LGBT stereotypes

The Dykes on Bikes motorcycle group in a pride parade, exhibiting a stereotype of butch lesbians.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) stereotypes are conventional, formulaic generalizations, opinions, or images based on the sexual orientations or gender identities of LGBT people. Stereotypical perceptions may be acquired through interactions with parents, teachers, peers and mass media,[1] or, more generally, through a lack of firsthand familiarity, resulting in an increased reliance on generalizations.[2]

Negative stereotypes are often associated with homophobia, lesbophobia, biphobia, or transphobia.[3] Positive stereotypes, or counterstereotypes, also exist.[4][5]

In general


The Human Rights campaign promotes the idea that an individual can be gay and religious. Harry Knox, a gay minister, has led this movement since 2005. “Seventy-two percent of adults describe their faith as “very important” in their lives, so do sixty percent of gays and lesbians”(US News). Activists are working to bridge the gap between religion and homosexuality and to make denominations friendlier to the community. Many Protestants have opened their doors and the United Church of Christ now ordains gay ministers. The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force is working with Jewish individuals in the LGBT community to have a more welcoming atmosphere.[6]

In fiction: "Bury your gays"

"Bury your gays" or, more specifically, "dead lesbian syndrome", describes the trope in fiction that requires that gay or lesbian characters die or meet another unhappy ending, such as becoming insane.[7] According to Autostraddle, which examined 1,779 scripted U.S. TV series from 1976 to 2016, 193 (11%) of them featured lesbian or bisexual female characters, and among these, 35% saw lesbian or bisexual characters dead, but only 16% provided a happy ending for them. Similarly, among all lesbian or bisexual characters in no longer airing series, 31% ended up dead, and only 10% received a happy ending.[8] Such statistics led Variety to conclude in 2016 that "the trope is alive and well on TV, and fictional lesbian and bisexual women in particular have a very small chance of leading long and productive lives."[9]

Murder and violence

LGBT rights activists have fought against fictional representations of LGBT people that depict them as violent and murderous. Columnist Brent Hartinger observed that "literally all the big-budget Hollywood movies until, perhaps, Philadelphia in 1993 that featured major gay male characters portrayed them as insane villains and serial killers."[10] Community members organized protests and boycotts against films with murderous gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender characters, including Cruising (1980), Silence of the Lambs (1991), and Basic Instinct (1992).[11] Theatre scholar Jordan Schildcrout has written about the recurrence of the "homicidal homosexual" in American plays, but notes that LGBT playwrights themselves have appropriated this negative stereotype to confront and subvert homophobia.[12] Such plays include The Lisbon Traviata (1985) by Terrence McNally, Porcelain (1992) by Chay Yew, The Secretaries (1993) by the Five Lesbian Brothers, and The Dying Gaul (1998) by Craig Lucas.


Actress Portia de Rossi came out as a lesbian in the early 2000s.

Many 20th-century films put a negative connotation on the lesbian community. "The Children's Hour" (1961) gives viewers the idea that lesbian live a "dark" and almost depressing lifestyle. However, by the 21st century, the media was portraying lesbians in a more positive light.[13] For instance, in the popular lesbian television series, The L word, the media refutes the "U-Haul" lesbian stereotype, which is that lesbians move in on the second date. The show depicts a lesbian couple that starts a family and stays together long term. It intends to prove that lesbians hold the same "family values" as that of heterosexual couples. The show also uses mostly "feminine" or "lipstick" lesbians to combat the stereotype that all lesbians are "butch", or dress like men. This promotes the idea that lesbians come in all different shapes, sizes, and styles. The show also battles stereotypes through its character, Shane. Shane challenges the stereotype that lesbians catch feelings easily. It is believed that lesbians are easily domesticated, however, Shane shuffles between a varieties of girls, to challenge the idea that lesbians get easily attached to their partners.[14]

Many lesbians are associated with short hair, wearing baggy clothes, and playing sports.[15] Further, news coverage of LGBT issues reinforces stereotyped portrayals of lesbians. Often news broadcasts highlight stories on more "masculine" lesbians and fail to give equal coverage to other more faceted lesbian identities. Thus, the populations who receive information about marginalized communities from a news source begin to equate lesbian sexuality with masculine presentation. The way lesbians are portrayed leads people to make assumptions about individuals in everyday life.[16]

Typically, lesbians are stereotyped as belonging to one of the two following categories: "butch and femme". Butch lesbians dress in a more masculine manner than other women. "Dykes" (a pejorative term that the Lesbian community has reclaimed, to an extent) are considered members of a community that is perceived as being composed of strong and outspoken advocates in wider society.[17] Actress Portia de Rossi has been credited for significantly countering the general societal misconception of how lesbians look and function when, in 2005, she divulged her sexual orientation in intimate interviews with Details and The Advocate which generated further discussion on the concept of the "lipstick lesbian" ("femme" women who tend to be "hyper-feminine").

Lesbian feminists assert that a sexual component is unnecessary for a woman to declare herself a lesbian if her primary and closest relationships are with women, on the basis that, when considering past relationships within an appropriate historic context, there were times when love and sex were separate and unrelated notions.[18] In 1989, an academic cohort called the Lesbian History Group wrote:

"Because of society's reluctance to admit that lesbians exist, a high degree of certainty is expected before historians or biographers are allowed to use the label. Evidence that would suffice in any other situation is inadequate here... A woman who never married, who lived with another woman, whose friends were mostly women, or who moved in known lesbian or mixed gay circles, may well have been a lesbian. ... But this sort of evidence is not 'proof'. What our critics want is incontrovertible evidence of sexual activity between women. This is almost impossible to find."[19]

Gay men

The contrast between a twink and a bear can be seen in this group of men in the Capital Gay Pride parade in Albany, New York in June 2009. The young blond (center), Naked Boy News host J.Son Dinant, is generally considered twink-ish because of his slender build and overall youthful appearance, while the man on the right, porn star Manuel Torres, would generally be considered a bear because of his stocky build and body hair.[20][21]

Homosexual men are often equated interchangeably with heterosexual women by the heterocentric mainstream and are frequently stereotyped as being effeminate,[22] despite the fact that gender expression, gender identity and sexual orientation are widely accepted to be distinct from each other.[23] The "flaming queen" is a characterization that melds flamboyance and effeminacy, remaining a gay male stock character in Hollywood.[24] Theatre, specifically Broadway musicals, are a component of another stereotype, the "show queen",[25] generalizing that gay men listen to show tunes, are involved with the performing arts, and are theatrical, overly dramatic, and campy.

The bear subculture of the LGBT community is composed of generally large, hairy men, referred to as bears.[26][27] They embrace their hypermasculine image, and some will shun more effeminate gay men, such as twinks.

Appearance and mannerisms

Gay men are often associated with a lisp or a feminine speaking tone.[28][29] Fashion and effeminacy have long been seen as stereotypes of homosexuality. They are often based on the visibility of the reciprocal relationship between gay men and fashion.[30] Designers, including Dolce & Gabbana, have made use of homoerotic imagery in their advertising. Some commentators argue this encourages the stereotype that most gay men enjoy shopping.[31] A limp wrist is also a mannerism associated with gay men.[32]

Recent research has suggested that “gaydar” is an alternate label for using stereotypes, especially those related to appearance and mannerisms, to infer orientation.[33]

Sex and relationships

Gay men on a pride parade float in Rome.

Research also suggests that lesbians may be slightly more likely than gay men to be in steady relationships.[34][35] In terms of unprotected sex, a 2007 study cited two large population surveys as showing that "the majority of gay men had similar numbers of unprotected sexual partners annually as straight men and women."[36][37][38]

Another persistent stereotype associated with the gay male community is partying. Before the Stonewall riots in 1969, most LGBT people were extremely private and closeted, and house parties, bars, and taverns became some of the few places where they could meet, socialize, and feel safe. The riots represented the start of the modern LGBT social movement and acceptance of sexual and gender minorities, which has steadily increased since. Festive and party-like social occasions remain at the core of organizing and fundraising in the LGBT community. In cities where there are large populations of LGBT people, benefits and bar fundraisers are still common, and alcohol companies invest heavily in LBGT-oriented marketing. Ushered in by underground gay clubs and disc jockeys, the disco era kept the "partying" aspect vibrant and ushered in the more hardcore circuit party movement, hedonistic and associated with party and play.[39]

The relationship between gay men and female heterosexual "fag hags" has become highly stereotypical. The accepted behaviors in this type of relationship can predominantly include physical affections (such as kissing and touching), as in the sitcom Will & Grace.[40]

Sex and drugs

The term party and play (PNP) is used to refer to a subculture of gay men who use recreational drugs and have sex together, either one-on-one or in groups. The drug of choice is typically methamphetamine, known as crystal or tina in the gay community. Other "party drugs" such as MDMA and GHB are less associated with this term. While PNP probably has its genesis in the distinct subculture of methamphetamine users, and is most associated with its use, it has become somewhat generalized to include partying with other drugs thought to enhance sexual experiences, especially MDMA, GHB, and cocaine.

A report from the National HIV Prevention Conference (a collaborative effort by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other governmental and non-government organizations) describes PNP as "sexual behavior under the influence of crystal meth or other 'party' drugs."[41] It has been referred to as both an "epidemic" and a "plague" in the gay community.[42][43] British researchers report that up to 20% of gay men from central London gyms have tried methamphetamine, the drug most associated with PNP,[44] despite methamphetamine use being relatively unknown in the UK outside the PNP subculture.[45]

Extreme sex or bondage is also a stereotype in gay men. People often presume that gay men often conform to the stereotype of leather and chaps, including fisting.

Pedophilia and predation

It is a common stereotype that gay men are sexual predators or pedophiles.[46] The former perception can lead to a knee-jerk reaction that created the "gay panic defense", usually in straight men, who fear being hit on by gay men, and can be either a cause or an expression of homophobia.[47] The perception that a greater proportion of gay than straight men are pedophiles is one contributing factor of discrimination against gay teachers, despite the stark contrast to statistical figures, which have generally revealed that upwards of 80–90% of male pedophiles are heterosexual and usually married with children of their own,[48][49] and research on child sexual abuse shows that most instances of child sexual abuse (one cited percentage being over 90%) are perpetrated by heterosexual males having non-consensual sexual intercourse with underage females.[50][51] Research has consistently indicated that a significant minority of child sex abuse perpetrators are female (5%-20%),[50] but other research has indicated that almost 40% of child sexual abuse against boys, and 6% of abuse against girls, is committed by women.[52]

Bisexual people

Rock musician and personality David Bowie became one of the world's most famous bisexual people when he came out in 1972.[53]

Bisexuality is romantic or sexual attraction to males and females,[54][55][56] or romantic or sexual attraction to people of all gender identities or to a person irrespective of that person's biological sex or gender, though numerous related terms, such as pansexual and polysexual, are also equated with this description and there exists debate with regard to the terms' interchangeability.[57][58][59] People who have a distinct but not exclusive preference for one sex over the other may also identify themselves as bisexual.[60] Bisexuality has been observed in various human societies[61] and elsewhere in the animal kingdom[62][63][64] throughout recorded history. The term bisexuality, like the terms heterosexuality and homosexuality, was coined in the 19th century.[65]

Woody Allen is quoted saying, "Being bisexual doubles your chance of a date on Saturday night."[66] Common bisexual stereotypes include an inability to maintain a steady relationship (based on a perception that bisexuals are promiscuous because of their attraction to more than one gender),[66] and indecision as to whether one is gay or straight (which assumes a binary, either-or spectrum of sexuality). Over a person's life, one's sexual desires and activities may vary greatly.[60]

In 1995, Harvard Shakespeare professor Marjorie Garber made the academic case for bisexuality with her Vice Versa: Bisexuality and the Eroticism of Everyday Life, in which she argued that most people would be bisexual if not for "repression, religion, repugnance, denial, laziness, shyness, lack of opportunity, premature specialization, a failure of imagination, or a life already full to the brim with erotic experiences, albeit with only one person, or only one gender."[67]

Rock musician David Bowie famously declared himself bisexual in an interview with Melody Maker in January 1972, a move coinciding with the first shots in his campaign for stardom as Ziggy Stardust.[68] In a September 1976 interview with Playboy, Bowie said, "It's true, I am a bisexual. But I can't deny that I've used that fact very well. I suppose it's the best thing that ever happened to me."[69] In a 1983 interview he said it's "the biggest mistake [he had] ever made",[70][71] in 2002 elaborating: "I don't think it was a mistake in Europe, but it was a lot tougher in America. I had no problem with people knowing I was bisexual. But I had no inclination to hold any banners or be a representative of any group of people. I knew what I wanted to be, which was a songwriter and a performer [...] America is a very puritanical place, and I think it stood in the way of so much I wanted to do."[53]

As for bisexual people portrayed by Hollywood, from the end of the McCarthy era to even today, "The history of male bisexual characters in film has been one of negative stereotyping."[72]

Transgender people

Transgender is an umbrella term that encompasses a wide range of people with more specific identities. In general, a person who is transgender self-identifies with a gender other than their biological sex. The term may apply to any number of distinct communities, such as cross-dressers, drag queens, and drag kings, in addition to transsexuals.[73] The beliefs that transgender people are all prostitutes and caricatures of men and women are two of many erroneous misconceptions.[74]


A transsexual is a person born with the physical characteristics of one sex who psychologically and emotionally identifies with a variant or different gender than their physical sex characteristics.[75][76] Stereotypes of trans women include that they are generally taller than cisgender women, and that they may have larger, more masculine hands.[77]

Transvestites and cross-dressers

Transvestites are often assumed to be homosexuals. The word transvestism comes from the combination of Latin words trans meaning "across, over" and vestitus meaning dressed.[78] Most transvestites are heterosexual.[79] Transvestism may have a fetishistic component, whereas cross-dressing does not; although many people use the words interchangeably, transvestite has increasingly become a derogatory term. Most prefer to use the term cross-dresser or cross-dressing.[80]

Origins and prevalence


Social scientists are attempting to understand why there are such negative connotations associated with the lesbian community.[81] William James assumed that it was a repulsive instinct that came naturally to each woman and that, when an individual enjoyed same-sex interaction, it was because it became a habit. In short, he assumed that "tolerance is learned and revulsion is inborn" (PBS). In 1908, James and Edward Westermack attempted to understand the violent actions taken toward homosexuals by Jewish, Christian, and Zoroastrian religions. They believed hostility existed because of the historical association between homosexuality and idolatry, heresy, and criminal behavior. Sigmund Freud asserted in 1905 that homophobia was shaped by society, an individual's environment, and the individual's exposure to homo-eroticism. Sandor Ference (1914) believed that heterosexual women's feelings of repulsion toward those identifying as lesbians was a reaction formation and defense mechanism against affection from the same sex. In other words, he believed heterosexual females feared being labeled as lesbians.

Taking an individual that adheres to stereotypes of LGBT people and putting them in face-to-face interaction with those of the LGBT community tends to lessen tendencies to rely upon stereotypes and increases the presence of individuals with a similar ethnic, religious, or geographical background, and who are accepting of homosexuals.[82]

Intersections between LGBT, race, and class stereotypes


Hispanics generally have a difficult time within the Latino community because of strong gender roles the community holds on to. Men are supposed to care for the family and be a strong father figure, while women are supposed to play a subordinate role. Switching this role is often seen as obscene. There have been some shifts away from these stereotypes in recent years, but it has been very minimal. The strong belief in "machismo" has caused these shifts in attitude to be so small. Machismo refers to the male dominant role in society that provides more social freedoms to men that are not experienced by women. Freedoms include: to have more than one partner, failure to disclose HIV, infidelity, and refusing the use of condoms. Lesbians have a particularly hard time with this, since it promotes the idea that lesbians should conform to all sexual standards that require obedience to the family and its rules. Therefore, if an individual defies the ideas of machismo, the individual is defying their family. As a result, lesbians in the Hispanic community are seen as being both disrespectful to their families, and as abnormal.[83]

Asian Americans

Asian American women that identify as lesbian or bisexual may face sexual fetishization by white men or women and are stereotyped as "exotic", leading to frustrations about Asian lesbians feeling they are not taken seriously by society, stereotypes about Asian women as "freaky", and yellow fever.[84] Gay and bisexual Asian men are stereotyped as "effeminate, submissive, and docile".[85] As both ethnocentric and heterocentric minority groups, LGBT Asian Americans face intersectional invisibility, which offers them some protection from stereotyping and active prejudice while also making it difficult for them to establish recognition or be recognized.[86] Asian Americans are typically overlooked in discussion of race, which focuses mostly on a white/black dichotomy and renders Asian Americans invisible.[87] Similarly, gay and lesbian Asian Americans are marginalized within mostly-white LGBT communities at large.[88]

Gay Asian American men in media are portrayed as both hypersexual (as gay men) and asexual (as Asian men).[89] Stereotypes of Asian women as either a Dragon Lady or China doll are dominant in mainstream media representation of Asian women, and butch Asian women are relatively invisible, giving way to more femme, or feminized, depictions.[90] GLAAD is working to have a fair depiction of the Asian community in the media by educating the public on language referring to Asian Americans, including refraining from phrases that are Eurocentric like "The Orient", "Far East", and "Asiatic", among other measures. GLAAD is also working to connect media networks with Asian and Pacific Islander LGBT leaders and organizations in order to create less biased media coverage.[91]

See also


  1. Stangor, Charles (ed.) (2000). Stereotypes and Prejudice: Essential Readings. Philadelphia, Pa.: Psychology Press. ISBN 0-86377-588-8.
  2. McCrady, Richard; Jean Mccrady (August 1976). "Effect of direct exposure to foreign target groups on descriptive stereotypes held by American students". Social Behavior and Personality. 4 (2): 233. doi:10.2224/sbp.1976.4.2.233.
  3. "The Face of Homophobia/Heterosexism". Carlton University Equity Services. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
  4. Nachbar, Jack; Kevin Lause (1992). Popular Culture: An Introductory Text. Bowling Green University Popular Press. p. 238. ISBN 0-87972-572-9.
  5. "Gay Images: TV's Mixed Signals". The New York Times. 1991-05-19. Retrieved 2010-10-25.
  6. "Human Rights Campaign's Harry Knox Is Candidate for Senior Pastor of Houston's Resurrection Metropolitan Community Church." Human Rights Campaign's Harry Knox Is Candidate for Senior Pastor of Houston's Resurrection Metropolitan... Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
  7. Framke, Caroline (25 March 2016). "Queer women have been killed on television for decades. Now The 100's fans are fighting back.". Vox. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  8. Hogan, Heather (25 March 2016). "Autostraddle's Ultimate Infographic Guide to Dead Lesbian Characters on TV". Autostraddle. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  9. Ryan, Maureen (14 March 2016). "What TV Can Learn From 'The 100' Mess". Variety. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  10. Hartinger, Brent. "Ask the Flying Monkey (August 18, 2008)". After Elton / New Now Next. Logo. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  11. Weir, John (29 March 1992). "Gay-Bashing, Villainy and the Oscars". New York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  12. Schildcrout, Jordan (2014). Murder Most Queer: The Homicidal Homosexual in the American Theater. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-05232-5.
  13. Myers, Randy. "Hollywood Has a Long History of Stereotyping Gays, Lesbians." Knight Ridder Newspaper, 9 Jan. 2006. Web. 17 Oct. 2014.
  14. "Challenges to Stereotypes." The L Word. Web. 18 Oct. 2014.
  15. Geiger, Wendy. "College Students' multiple Stereotypes of Lesbians: A Cognitive
  16. Stossel, John, and Gena Binkley. "Gay Stereotypes: Are They True?" ABC News. ABC News Network, 15 Sept. 2006. Web. 16 Oct. 2014.
  17. Krantz, S. E. (1995). "Reconsidering the Etymology of Bulldike". American Speech. 70 (2): 217–221. doi:10.2307/455819.
  18. Rothblum, Esther, Brehoney, Kathleen, eds. (1993). Boston Marriages: Romantic But Asexual Relationships Among Contemporary Lesbians, University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-875-2, p. 4–7.
  19. Norton, Rictor (1997). The Myth of the Modern Homosexual: Queer History and the Search for Cultural Unity, Cassell. ISBN 0-304-33892-3, p. 184.
  20. Scott Jacobson, Todd Levin, Jason Roede, Sex: Our Bodies, Our Junk, pages 204-206, Random House, Inc., 2010, ISBN 0-307-59216-2, ISBN 978-0-307-59216-3.
  21. Joan Z. Spade, Catherine G. Valentine, The kaleidoscope of gender: prisms, patterns, and possibilities, Pine Forge Press, 2007, pages 293-296, ISBN 1-4129-5146-1, ISBN 978-1-4129-5146-3.
  22. "Chrysler TV ad criticized for using gay stereotypes". The Advocate. 2006-04-07. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
  23. "Gender Identity and Expression Issues at Colleges and Universities". National Association of College and University Attorneys. 2005-06-02. Retrieved 2007-04-02.
  24. The Celluloid Closet; (1995) Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman.
  25. Clum, John M. (1999). "Something for the Boys: Musical Theater and Gay Culture". Modern Drama. 43 (4).
  27. "WOOF! - What is a Bear?". Retrieved 2011-01-15.
  28. Mackenzie, Ian (2004-03-18). "Dunk the faggot: A gay radio voice, back from hell". Xtra!.
  29. Stuever, Hank (2003-04-19). "Dishy Delight: Steven Cojocaru, a Glamour Boy in TV's Post-Gay Embrace". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 22, 2008.
  30. "Fashion". glbtq. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
  31. Tatchell, Peter (1996-08-16). "Yobs for the boys". Tribune.
  32. Encyclopedia of Lesbian and Gay Histories and Cultures - Page 491, Bonnie Zimmerman - 2000
  33. Cox, William T. L.; Devine, Patricia G.; Bischmann, Alyssa A.; Hyde, Janet S. (2015). "Inferences About Sexual Orientation: The Roles of Stereotypes, Faces, and The Gaydar Myth". The Journal of Sex Research. 52 (8): 1–15. doi:10.1080/00224499.2015.1015714.
  34. Garnets, Linda D.; Douglas C. Kimmel (1993). Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Male Experiences. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-07885-4.
  35. Marech, Rona (2004-02-27). "Gay couples can be as stable as straights, evidence suggests". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
  36. "Sexual Behavior Does Not Explain Varying HIV Rates Among Gay And Straight Men". Medical News Today.
  37. Goodreau SM, Golden MR (October 2007). "Biological and demographic causes of high HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevalence in men who have sex with men". Sex Transm Infect. 83 (6): 458–62. doi:10.1136/sti.2007.025627. PMC 2598698Freely accessible. PMID 17855487.
  38. Jay, Karla; Young, Allen (1979). The gay report: Lesbians and gay men speak out about sexual experiences and lifestyles. New York: Summit. ISBN 0-671-40013-4.
  39. DANCE OF DEATH, First of three parts, CRYSTAL METH FUELS HIV Christopher Heredia, May 4, 2003, SF Gate
  40. "Reinventing Privilege: The (New) Gay Man in Contemporary Popular Media" (PDF).
  41. "How MSM manage HIV risk behavior within the online "party and play" subculture". 2005.
  42. "PSA tackles 'PNP': TV ad warns against crystal meth usage in the gay male community". Metro Weekly.
  43. John-Manuel Andriote (November 8, 2005). "Meth Comes Out of the Closet". Washington Post.
  44. "Up to 20 per cent of gay men have tried crystal meth". Pink News.
  45. Duncan Walker (6 August 2013). "Breaking Bad: Why doesn't the UK have a crystal meth problem?". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  46. Whiteman, Hilary (2010-04-14). "Gay outrage over cardinal's child abuse comment". CNN. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
  47. Chuang HT, Addington D (Oct 1988). "Homosexual panic: a review of its concept". Can J Psychiatry. 33 (7): 613–7. PMID 3197016.
  48. "Readers' forum: Most pedophiles are straight". Deseret News. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
  49. Pietrzyk, Mark E. "Homosexuality and Child Sexual Abuse: Science, Religion, and the Slippery Slope". Independent Gay Forum. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
  50. 1 2 Rahman, Mahrin. "Definition of the Problem". Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
  51. Carole Jenny; Thomas A. Roesler; Kimberly L. Poyer. "Are Children at Risk for Sexual Abuse by Homosexuals?". American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
  52. Dube, Shata R., et al. "Long-Term Consequences of Childhood Sexual Abuse by Gender of Victim" Am J Prev Med 2005
  53. 1 2 Collis, Clark (August 2002). "Dear Superstar: David Bowie". Alpha Media Group Inc. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  54. "Sexual orientation, homosexuality and bisexuality". American Psychological Association. Archived from the original on August 8, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
  55. "Sexual Orientation". American Psychiatric Association. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  56. "GLAAD Media Reference Guide". GLAAD. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  57. Soble, Alan (2006). "Bisexuality". Sex from Plato to Paglia: a philosophical encyclopedia. 1. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-313-32686-8.
  58. Firestein, Beth A. (2007). Becoming Visible: Counseling Bisexuals Across the Lifespan. Columbia University Press. pp. 9–12. ISBN 0231137249. ISBN 9780231137249. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
  59. Rice, Kim (2009). "Pansexuality". In Marshall Cavendish Corporation. Sex and Society. 2. Marshall Cavendish. p. 593. ISBN 978-0-7614-7905-5. Retrieved 3 October 2012. In some contexts, the term pansexuality is used interchangeably with bisexuality, which refers to attraction to individuals of both sexes. Those who identify as bisexual feel that gender, biological sex, and sexual orientation should not be a focal point in potential relationships.
  60. 1 2 Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E., Hunter, J., & Braun, L. (2006, February). Sexual identity development among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: Consistency and change over time. Journal of Sex Research, 43(1), 46–58. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
  61. Crompton, Louis (2003). Homosexuality and Civilization. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-01197-X.
  62. Bagemihl, Bruce (1999). Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. London: Profile Books, Ltd. ISBN 1-86197-182-6.
  63. Roughgarden, Joan (May 2004). Evolution's Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24073-1.
  64. Driscoll, Emily V. (July 2008). "Bisexual Species: Unorthodox Sex in the Animal Kingdom". Scientific American.
  65. Harper, Douglas (November 2001). "Bisexuality". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  66. 1 2 "Bisexuality: A unique sexual orientation". Retrieved 2011-01-15.
  67. Garber, Marjorie B. (2000). Bisexuality and the Eroticism of Everyday Life. New York: Routledge. p. 249. ISBN 0-415-92661-0.
  68. Carr, Roy; Murray, Charles Shaar (1981). Bowie: An Illustrated Record. New York: Avon. ISBN 0-380-77966-8.
  69. "Interview: David Bowie". Playboy. September 1976. Retrieved 14 September 2010.
  70. Buckley (2000): p. 401
  71. Buckley, David (2005) [First published 1999]. Strange Fascination — David Bowie: The Definitive Story. London: Virgin. ISBN 978-0-7535-1002-5., p. 106
  72. Bryant, Wayne (24 September 2008). "Is That Me Up There?". Taylor & Francis Online. Taylor & Francis Online. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
  73. Currah, Paisley; Juang, Richard M.; Minter, Shannon Price, eds. (2007). Transgender Rights. Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-4312-1.
  74. "Transgendered Youth at Risk for Exploitation, HIV, Hate Crimes". Inter-Q-Zone. 1995. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
  75. "transexual - definition of transexual by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2011-01-15.
  76. Money, J. (1994). "The Concept of gender identity disorder in childhood and adolescence after 39 years". Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 20 (3): 163–177. doi:10.1080/00926239408403428. PMID 7996589.
  77. Green, Jamison (June 2004). Becoming a Visible Man. Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt Univ. Press. ISBN 0-8265-1457-X.
  78. Hirschfeld, Magnus: Die Transvestiten. Eine Untersuchung über den erotischen Verkleidungstrieb mit umfangreichem casuistischen und historischen Material. Berlin 1910: Alfred Pulvermacher
    Hirschfeld, M. (1910/1991). Transvestites: The erotic drive to cross dress.([M. A. Lombardi-Nash, Trans.) Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.
  79. Feinbloom, Deborah Heller (1976). Transvestites & Transsexuals: Mixed Views. Delacorte Press/S. Lawrence. ISBN 0-440-08513-6.
  80. "Transgender FAQ". Retrieved 2007-04-07.
  81. Brown, Michael J. "Homophobia and Acceptance of Stereotypes About Gays and Lesbians." 7.3 (2009): 159,160-167. Print.
  82. Herek, Gregory. "Hating Gays: An Overview of Scientific Studies." PBS. PBS. Web. 18 Oct. 2014.
  83. Forsloff, Carol. "Gay Latinos Struggle to End Sex Stereotypes." Gay Latinos Struggle to End Sex Stereotypes. Digital Journal, 19 Jan. 2010. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
  84. Sung, Mi Ra; Szymanski, Dawn M.; Henrichs-Beck, Christy (2015). "Challenges, coping, and benefits of being an Asian American lesbian or bisexual woman.". Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity. 2 (1): 52–64. doi:10.1037/sgd0000085. ISSN 2329-0390.
  85. Callander, Denton; Newman, Christy E.; Holt, Martin (2015). "Is Sexual Racism Really Racism? Distinguishing Attitudes Toward Sexual Racism and Generic Racism Among Gay and Bisexual Men". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 44 (7): 1991–2000. doi:10.1007/s10508-015-0487-3. ISSN 0004-0002.
  86. Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Eibach, Richard P. (2008). "Intersectional Invisibility: The Distinctive Advantages and Disadvantages of Multiple Subordinate-Group Identities". Sex Roles. 59 (5-6): 377–391. doi:10.1007/s11199-008-9424-4. ISSN 0360-0025.
  87. Sue, Derald Wing; Bucceri, Jennifer; Lin, Annie I.; Nadal, Kevin L.; Torino, Gina C. (2007). "Racial microaggressions and the Asian American experience.". Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 13 (1): 72–81. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.13.1.72. ISSN 1939-0106.
  88. Greene, Beverly (1994). "Ethnic-minority lesbians and gay men: Mental health and treatment issues.". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 62 (2): 243–251. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.62.2.243. ISSN 1939-2117.
  89. Russell Leong (17 June 2014). Asian American Sexualities: Dimensions of the Gay and Lesbian Experience. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-71778-1.
  90. Sara E. Cooper (13 September 2013). Lesbian Images in International Popular Culture. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-99212-7.
  91. "Asian Pacific Islander Resource Kit | GLAAD". Retrieved 10 November 2016.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/5/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.