936 Winter Olympics while he was a resident of Anaconda. He placed thirteenth that year, and had previously finished fifth at the 1932 Winter Olympics.
- Montana has produced two U.S. champions and Olympic competitors in men's figure skating, both from Great Falls: John Misha Petkevich, lived and trained in Montana before entering college, competed in the 1968 and 1972 Winter Olympics. Scott Davis, also from Great Falls, competed at the 1994 Winter Olympics
- Missoulian Tommy Moe won Olympic gold and silver medals at the 1994 Winter Olympics in downhill skiing and super G, the first American skier to win two medals at any Winter Olympics.
- Eric Bergoust, also of Missoula, won an Olympic gold medal in freestyle aerial skiing at the 1998 Winter Olympics, also competing in 1994, 2002 and 2006 Olympics plus winning 13 World Cup titles.
Montanans have been a part of several major sporting achievements:
- In 1889, Spokane became the first and only Montana horse to win the Kentucky Derby. For this accomplishment, the horse was admitted to the Montana Cowboy Hall of Fame in 2008.
- In 1904 a basketball team of young Native American women from Fort Shaw, after playing undefeated during their previous season, went to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition held in St. Louis in 1904, defeated all challenging teams and were declared to be world champions.
- In 1923, the controversial Jack Dempsey vs. Tommy Gibbons fight for the heavyweight boxing championship, won by Dempsey, took place in Shelby.
Montana provides year-round recreation opportunities for residents and visitors. Hiking, fishing, hunting, watercraft recreation, camping, golf, cycling, horseback riding, and skiing are popular activities.
Fishing and hunting
Montana has been a destination for its world-class trout fisheries since the 1930s. Fly fishing for several species of native and introduced trout in rivers and lakes is popular for both residents and tourists throughout the state. Montana is the home of the Federation of Fly Fishers and hosts many of the organizations annual conclaves. The state has robust recreational lake trout and kokanee salmon fisheries in the west, walleye can be found in many parts of the state, while northern pike, smallmouth and largemouth bass fisheries as well as catfish and paddlefish can be found in the waters of eastern Montana. Robert Redford's 1992 film of Norman Mclean's novel, A River Runs Through It, was filmed in Montana and brought national attention to fly fishing and the state.
Montana is home to the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation and has a historic big game hunting tradition. There are fall bow and general hunting seasons for elk, pronghorn antelope, whitetail deer and mule deer. A random draw grants a limited number of permits for moose, mountain goats and bighorn sheep. There is a spring hunting season for black bear and in most years, limited hunting of bison that leave Yellowstone National Park is allowed. Current law allows both hunting and trapping of a specific number of wolves and mountain lions. Trapping of assorted fur bearing animals is allowed in certain seasons and many opportunities exist for migratory waterfowl and upland bird hunting.
- Bear Paw Ski Bowl near Havre, Montana
- Big Sky Resort, at Big Sky
- Blacktail Mountain near Lakeside
- Bridger Bowl Ski Area near Bozeman
- Discovery Basin between Philipsburg and Anaconda
- Great Divide near Helena, Montana
- Lookout Pass off Interstate 90 at the Montana-Idaho border
- Lost Trail near Darby, Montana
- Maverick Mountain near Dillon, Montana
- Moonlight Basin near Big Sky
- Red Lodge Mountain Resort near Red Lodge
- Showdown Ski Area near White Sulphur Springs, Montana
- Snowbowl Ski Area near Missoula
- Teton Pass Ski Area near Choteau
- Turner Mountain Ski Resort near Libby
- Whitefish Mountain Resort near Whitefish
Big Sky, Moonlight Basin, Red Lodge, and Whitefish Mountain are destination resorts, while the remaining areas do not have overnight lodging at the ski area, though several host restaurants and other amenities. These day-use resorts partner with local lodging businesses to offer ski and lodging packages.
Montana also has millions of acres open to cross-country skiing on nine of its national forests plus in Glacier National Park. In addition to cross-country trails at most of the downhill ski areas, there are also 13 private cross-country skiing resorts. Yellowstone National Park also allows cross-country skiing.
Snowmobiling is popular in Montana which boasts over 4000 miles of trails and frozen lakes available in winter. There are 24 areas where snowmobile trails are maintained, most also offering ungroomed trails. West Yellowstone offers a large selection of trails and is the primary starting point for snowmobile trips into Yellowstone National Park, where "oversnow" vehicle use is strictly limited, usually to guided tours, and regulations are in considerable flux.
Snow coach tours are offered at Big Sky, Whitefish, West Yellowstone and into Yellowstone National Park. Equestrian skijoring has a niche in Montana, which hosts the World Skijoring Championships in Whitefish as part of the annual Whitefish Winter Carnival.
Montana does not have a Trauma I hospital, but does have Trauma II hospitals in Missoula, Billings, and Great Falls. In 2013 AARP The Magazine named the Billings Clinic one of the safest hospitals in the United States. Montana is ranked as the least obese state in the U.S., at 19.6%, according to the 2014 Gallup Poll.
As of 2010, Missoula is the 166th largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research, while Billings is 170th, Great Falls is 190th, the Butte-Bozeman area 191st, and Helena is 206th. There are 25 television stations in Montana, representing each major U.S. network. As of August 2013, there are 527 FCC-licensed FM radio stations broadcast in Montana, with 114 such AM stations.
During the age of the Copper Kings, each Montana copper company had its own newspaper. This changed in 1959 when Lee Enterprises bought several Montana newspapers. Montana's largest circulating daily city newspapers are the Billings Gazette (circulation 39,405), Great Falls Tribune (26,733), and Missoulian (25,439).
Railroads have been an important method of transportation in Montana since the 1880s. Historically, the state was traversed by the main lines of three east-west transcontinental routes: the Milwaukee Road, the Great Northern, and the Northern Pacific. Today, the BNSF Railway is the state's largest railroad, its main transcontinental route incorporating the former Great Northern main line across the state. Montana RailLink, a privately held Class II railroad, operates former Northern Pacific trackage in western Montana.
In addition, Amtrak's Empire Builder train runs through the north of the state, stopping in Libby, Whitefish, West Glacier, Essex, East Glacier Park, Browning, Cut Bank, Shelby, Havre, Malta, Glasgow, and Wolf Point.
Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport is the busiest airport in the state of Montana, surpassing Billings Logan International Airport in the spring of 2013. Montana's other major Airports include Billings Logan International Airport, Missoula International Airport, Great Falls International Airport, Glacier Park International Airport, Helena Regional Airport, Bert Mooney Airport and Yellowstone Airport. Eight smaller communities have airports designated for commercial service under the Essential Air Service program.
Historically, U.S. Route 10 was the primary east-west highway route across Montana, connecting the major cities in the southern half of the state. Still the state's most important east-west travel corridor, the route is today served by Interstate 90 and Interstate 94 which roughly follow the same route as the Northern Pacific. U.S. Routes 2 and 12 and Montana Highway 200 also traverse the entire state from east to west.
Montana's only north-south Interstate Highway is Interstate 15. Other major north-south highways include U.S. Routes 87, 89, 93 and 191. Interstate 25 terminates into I-90 just south of the Montana border in Wyoming.
Montana and South Dakota are the only states to share a land border which is not traversed by a paved road. Highway 212, the primary paved route between the two, passes through the northeast corner of Wyoming between Montana and South Dakota.
Law and government
The current Governor is Steve Bullock, a Democrat elected in 2012 and sworn in on January 7, 2013. His predecessor in office was two-term governor, Brian Schweitzer. Montana's two U.S. senators are Jon Tester (Democrat) and Steve Daines (Republican). The state's congressional representative is currently Republican Ryan Zinke.
Politics in the state has been competitive, with the Democrats usually holding an edge, thanks to the support among unionized miners and railroad workers. Large-scale battles revolved around the giant Anaconda Copper company, based in Butte and controlled by Rockefeller interests, until it closed in the 1970s. Until 1959, the company owned five of the state's six largest newspapers.
Historically, Montana is a swing state of cross-ticket voters who tend to fill elected offices with individuals from both parties. Through the mid-20th century, the state had a tradition of "sending the liberals to Washington and the conservatives to Helena." Between 1988 and 2006, the pattern flipped, with voters more likely to elect conservatives to federal offices. There have also been long-term shifts of party control. From 1968 through 1988, the state was dominated by the Democratic Party, with Democratic governors for a 20-year period, and a Democratic majority of both the national congressional delegation and during many sessions of the state legislature. This pattern shifted, beginning with the 1988 election, when Montana elected a Republican governor for the first time since 1964 and sent a Republican to the U.S. Senate for the first time since 1948. This shift continued with the reapportionment of the state's legislative districts that took effect in 1994, when the Republican Party took control of both chambers of the state legislature, consolidating a Republican party dominance that lasted until the 2004 reapportionment produced more swing districts and a brief period of Democratic legislative majorities in the mid-2000s.
In presidential elections, Montana was long classified as a swing state, though the state has voted for the Republican candidate in all but two elections from 1952 to the present. The state last supported a Democrat for president in 1992, when Bill Clinton won a plurality victory. Overall, since 1889 the state has voted for Democratic governors 60 percent of the time and Democratic presidents 40 percent of the time, with these numbers being 40/60 for Republican candidates. In the 2008 presidential election, Montana was considered a swing state and was ultimately won by Republican John McCain, albeit by a narrow margin of two percent.
However, at the state level, the pattern of split ticket voting and divided government holds. Democrats currently hold one of the state's U.S. Senate seats, as well as four of the five statewide offices (Governor, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Secretary of State and State Auditor). The lone congressional district has been Republican since 1996 and in 2014 Steve Daines won one of the state's Senate seats for the GOP. The Legislative branch had split party control between the house and senate most years between 2004 and 2010, when the mid-term elections returned both branches to Republican control. The state Senate is, as of 2015, controlled by the Republicans 29 to 21, and the State House of Representatives at 59 to 41.
Montana currently has only one representative in the U.S. House, having lost its second district in the 1990 census reapportionment. Montana's single congressional district holds the largest population of any district in the country, which means its one member in the House of Representatives represents more people than any other member of the U.S. House (see List of U.S. states by population). Montana's population grew at about the national average during the 2000s, and it failed to regain its second seat in 2010. Like other states, Montana has two senators.
An October 2013 Montana State University Billings survey found that 46.6 percent of Montana voters supported the legalization of same-sex marriage, while 42.6 percent opposed it and 10.8 percent were not sure.
Cities and towns
Montana has 56 counties with the United States Census Bureau stating Montana's contains 364 "places", broken down into 129 incorporated places and 235 census-designated places. Incorporated places consist of 52 cities, 75 towns, and two consolidated city-counties. Montana has one city, Billings, with a population over 100,000; and two cities with populations over 50,000, Missoula and Great Falls. These three communities are considered the centers of Montana's three Metropolitan Statistical Areas.
The state also has five Micropolitan Statistical Areas centered on Bozeman, Butte, Helena, Kalispell and Havre. These communities, excluding Havre, are colloquially known as the "big 7" Montana cities, as they are consistently the seven largest communities in Montana, with a significant population difference when these communities are compared to those that are 8th and lower on the list. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the population of Montana's seven most populous cities, in rank order, are Billings, Missoula, Great Falls, Bozeman, Butte, Helena and Kalispell. Based on 2013 census numbers, they collectively contain 35 percent of Montana's population. and the counties containing these communities hold 62 percent of the state's population. The geographic center of population of Montana is located in sparsely populated Meagher County, in the town of White Sulphur Springs.
Montana's motto, Oro y Plata, Spanish for "Gold and Silver", recognizing the significant role of mining, was first adopted in 1865, when Montana was still a territory. A state seal with a miner's pick and shovel above the motto, surrounded by the mountains and the Great Falls of the Missouri River, was adopted during the first meeting of the territorial legislature in 1864–65. The design was only slightly modified after Montana became a state and adopted it as the Great Seal of the State of Montana, enacted by the legislature in 1893. The state flower, the bitterroot, was adopted in 1895 with the support of a group called the Floral Emblem Association, which formed after Montana's Women's Christian Temperance Union adopted the bitterroot as the organization's state flower. All other symbols were adopted throughout the 20th century, save for Montana's newest symbol, the state butterfly, the mourning cloak, adopted in 2001, and the state lullaby, "Montana Lullaby", adopted in 2007.
The state song was not composed until 21 years after statehood, when a musical troupe led by Joseph E. Howard stopped in Butte in September 1910. A former member of the troupe who lived in Butte buttonholed Howard at an after-show party, asking him to compose a song about Montana and got another partygoer, the city editor for the Butte Miner newspaper, Charles C. Cohan, to help. The two men worked up a basic melody and lyrics in about a half-hour for the entertainment of party guests, then finished the song later that evening, with an arrangement worked up the following day. Upon arriving in Helena, Howard's troupe performed 12 encores of the new song to an enthusiastic audience and the governor proclaimed it the state song on the spot, though formal legislative recognition did not occur until 1945. Montana is one of only three states to have a "state ballad", "Montana Melody", chosen by the legislature in 1983. Montana was the first state to also adopt a State Lullaby.
Montana schoolchildren played a significant role in selecting several state symbols. The state tree, the ponderosa pine, was selected by Montana schoolchildren as the preferred state tree by an overwhelming majority in a referendum held in 1908. However, the legislature did not designate a state tree until 1949, when the Montana Federation of Garden Clubs, with the support of the state forester, lobbied for formal recognition. Schoolchildren also chose the western meadowlark as the state bird, in a 1930 vote, and the legislature acted to endorse this decision in 1931. Similarly, the secretary of state sponsored a children's vote in 1981 to choose a state animal, and after 74 animals were nominated, the grizzly bear won over the elk by a 2–1 margin. The students of Livingston started a statewide school petition drive plus lobbied the governor and the state legislature to name the Maiasaura as the state fossil in 1985.
Various community civic groups also played a role in selecting the state grass and the state gemstones. When broadcaster Norma Ashby discovered there was no state fish, she initiated a drive via her television show, Today in Montana, and an informal citizen's election to select a state fish resulted in a win for the blackspotted cutthroat trout after hot competition from the Arctic grayling. The legislature in turn adopted this recommendation by a wide margin.
|State animal||Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis)||1983|
|State bird||Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)||1931|
|State butterfly||Mourning cloak (Nymphalis antiopa)||2001|
|State fish||Blackspotted cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii)||1977|
|State flower||Bitterroot (Lewisia rediviva)||1895|
|State fossil||Duck-billed dinosaur (Maiasaura peeblesorum)||1985|
|State gemstones||Sapphire and agate||1969|
|State grass||Bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata)||1973|
|State motto||"Oro y Plata" (Spanish for "Gold and Silver")||1865|
|State tree||Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)||1949|
- "United States Summary: 2010, Population and Housing Unit Counts, 2010 Census of Population and Housing" (PDF) (PDF). United States Census Bureau. September 2012. p. 41 (Table 18). Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- Census Estimate 2015.
- National Geodetic Survey 2008.
- Geological Survey 2001.
- Montana Code 2011.
- Robbins, J. 2008.
- Holding 2010, p. 81.
- Beaver 2006, p. 2.
- Economic Sectors 2013.
- Department of Labor 2013.
- Billings Gazette 2009.
- Montana Historical Society (1910). Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana. Rocky Mountain Publishing Company. pp. 47–.
- Malone, Roeder & Lang 1991, pp. 95–96.
- Sanders 1910, pp. 15–60.
- Library of Congress 1864.
- Kugler 2013, p. 44.
- Anderson 2012, p. 4.
- State Records 2012.
- Malone, Roeder & Lang 1991, p. 6.
- Madej & Jones 2007.
- Elias 2002, p. 55.
- Graetz & Clemenz 1984, p. 59.
- Aarstad et al. 2009, p. 58.
- Malone, Roeder & Lang 1991, p. 6–7.
- Cooper 2009, p. 11.
- Cooper 2009, p. 45.
- Merrill-Maker 2006, pp. 57–63.
- Kudray & Cooper 2006, p. 1.
- Ross 1959, p. 10.
- Enright 2010, p. xxiii.
- Temple 2008, p. 493.
- Ross 1959, p. 8.
- Canadian Council for Geographic Education 2013.
- Burger 2004, pp. 10–11.
- Cunningham 1990, p. 77.
- Montana State Library 2013.
- Florence, Nystrom & Gierlich 2001, pp. 506–507.
- Florence, Nystrom & Gierlich 2001, pp. 501–502.
- Florence, Nystrom & Gierlich 2001, pp. 575–577.
- Malone, Roeder & Lang 1991, p. 357.
- Peterson 2012, p. 24.
- Florence, Nystrom & Gierlich 2001, pp. 579–580.
- Merrill-Maker 2006, p. 50.
- Fletcher et al. 2008, p. 93.
- Vasapolli 2003, p. 16.
- United States Forest Service 2007, p. 207.
- Merrill-Maker 2006, p. 58.
- Mining and Scientific Press 1899, p. 408.
- Jewell & McRae 2012, p. 439.
- Ballard 2008, pp. 92–94.
- Merrill-Maker 2006, pp. 49.
- Fisher 1908, pp. 23–24.
- Soil Conservation Service 1953, pp. 4.
- Soil Conservation Service 1953, pp. 7–8.
- Soil Conservation Service 1953, pp. 8.
- Soil Conservation Service 1953, pp. 10–11.
- Soil Conservation Service 1953, pp. 11.
- Montana Outdoors 2002.
- Archibald 1997, p. 223.
- Newsmakers-Jack Horner 2013.
- Geological Survey—search 2013.
- Therriault 2010, p. 93.
- Fischer & Fischer 2008, p. 2.
- Naiman, Décamps & McClain 2005, p. 4.
- Diamond 2006, p. 38.
- Geographical Dictionary Of The World 1900, p. 423.
- Palmer 1998, p. 168.
- Palmer 1998, p. 168–169.
- Waterbody Report-Clark Fork River 2013.
- Waterbody Report-Kootenai River 2013.
- Huser 2004, p. 85.
- Moody, Chase & Aronson 1986, p. 310.
- Florence, Nystrom & Gierlich 2001, p. 597.
- Matzko 2001, p. 27.
- Huser 2004, pp. 84–85.
- Malone, Roeder & Lang 1991, p. 80.
- Robbins, C. 2008, p. 331.
- Hellmann 2013, pp. 650, 653–654, 659.
- Parry 2001, p. 216.
- Fish and Wildlife Service 2001.
- Paddling Montana 2000.
- Waterbody Report-Smith River 2013.
- Waterbody Report-Milk River 2013.
- Waterbody Report-Marias River 2013.
- Waterbody Report-Judith River 2013.
- Waterbody Report-Musselshell River 2013.
- Finnerty 2011, pp. 42–43.
- National Atlas 2013.
- Waterbody Report-Boulder River 2013.
- Waterbody Report-Stillwater River 2013.
- Waterbody Report-Clarks Fork Yellowstone River 2013.
- Waterbody Report-Bighorn River 2013.
- Waterbody Report-Tongue River 2013.
- Waterbody Report-Powder River 2013.
- Fort Peck Dam 2013.
- Montana Field Guide-Lichens 2013.
- Montana Field Guide-Amphibians 2013.
- Montana Field Guide-Fish 2013.
- Montana Field Guide-Mammals 2013.
- Montana Field Guide-Reptiles 2013.
- Montana Audubon 2008.
- Kaush & Thompson, Jr. 2012, p. 258.
- Fish and Wildlife Service 2013.
- Montana Fishing Regulations 2013.
- Montana Hunting Season 2013.
- Montana Interagency Access Council 2001.
- National Park Service 2013.
- Western Regional Climate Center 2013.
- Animal Range and Sciences 2013.
- Montana Office of Tourism—FAQ 2013.
- Climate Information 2007.
- Horvitz et al. 2002.
- McKee 2007.
- United States Geological Survey 2012.
- National Climate Data Center 2007.
- Backus 2005.
- Backus 2007.
- Bentz, Barbara J.; et al. (2010). "Climate Change and Bark Beetles of the Western United States and Canada: Direct and Indirect Effects". BioScience. 60 (8): 602–613. doi:10.1525/bio.2010.60.8.6.
- Billings Gazette—Forecast 2009.
- Spracklen et al. 2009.
- "Montana climate averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- Peakbagger 2012.
- Holmes 2009-5.
- Montana Catholic 2010.
- National Historic Landmark Program 2013.
- Kittredge & Krauzer 1986, pp. 14–23.
- Malone, Roeder & Lang 1976, pp. 92–113.
- Montana's Museum 2007.
- Hellgate Treaty 1855.
- Montana Office of Public Instruction 2010.
- Holmes 2009-7, pp. 123–146.
- Malone, Roeder & Lang 1976, pp. 114–144.
- Malone, Roeder & Lang 1976, pp. 145–171.
- Bergman 2004.
- Fish and Wildlife Service—Bison 2013.
- National Park Service-Grant-Kohrs 2013.
- Schontzler 2011.
- Ultimate Montana 2010.
- Montana Historical Society 2013.
- Milner II & O'Connor 2009, pp. 161–184.
- Grant-Kohrs Ranch 2013.
- Lubetkin 2006, pp. xv–xviii.
- Great Northern Railway 2013.
- Union Pacific Railroad 2013.
- Malone, Roeder & Lang 1976, pp. 172–200.
- Fanselow 2007, pp. 170–171.
- Holmes 2009–13, p. 253.
- Lux 1964, pp. 333–348.
- Toole1 1959, p. 228.
- Toole1 1959, pp. 223–224.
- Holmes 2009–13, p. 254.
- Holmes 2009–13, p. 255.
- Holmes 2009–13, p. 256–258.
- Howard 1959, p. 181.
- Stuart 1913, pp. 133–137.
- Toole1 1959, p. 229.
- Holmes 2009–13, p. 261.
- Toole1 1959, pp. 229–230.
- Libecap & Hansen 2002, pp. 86–120.
- Extension Service 2013.
- Toole1 1959, p. 230.
- Holmes 2009–13, p. 259.
- Montana Historical Society—WWI 2013.
- Howard 1959, pp. 202–203.
- History Channel 2013.
- University of Montana 2005.
- Montana Sedition Project 2013.
- Butte-Anaconda Historic District 2006, p. 18.
- Murphy 1980.
- New York Times 1917.
- Foner 1987, p. 289.
- Brief History of Montana 2013.
- McDean 1986, pp. 117–126.
- Montana Historical Society-WWII 2013.
- Werner & Welply 2006, pp. 5, 10, 66.
- Tester 2007.
- News, Aja Goare - MTN. "U.S. Navy submarine will be named U.S.S. Montana". Retrieved September 4, 2015.
- Malmstrom 2013.
- Census Bureau 2010.
- "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. December 26, 2015. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
- KRTV 2010.
- Census Viewer 2013.
- University of Montana, Bureau of Business and Economic Research 2011.
- Gravlee 2012.
- Census Estimate 2012.
- Census Bureau 2010a.
- Brittingham & de la Cruz 2004, p. 6.
- Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States
- Population of Montana: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts
- 2010 Census Data
- Modern Language Association 2007.
- Census Bureau 2011.
- Lewis, Simons & Fennig 2013.
- Ballantye & Rasmussen 2011, p. 10.
- "Montana - Languages". city-data.com. city-data.com. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- Cheyenne | Ethnologue
- Census Bureau-Annual Estimates of Race 2012.
- Rural Policy Research Institute 2006, p. 4.
- Montana Office of Public Instruction 2009, p. 64.
- Norris, Vines & Hoeffel 2012.
- Redistricting Data Summary 2011.
- Tode 2004.
- Morris 1997, pp. 113–124.
- Montana Arts Council 2013.
- Religion in America: U.S. Religious Data, Demographics and Statistics | Pew Research Center
- The Association of Religion Data Archives | Maps & Reports
- Montana Office of Public Instruction 2009.
- "Montana Constitution, Article X, section 1". Montana Code Annotated. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Jawort, Adrian (April 12, 2012). "Montana Schools Try to Keep Indian Students Engaged by Teaching Indian Culture to All". Indian Country Today. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- "Native American Center Facts". The University of Montana. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- "Indian Education for All Lesson Plans". Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Bureau of Economic Analysis 2014.
- Brewers Association 2013.
- 453 U.S. 609 (1981)
- Tourism in Montana 2007.
- Department of Revenue 2012.
- Bureau of Labor Stats 2015.
- University of Toronto 2000.
- Montana Travel 2010.
- Boswell 2006.
- Hanna 1988, pp. 95–111.
- Hurlbut & Davis 2009, pp. 179–181.
- Shakespeare in the Parks 2012.
- Lincoln 2012.
- Scandale 2011.
- North American Indian Days 2013.
- Judicial Branch, Montana. "Montana Laws".
- Sievert, Ken and Ellen (August 26, 1993). Virginia City and Alder Gulch. Farcounty Press.
- Malcomson, Jeff. "Legislative History Guide". Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- "Montana Legislature". Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- Briggeman, Kim. "MONTANA HISTORY ALMANAC: First school opens doors in Virginia City". Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- O'Brien, Mary (2003). Days on the Road: Crossing the Plains in 1865, The Diary of Sarah Raymond Herndon. Morris Books Publishing, LLC. pp. 14–16.
- Frotier Conference 2013.
- Great Northwest Athletic Conference 2013.
- Montana High School Association 2013.
- Montana High School Association-Football 2013, pp. 139–141.
- New York Times Movies 2002.
- Dawson, Amelie Trufant (March 27, 2009). "Beef Trail Ski Area: A Montana Original". Montana Living. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- Eriksmoen, Curt (February 23, 2014). "Ski jumper competed in two Olympics". Bismarck Tribune. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- Sports Reference 2013.
- Ottum 1968.
- Ice Network 2012.
- Staff. "Tommy Moe". Bio. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Eric Bergoust". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- Kentucky Derby 2013.
- Montana Cowboy Hall of Fame 2013.
- Peavey & Smith 2008.
- Johnson 1966.
- Montana Outdoor Recreation 2013.
- Schullery 2006a, pp. 31–50.
- Fisheries Management Plan 2013.
- Schullery 2006b, pp. 167–186.
- Montana Hunting Regulations 2012.
- Montana Trapping 2013.
- Winter Montana—Resorts 2010.
- Discovery Ski Area 2013.
- Bridger Bowl 2011.
- Winter Montana—XC 2010.
- National Park Service-Yellowstone 2013.
- Montana Snowmobiling 2013.
- Winter Montana-Snowmobiling 2010.
- Winter Montana-West Yellowstone 2010.
- National Park Service-Yellowstone in Winter 2013.
- Winter Montana-Snowcoaches 2010.
- Whitefish Skijoring 2013.
- Trauma Centers 2013.
- HowardB 2013, pp. 46–50.
- Levy, Jenna. "Gallup Obesity Poll". Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- Nielsen 2010.
- Station Index 2013.
- FCC-FM 2013.
- FCC-AM 2013.
- Lee Enterprises-Newspapers 2013.
- Lee Enterprises-History 2013.
- Mondo Times 2013.
- Bacaj 2013.
- KTVQ 2013.
- Department of Transportation 2012.
- Sites 2012.
- Montana Transportation 2013.
- Women's National History 2013.
- Jeannette Rankin 2011.
- Department of Revenue 2013.
- Work 2005, p. 85.
- Montana Legislature 2012.
- Montana 2012 Election 2013.
- 2008 Election 2008.
- Quora How Many 2015.
- Congressional Delegation 2013.
- 2013 State Poll msubillings.edu
- Census Bureau 2012.
- Core Based Statistical Area 2010.
- Montana Setting 2013.
- Swanson 2004.
- State Symbols 2007.
- State Seal 2013.
- State Flower 2007.
- Ruckman 2007.
- State Song 2007.
- Welcome to America 2013.
- State Tree 2007.
- State Bird 2007.
- State Animal 2007.
- State Fossil 2007.
- State Gemstones 2007.
- State Grass 2007.
- State Fish Code 2011.
- State Fish 2007.
- Archibald, J. David (1997), "I. Extinction, Cretaceous", in Currie, Philip J.; Padian, Kevin, Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs, San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, pp. 221–230, ISBN 0-12-226810-5
- Aarstad, Rich; Arguimbau, Ellen; Baumler, Ellen; Porsild, Charlene (2009). Montana Place Names From Alzada to Zortman. Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-9759196-1-3.
- Anderson, Donald (2012). Gathering Noise From My Life: A Camouflaged Memoir. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press. ISBN 978-1-60938-111-0.
- Avery, Jonathan E.; Siebeneck, Todd P.; Tate, robert P. (July 2011). "Gross Domestic Product by State" (PDF). Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Bacaj, Jason (January 29, 2013). "Billings Logan International Remains Busiest in Montana". Bozeman Daily Chronicle. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Backus, Perry (July 31, 2005). "Beetles Shaping Montana's Forest Lands". The Missoulian. Retrieved April 6, 2013.
- Backus, Perry (February 14, 2007). "Forest Service Finds Varied Beetle Activity". The Missoulan. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- Ballantyne, Keira G.; Rasmussen, Mari B. (February 2011). "Resources for Working With the Indigenous Languages of North America and the Pacific Islands" (PDF). National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition, George Washington University. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- Ballard, Jack (2008). Elk Hunting Montana: Finding Success on the Best Public Lands. Guildford, Conn.: Lyons Press. ISBN 978-1-59921-154-1.
- Beaver, Janice Cheryl (2006). "U.S. International Borders: Brief Facts" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
- Bergman, Brian (February 16, 2004). "Bison Back from Brink of Extinction". Maclean's. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- Boswell, Evelyn (October 5, 2006). "New Stegner Professor to Hit the Ground Running". Montana State University News Service. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- Brittingham, Angela; de la Cruz, G. Patricia (June 2004). "Ancestry 2000 (C2KBR-35)" (PDF). United States Bureau of the Census. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- Burger, H. Robert (2004). "General Geology and Tectonic Settong of the Tobacco Root Mountains. Special Paper 377.". In John Brady; Charles J. Vitaliano; William S. Cordua. Precambrian Geology of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana. Boulder, Colo.: Geological Society of America. pp. 1–14. ISBN 0-8137-2377-9.
- Cooper, Ed (2009). Soul of the Rockies-Portrait of America's Largest Mountain Range. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 978-0-7627-4941-6.
- Cunningham, Bill (1990). Montana Wildlands: From Northwest Peaks to Deadhorse Badlands. Helena, Mont.: Farcountry Press. ISBN 0-938314-93-9.
- "Cyaniding at Gilt Edge, Montana". Mining and Scientific Press. October 7, 1899. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- Diamond, Jared (2006). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-03337-5.
- Elias, Scott (2002). Rocky Mountains. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-58834-042-2.
- Enright, Kelly (2010). America's Natural Places: Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood Press/ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-35314-7.
- Fanselow, Julie (2007). Traveling the Lewis and Clark Trail. Guilford, CT: Falcon Guides. ISBN 978-0-7627-4437-4.
- Finnerty, Jim (2011). A Pleasant Stroll to Everest. Bloomington, Ind.: Xlibris Corp. ISBN 978-1-4628-4928-4.
- Fischer, Hank; Fischer, Carol (2008). Paddling Montana. Guildford, CT: FalconGuides. ISBN 978-0-7627-4352-0.
- Fisher, Cassius A. (1908). Geology and Water Resources of the Great Falls Region, Montana. Water-Supply Paper No. 221. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey.
- Fletcher, Robert H.; Bradshaw, Glenda Clay; Axline, Jon; Shope, Irvin (2008). Montana's Historical Highway Markers. Helena, Mont.: Montana Historical Society. ISBN 0-917298-31-4.
- Florence, Mason; Nystrom, Andrew Dean; Gierlich, Marisa (2001). Rocky Mountain States. London: Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-86450-327-2.
- Foner, Philip S. (1987). Labor and World War I, 1914–1918. 7. New York: International Publishers. ISBN 0-7178-0638-3.
- French, Brett (March–April 2002). "A Good Time in Montana's Badlands". Montana Outdoors. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- French, Brett (July 29, 2009). "Forecast: More Air Pollution, Study Predicts Global Warming Will Increase Fires in Northern Rockies". Billings Gazette. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
- Graetz, Rick; Clemenz, Bob (1984). Beautiful Montana. Wilsonville, OR: Beautiful America Publishing. ISBN 0-915796-25-2.
- Gravlee, Sarah (January 3, 2012). "Montana Reaches One Million Mark". kulr8.com. KULR-8 Television. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- Hanna, Warren L. (1988). "James Willard Schultz-The Pikuni Storyteller". Stars Over Montana-Men Who Made Glacier National Park History. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Association. ISBN 978-0-09-167906-4.
- Heilprin, Angelo; Heilprin, Louis, eds. (1900), "Clark's (Clarke's) River, Flathead River", Geographical Dictionary Of The World In The Early 20th Century With Pronouncing Gazetteer, 1, A to L, Philadelphia, Pa.: J. B. Lippincott, p. 423
- Hellman, Paul T. (2013). Historical Gazetteer of the United States. Florence, Ky.: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-94859-7.
- Holden, Stephen (March 29, 2002). "The Slaughter Rule (2002)". New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2013.
- Holding, Rapha (2010). What Do You Know About the United States?. Bloomington, IN: Authorhouse. ISBN 978-1-4490-1505-3.
- Holmes, Krys (2009). "5". Montana: Stories of the Land (PDF). Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-9759196-3-7.
- Holmes, Krys (2009). "7". Montana: Stories of the Land (PDF). Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-9759196-3-7.
- Holmes, Krys (2009). "13". Montana: Stories of the Land (PDF). Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-9759196-3-7.
- Howard, Beth. "Top Hospitals for Safety". AARP The Magazine. AARP (April–May 2013).
- Howard, Joseph Kinsey (1959). Montana-High, Wide and Handsome. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-8032-7339-8.
- Horvitz, Andrew H.; Stephens, Scott; Helfert, Michael; Goodge, Grant; Redmond, Kelly T.; Pomeroy, Ken; Purdy, Ed (2002). "A National Temperature Record at Loma, Montana" (PDF). American Meteorological Society. Retrieved April 6, 2013.
- Hurlbut, Brian; Davis, Seabring (2009). Insiders' Guide to Yellowstone and Grand Teton. Globe Pequot. ISBN 978-0-7627-5041-2.
- Huser, Verne (2004). On the River With Lewis and Clark. College Station, Tex.: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 1-58544-320-4.
- Jewell, Judy; McRae, Bill (2012). Moon Montana. Berkeley, Calif.: Avalon Travel. ISBN 978-1-61238-262-3.
- Johnson, James W. (Body) (July 4, 1966). "The Fight That Won't Stay Dead". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- Kaush, Arha; Thompson, Jr., Barton H. (2012). The Endangered Species Act and Federalism: Effective Conservation Through Greater State Commitment (2 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 1-58592-042-8.
- Kittredge, William; Krauzer, Steven M. (Autumn 1986). "'Mr. Montana' Revised: Another Look at Granville Stuart". Montana: the Magazine of Western History. Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society. 36 (4). JSTOR 4519007.
- Kudray, Gregory M.; Cooper, Steven V. (2006). "Montana's Rocky Mountain Front: Vegetation Map and Type Descriptions. Report to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service." (PDF). Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
- Kugler, Eileen Gale (2013). Innovative Voices in Education: What It Takes to Engage Diverse Communities. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education. ISBN 978-1-61048-539-5.
- Lewis, M. Paul; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D. (2013). "Ethnologue: Languages of the World". SIL International. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- Libecap, Gary D.; Hansen, Zeynep Kocabiyik (March 2002). ""Rain Follows the Plow" and Dryfarming Doctrine: The Climate Information Problem and Homestead Failure in the Upper Great Plains, 1890–1925". Journal of Economic History. Cambridge University Press. 62 (1). JSTOR 2697973.
- Lincoln, Marga (April 19, 2012). "Montana Shakespeare Company Finds New Home at Helena Civic Center". Helena Independent Record. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- Lubetkin, M. John (2006). Jay Cooke's Gamble-The Northern Pacific Railroad, The Sioux, and the Panic of 1873. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3740-1.
- Lux, Mabel (1964). "Honyockers of Harlem-Honyockers of Zurich". In Kennedy, Michael S. Cowboys and Cattlemen-A Roundup of Montana, The Magazine of Western History. New York: Hastings House. pp. 333–348.
- Madej, Ed; Jones, Cedron (September 14, 2007). "Mountain Ranges of Montana" (PDF). Natural Resource Information System. Montana State Library. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- Malone, Michael P.; Roeder, Richard B.; Lang, William L. (1976). "Montana Territory". Montana: A History of Two Centuries. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97129-0.
- Malone, Michael P.; Roeder, Richard B.; Lang, William L. (1991). Montana: A History of Two Centuries. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97120-7.
- Matzko, John (2001). Reconstructing Fort Union. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-3216-0.
- McDean, Harry C. (January 1, 1986). "Dust Bowl Historiography". Great Plains Quarterly. Center Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- McKee, Jennifer (August 27, 2007). "UM Climate Expert Says Triple-digit Julys Will Be Norm". Billings Gazette. Retrieved April 6, 2013.
- Merrill-Maker, Andrea (2006). "Natural Treasures". Montana Almanac-The First, Best Source for Information About Big Sky Country. Guildford, CT: Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 0-7627-3655-0.
- Milner II, Clyde A.; O'Connor, Carol A. (2009). As Big as the West: The Pioneer Life of Granville Stuart. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512709-6.
- Moody, David W.; Chase, Edith B.; Aronson, David A. (1986). National Water Summary—1985: Hydrologic Events and Surface-Water Resources. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2300. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
- Morris, Patrick F. (1997). Anaconda, Montana: Copper Smelting Boom Town on the Western Frontier. Burnet, TX: Swann Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9657209-2-2.
- Murphy, Paul L. (1980). "Montana's Agony: Years of War and Hysteria, 1917–1921". 67 (2). Journal of American History: 436. doi:10.2307/1890476.
- Naiman, Robert J.; Décamps, Henri; McClain, Michael E. (2005). Riparia: Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Streamside Communities. Boston: Elsevier Academic. ISBN 978-0-12-663315-3.
- Norris, Tina; Vines, Paula L.; Hoeffel, Elizabeth M. (January 2012). "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010" (PDF). United States Bureau of the Census. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- Ottum, Bob (January 29, 1968). "Bold Bourkey For John Misha". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- Palmer, Tim (1998). America By Rivers. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. ISBN 978-1-59726-912-4.
- Parry, Ellis Roberts (2001). Montana Dateline. Guilford, Conn.: TwoDot Press. ISBN 1-56044-956-X.
- Peavey, Linda; Smith, Ursula (2008). Full-Court Quest. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Reviewed by Nykolaiszyn, Juliana M. (Summer–Fall 2011). "Full-Court Quest". Oral History Review. 38 (2): 420–422. doi:10.1093/ohr/ohr087.
- Peterson, Eric (2012). Frommer's Montana and Wyoming. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-59150-5.
- Robbins, Chuck (2008). Great Places Montana: A Recreational Guide to Montana's Public Lands and Historic Places for Birding, Hiking, Photography, Fishing, Hunting, and Camping. Belgrade, MT: Wilderness Adventures Press. ISBN 978-1-932098-59-4.
- Robbins, Jim (August 17, 2008). "In Montana, a Popular Expression Is Taken Off the Endangered List". New York Times. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- Ross, Clyde P. (1959). Geology of Glacier National Park and the Flathead Region, Northwestern Montana. Geological Survey Professional Paper 296. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
- Sanders, Wilbur Edgerton (1910). Montana, Organization, Name and Naming: The Word, its Significance, Derivation, and Historical Use. Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana. 7. Helena, MT: Rocky Mountain Publishing.
- Ruckman, Shannon (May 11, 2007). "Overcast tune named official Montana lullaby". Prairie Star. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- Scandale, Maria (August 18, 2011). "93rd Annual Crow Fair Celebration Under the Big Sky". Indian Country Today Media Network. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- Schontzler, Gail (January 23, 2011). "Nelson Story – Hero, Scoundrel Legend". Bozeman Daily Chronicle. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- Schullery, Paul (2006). "Fly Fishing in Western Culture". Cowboy Trout-Western Fly Fishing As If It Matters. Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society Press. ISBN 0-9721522-7-X.
- Schullery, Paul (2006). "A River Runs Through It as Folklore and History". Cowboy Trout-Western Fly Fishing As If It Matters. Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society Press. ISBN 0-9721522-7-X.
- Sites, Phillip (January 19, 2012). "Most Remote State Borders". The Weekend Roady. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- Spracklen, D. V.; Mickley, L. J.; Logan, J. A; Hudman, R. C.; Yevich, R.; Flannigan, M. D.; Westerling, A. L. (October 27, 2009). "Impacts of Climate Change From 2000 to 2050 on Wildfire Activity and Carbonaceous Aerosol Concentrations in the Western United States" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 114 (D20). doi:10.1029/2008JD010966.
- Stephens, Patia. "When Speech Wasn't Free". Montanan. University of Montana (Fall 2006). Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Stuart, Mabel Lewis (July 17, 1913). "The Lady Honyocker-How Girls Take Up Claim and Make Their Homes on the Prairie". The Independen. New York: The Independent Weekly. LXXV (3372).
- Temple, Robert D. (2006). Edge Effects: The Border-Name Places. New York: iUniverse. ISBN 978-0-595-50433-6.
- Therriault, Ednor (2010). Montana Curiosities: Quirky Characters, Roadside Oddities & Other Offbeat Stuff. Guildford, CT: Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 978-0-7627-6572-0.
- Tode, Laura (March 7, 2004). "Amish Call Montana Home". Independent Record. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- Toole, K. Ross (1959). Montana: An Uncommon Land. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1890-3.
- Swanson, Larry (December 2004). "Economics". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 30, 2013.
- Thackeray, Lorna (October 17, 2009). "National-park visitors boost Montana's tourism stats". Billings Gazette. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- United States Forest Service (2007). Final Environmental Impact Statement: Little Belt, Castle, and North Half Crazy Mountains Travel Management Plan. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior.
- Vasapolli, Salvatore (2003). Montana. Portland, Ore.: Graphic Arts Center Pub. ISBN 978-1-55868-696-0.
- Werner, Bret; Welply, Michael (2006). First Special Service Force 1942–44. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-968-1.
- Work, Clemens P. (2005). Darkest Before Dawn: Sedition and Free Speech in the American West. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 978-0-8263-3793-1.
- "1889 Spokane Wins!". Kentucky Derby. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
- "2008 Election Results". CNN. 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "2010 Census Redistricting Data Summary File, Table P1." (CSV). United States Bureau of the Census. March 15, 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- "2012/2013 Hunting Regulations". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- "About Shakespeare in the Parks". Montana Shakespeare in the Parks. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- "About the State Seal". Montana Secretary of State. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
- "AM Query Results". Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- "Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012" (CSV). 2012 Population Estimates. Census Bureau. December 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States, States, and Counties: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". United States Bureau of the Census. 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- "About Liquor Licensing". Montana Department of Revenue. April 19, 2013. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- "Antipodes: The Other Side of the World". Peakbagger. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- "Biography of Governor Judy Martz". Montana Governor. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
- "Bozeman Airport now the Busiest in Montana". KTVQ. June 17, 2013. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- "Bozeman Cemetery". Ultimate Montana — New Times Media. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "Bridger Bowl, Bozeman Montana ~ Vacation Planning". Bridger Bowl. 2011. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Brief History of Montana". State of Montana. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- "Butte-Anaconda Historic District" (PDF). National Park Service. March 21, 2006. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "Census 2010–20 Largest Montana Cities, Counties". KRTV. December 21, 2010. Retrieved April 30, 2013.
- "Climate in Montana". Animal Range and Sciences Extension Service, Montana State University. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- "Climate of 2007 – July in Historical Perspective". National Climatic Data Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. August 15, 2007. Retrieved April 6, 2013.
- "Climate Information". Montana Department of Tourism. 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
- "Climate of Montana". Desert Research Institute, Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- "Congressional Delegation". State of Montana. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Congressional Globe, 38th Congress, 1st session". Library of Congress. March 17, 1864. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
- "Continental Divides in North Dakota and North America". National Atlas, Department of the Interior. January 14, 2013. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Council Grove" (PDF). Montana Office of Public Instruction. January 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- "Cross-Country Skiing in Montana". Winter Montana. Montana Office of Tourism. 2010. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "Cross Country Skiing and Snowshoeing in Yellowstone — Yellowstone National Park". National Park Service. March 28, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
- "Current List of Eligible EAS Communities". Department of Transportation. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Davis Finds Joy, Value in Being Technical Specialist". Ice Network. January 20, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Daily Newspapers". Lee Enterprises. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- "Demographic and Economic Profile: Montana" (PDF). Rural Policy Research Institute. 2006. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- "Detailed Waterbody Report-Bighorn River". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Detailed Waterbody Report-Boulder River". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Detailed Waterbody Report-Clark Fork River". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- "Detailed Waterbody Report-Clarks Fork of the Yellowstone". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Detailed Waterbody Report-Judith River". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Detailed Waterbody Report-Kootenai River". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- "Detailed Waterbody Report-Marias River". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Detailed Waterbody Report-Milk River". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Detailed Waterbody Report-Musselshell River". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Detailed Waterbody Report-Powder River". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Detailed Waterbody Report-Smith River". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Detailed Waterbody Report-Stillwater River". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Detailed Waterbody Report-Tongue River". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Dry Farming in the North Central Montana "Triangle"". Montana State University Extension Service. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- "Economic Sectors". Governor's Office of Economic Development. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- "FAQ". Montana Office of Tourism. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- "FM Query Results". Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- "Football" (PDF). Montana High School Association. Retrieved April 30, 2013.
- "Fort Benton". National Historic Landmark Program. November 5, 1961. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
- "Fort Peck Today". Fort Peck. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- "Frontier Conference Members". Frontier Conference. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- "Glacier Monitoring Research". Monitoring and Assessing Glacier Changes and Their Associated Hydrologic and Ecologic Effects in Glacier National Park. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved April 6, 2013.
- "Granite Peak". National Geodetic Survey. 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site — Cowboys and Cattlemen". National Park Service. April 9, 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
- "Grant-Kohrs Ranch — People". National Park Service. March 22, 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
- "Granville Stuart" (PDF). Montana Historical Society. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
- "GNAC Permanent Members". Great Northwest Athletic Conference. 2013. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- "Great Seal, Montana Code Annotated: 1-1-501". Montana Legislative Services. 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
- "Hellgate Treaty" (PDF). Confederate Salish Kootenai Tribes. 1855. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- "Highest Circulation Montana Newspapers". Mondo Times. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "History and Preservation — The Montana Historical Society: Montana's Museum". Montana Department of Tourism. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
- "History of Lee". Lee Enterprises. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- "History of Malmstrom Air Force Base". Malmstrom Air Force Base. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- "Hmong Qeej Music: Tou Yang — Mai K. Moua, Missoula". From the Heart and Hand. Montana Arts Council. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
- "How many people does each member of the House of Representatives represent?". Quora. 4 March 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- "Hunting-Season Dates". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- "Indian Education for All-Montana Indians Their History and Location" (PDF). Montana Office of Public Instruction. April 2009. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "I.W.W. Strike Chief Lynched At Butt". New York Times. August 2, 1917. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Jack Horner". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- "Jeannette Rankin". Women's Hall of Fame. Great Women. 2011. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- "John Misha Petkevich Bio, Stats, and Results". Sports Reference. 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "Language Map Data Center". Modern Language Association. July 17, 2007. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Local Television Market Universe Estimates" (PDF). September 25, 2010. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- "Montana". National Park Service. March 15, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- "Montana". United States Department of Labor – Bureau of Labor Statistics. December 30, 2014. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
- "Montana". Census Bureau. October 18, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Montana 2012 Election". 270towin. 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
- "Montana Access Guide to State and Federal Lands" (PDF). Montana Interagency Access Council. August 1, 2001. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "Montana and World War I 1914–1918" (PDF). Montana Historical Society. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Montana Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSA) Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas" (PDF). Montana Department of Commerce-Census and Economic Information Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 26, 2010. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- "Montana Field Guide-Fish". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- "Montana Field Guide-Lichens". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- "Montana Field Guide-Mammals". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- "Montana Field Guide-Reptiles". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- "Montana Fishing Regulations". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. 2013. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- "Montana Field Guide-Amphibians". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- "Montana Highway Map" (PDF). Montana Department of Transportation. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Montana Indians: Their History and Location" (PDF). Office of Public Instruction, State of Montana. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- "Montana Legislature 63rd Session-Majority and Minority Party Numbers 1889 – Present". Montana Legislature. December 17, 2012. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "Montana Mountain Ranges" (PDF). Natural Resource Information System. Montana State Library. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- "Montana Official State Bird List". Montana Audubon. 2008. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- "Montana Sedition Project". University of Montana School of Journalism. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "Montana State Records". Montana State Records. 2012. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- "Montana Television Stations". Station Index. 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- "North American Indian Days". Browning, Montana. 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "Paddling Montana: Yellowstone River ~~ Excerpted from Paddling Montana by Hank Fisher". Montana Office of Tourism. 2011. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
- "Plants & Animals- Maiasaura". Montana Department of Tourism. 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000". Census Bureau. 2000. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- "Population of Gallatin County, Montana: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map". Census Viewer. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010". Census Bureau. October 5, 2010. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- "Property Tax Liability, Billing and Collection". Montana Department of Revenue. January 31, 2012. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- "Recreation". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
- Resident Population Data (2010). "Resident Population Data (Text Version)". Census Bureau. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- "Russell, Charles Marion". Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. University of Toronoto. 2000. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- "Saskatchewan River-From Glaciers to Grasslands". Canadian Council for Geographic Education. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- "Schweitzer Could Win Sen. nom in '14 but Maybe not MT in '16" (PDF). December 7, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- "Selected Social Characteristics in the United States. 2007–2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.". United States Bureau of the Census. 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- "Setting". Historical Society. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Shaped by Winter". Winter Montana. Montana Office of Tourism. 2010. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "Ski & Stay Packages". Discovery Ski Area. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
- "Snowcoaches". Winter Montana. 2010. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- "Snowmobiling". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
- "Snowmobiling in Montana". Winter Montana. 2010. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Snowmobiling in West Yellowstone". Winter Montana. 2010. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Soil Conservation Service (February 1953). Soil Survey (Reconnaissance): Central Montana. Series 1940, No. 9. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture.
- "Some Shifts In 2010 Census Numbers Due to Boundary Changes, Not All Growth". Bureau of Business and Economic Research, University of Montana. April 11, 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- "Spokane, Montana's Kentucky Derby Winner". Montana Cowboy Hall of Fame. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
- "State Animal Grizzly Bear". Montana Department of Tourism. 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- "State Bird Western Meadowlark". Montana Department of Tourism. 2007. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "State Fish Blackspotted Cutthroat Trout". Montana Department of Tourism. 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- "State Fish, Montana Code Annotated: 1-1-507". Montana Legislative Services. 2011. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
- "State Flower Bitterroot". Montana Department of Tourism. 2007. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "State Gemstones Sapphire and Agate". Montana Department of Tourism. 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- "State Grass Bluebunch Wheatgrass". Montana Department of Tourism. 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- "State Membership Reports-Montana". Association of Religion Data Archives. Retrieved April 30, 2013.
- "State Symbols – Official Designations, Montana Code Annotated: 1-1-5". Montana Legislative Services. 2011. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- "State Song". Montana Department of Tourism. 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- "State Songs". Welcome to America. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
- "State Symbols". Montana Department of Tourism. 2007. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
- "State Tree Ponderosa Pine". Montana Department of Tourism. 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- "Statewide Fisheries Management Plan". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "St. Mary's Mission in Stevensville designated National Historic District". Montana Catholic. Roman Catholic Diocese of Helena. 26 (9). September 27, 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- "Terry". Montana Office of Tourism. 2010. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- "Tester Asks Navy to Christen Submarine USS Montana". Tester Senate. August 20, 2007. Archived from the original on August 29, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "Threatened, Endangered and Candidate Species in Montana-Endangered Species Act" (PDF). United States Fish and Wildlife Service. February 2013. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- "Time Line of the American Bison". United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
- "Tourism in Montana". Montana Department of Tourism. 2007. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- "Trapping and Furbearer Management in Montana". Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- "Upper Yellowstone River Mapping Project" (PDF). United States Fish and Wildlife Service. July 2001. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- "Union Pacific in Montana" (PDF). Union Pacific Railroad. March 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
- "U.S. Congress Passes Espionage Act". History Channel. June 15, 1917. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "USGS Geonames Search Result-Montana+Stream". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- "Verified Trauma Centers". American College of Surgeons. March 20, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- "Vermont Remains Top State in Capita per Brewery". Brewers Association. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- "Welcome to the Montana High School Association". Montana High School Association. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- "Welcome to the World Ski Joring Championships". Whitefish Skijoring. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "What was the Great Northern Railway?". Great Northern Railway Historical Society. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
- "Woman Suffrage Timeline (1840–1920)". National Women's History Museum. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "World War II in Montana 1939–1945" (PDF). Montana Historical Society. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
- "Yellowstone in Winter: Current Management and Planning". National Park Service. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Census of Montana
- General Information About Montana
- Geographic data related to Montana at OpenStreetMap
- List of Searchable Databases Produced by Montana State Agencies
- Montana Energy Data & Statistics – From the U.S. Department of Energy
- Montana Historical Society
- Montana Official Travel Information Site
- Montana Official Website
- Montana at DMOZ
- Montana State Facts From the U.S. Department of Agriculture
- USGS Real-time, Geographic, and Other Scientific Resources of Montana
|List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on November 8, 1889 (41st)
| Succeeded by|
||British Columbia, Canada||Alberta, Canada||Saskatchewan, Canada|