Newark, New Jersey
|Newark, New Jersey|
|City of Newark|
Newark skyline as seen from Harrison
|Nickname(s): "The Brick City", "The Gateway City"|
Map of Newark in Essex County. Inset: Location of Essex County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Newark, New Jersey
|Coordinates: 40°43′27″N 74°10′21″W / 40.72422°N 74.172574°WCoordinates: 40°43′27″N 74°10′21″W / 40.72422°N 74.172574°W|
|Incorporated||October 31, 1693 (as township)|
|Reincorporated||April 11, 1836 (as city)|
|• Type||Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)|
|• Body||City Council|
|• Mayor||Ras Baraka (term ends June 30, 2018)|
|• Administrator||Jack Kelly|
|• Clerk||Kenneth Louis|
|• Total||26.107 sq mi (67.617 km2)|
|• Land||24.187 sq mi (62.644 km2)|
|• Water||1.920 sq mi (4.973 km2) 7.35%|
103rd of 566 in state|
1st of 22 in county
|Elevation||13 ft (4 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Estimate (2015)||281,944|
67th in country|
1st of 566 in state
1st of 22 in county
|• Density||11,458.3/sq mi (4,424.1/km2)|
|• Density rank||
23rd of 566 in state|
4th of 22 in county
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC−5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC−4)|
|ZIP codes||07101-07108, 07112, 07114|
|GNIS feature ID||0885317|
Newark (// or also locally //) is the largest city (by population) in the U.S. state of New Jersey, and the county seat of Essex County. One of the nation's major air, shipping, and rail hubs, the city had a population of 277,140 in 2010, making it the nation's 67th most-populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000. For 2015, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated a population of 281,944, an increase of 1.7% from the 2010 enumeration, ranking the city the 70th largest in the nation. Newark is the second largest city in the New York metropolitan area, located approximately 8 miles (13 km) west of lower Manhattan.
Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest European cities in the United States. Its location at the mouth of the Passaic River (where it flows into Newark Bay), has made the city's waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark-Elizabeth is the primary container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal commercial airport in the United States, and today is one of its busiest.
Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible.com, and Manischewitz. A number of important higher education institutions are also located in the city, including the Newark campus of Rutgers University (which includes law and medical schools and the world-renowned Rutgers Institute of Jazz Studies); the New Jersey Institute of Technology; and Seton Hall University's law school. The U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey holds court in the city, as well. Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, The Prudential Center and the Newark Museum.
Newark is divided into five political wards; the East, West, South, North and Central wards and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, numbering over 5,000.
Newark was originally founded in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony. It was conceived as a theocratic assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas.
The name of the city is thought to derive from Newark-on-Trent, England. This is on the grounds that the name was influenced by the original pastor, Abraham Pierson, who came from Yorkshire but may have ministered in Newark, Nottinghamshire. But Pierson is also supposed to have said that the community reflecting the new task at hand should be named "New Ark" for "New Ark of the Covenant and some of the colonists saw it as "New-Work", the settlers' new work with God. Whatever the origins, the name was shortened to Newark, although references to the name "New Ark" are found in preserved letters written by historical figures such as David Ogden in his claim for compensation, and James McHenry, as late as 1787.
The city saw tremendous industrial and population growth during the 19th century and early 20th century, and experienced racial tension and urban decline in the second half of the 20th century, culminating in the 1967 Newark riots. The city has experienced revitalization during the 1990s and early 21st century.
Newark was originally formed as a township on October 31, 1693, based on the Newark Tract, which was first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27, 1713. During the American Revolutionary War there were several incidents when British troops made raids into the town.
Established on February 21, 1798, it was incorporated by the New Jersey Legislature's Township Act of 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships. During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township (April 14, 1794), Caldwell Township (February 16, 1798; now known as Fairfield Township), Orange Township (November 27, 1806), Bloomfield Township (March 23, 1812) and Clinton Township (April 14, 1834, remainder reabsorbed by Newark on March 5, 1902). Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836. The previously independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood. As a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known as Ivy Hill was re-annexed to Newark's Vailsburg.
Geography and climate
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 26.107 square miles (67.617 km2), including 24.187 square miles (62.644 km2) of land and 1.920 square miles (4.973 km2) of water (7.35%) was water. It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U.S., behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, Florida. The city's altitude ranges from 0 (sea level) in the east to approximately 230 feet (70 m) above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is essentially a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, with a few valleys formed by meandering streams. Historically, Newark's high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods. In the 19th century and early 20th century, the wealthy congregated on the ridges of Forest Hill, High Street, and Weequahic.
Until the 20th century, the marshes on Newark Bay were difficult to develop, as the marshes were essentially wilderness, with a few dumps, warehouses, and cemeteries on their edges. During the 20th century, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was able to reclaim 68 acres (28 ha) of the marshland for the further expansion of Newark Airport, as well as the growth of the port lands.
Newark is surrounded by residential suburbs to the west (on the slope of the Watchung Mountains), the Passaic River and Newark Bay to the east, dense urban areas to the south and southwest, and middle-class residential suburbs and industrial areas to the north. The city is the largest in New Jersey's Gateway Region, which is said to have received its name from Newark's nickname as the "Gateway City".
|| East Orange
|Belleville Township|| East Newark
| Irvington Township
South Orange Village Township
Newark is New Jersey's largest and second-most racially diverse city (after neighboring Jersey City). It is divided into five political wards, which are often used by residents to identify their place of habitation. In recent years, residents have begun to identify with specific neighborhood names instead of the larger ward appellations. Nevertheless, the wards remain relatively distinct. Industrial uses, coupled with the airport and seaport lands, are concentrated in the East and South Wards, while residential neighborhoods exist primarily in the North, Central, and West Wards.
State law requires that wards be compact and contiguous and that the largest ward may not exceed the population of the smallest by more than 10% of the average ward size. Ward boundaries are redrawn, as needed, by a board of ward commissioners consisting of two Democrats and two Republicans appointed at the county level and the municipal clerk. Redrawing of ward lines in previous decades have shifted traditional boundaries, so that downtown currently occupies portions of the East and Central Wards. The boundaries of the wards are altered for various political and demographic reasons and sometimes gerrymandered, especially the northeastern portion of the West Ward.
Newark's Central Ward, formerly known as the old Third Ward, contains much of the city's history including the original squares Lincoln Park, Military Park and Washington Park. The Ward contains the University Heights, The Coast/Lincoln Park, Government Center, Springfield/Belmont and Seventh Avenue neighborhoods. Of these neighborhood designations only University Heights, a more recent designation for the area that was the subject of the 1968 novel Howard Street by Nathan Heard, is still in common usage. The Central Ward extends at one point as far north as 2nd Avenue.
In the 19th century, the Central Ward was inhabited by Germans and other white Catholic and Christian groups. The German inhabitants were later replaced by Jews, who were then replaced by Blacks. The increased academic footprint in the University Heights neighborhood has produced gentrification, with landmark buildings undergoing renovation. Located in the Central Ward is the largest health sciences university in the nation, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School. It is also home to three other universities – New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), Rutgers University – Newark, and Essex County College. The Central Ward forms the present-day heart of Newark, and includes 26 public schools, two police precincts, including headquarters, four firehouses, and one branch library.
The North Ward is surrounded by Branch Brook Park. Its neighborhoods include Broadway, Mount Pleasant, Upper Roseville and the affluent Forest Hill section. Forest Hill contains the Forest Hill Historic District, which is registered on state and national historic registers, and contains many older mansions and colonial homes. A row of residential towers with security guards and secure parking line Mt. Prospect Avenue in the Forest Hill neighborhood. The North Ward has lost geographic area in recent times; its southern boundary is now significantly further north than the traditional boundary near Interstate 280. The North Ward historically had a large Italian population; demographics have transitioned to Latino in recent decades, though the ward as a whole remains ethnically diverse.
The West Ward comprises the neighborhoods of Vailsburg, Ivy Hill, West Side, Fairmount and Lower Roseville. It is home to the historic Fairmount Cemetery. The West Ward, once a predominately Irish-American, Polish, and Ukrainian neighborhood, is now home to neighborhoods composed primarily of Latinos, African Americans, and Caribbean Americans. The West Ward has struggled in recent years with elevated rates of crime, particularly violent crime.
The South Ward comprises the Weequahic, Clinton Hill, Dayton, and South Broad Valley neighborhoods. The South Ward, once home to residents of predominately Jewish descent, now has ethnic neighborhoods made up primarily of African Americans and Hispanics. The South Ward is represented by Council Member John Sharpe James. The city's second-largest hospital, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, can be found in the South Ward, as can 17 public schools, five daycare centers, three branch libraries, one police precinct, a mini precinct, and three fire houses.
The East Ward consists of much of Newark's Downtown commercial district, as well as the Ironbound neighborhood, where much of Newark's industry was located in the 19th century. Today, due to the enterprise of its immigrant population, the Ironbound (also known as "Down Neck" and "The Neck") is a destination for shopping, dining, and nightlife. A historically immigrant-dominated section of the city, the Ironbound in recent decades has been termed "Little Portugal" and "Little Brazil" due to its heavily Portuguese and Brazilian population; Newark being home to one of the largest Portuguese speaking communities in the United States. In addition, the East Ward has become home to various Latin Americans, African Americans, and commuters to Manhattan. Public education in the East Ward consists of East Side High School and six elementary schools. The ward is largely composed of densely packed housing, primarily large apartment buildings and rowhouses.
Newark lies in the transition between a humid subtropical and humid continental climate (Köppen Cfa/Dfa), with cold, damp winters and hot, humid summers. The January daily mean is 31.6 °F (−0.2 °C), and although temperatures below 10 °F (−12 °C) are to be expected in most years, sub-0 °F (−18 °C) readings are rare; conversely, some days may warm up to 50 °F (10 °C). The average seasonal snowfall is 29.5 inches (75 cm), though variations in weather patterns may bring sparse snowfall in some years and several major Nor'easters in others, with the heaviest 24-hour fall of 25.9 inches (66 cm) occurring on December 26, 1947. Spring and autumn in the area are generally unstable yet mild. The July daily mean is 77.4 °F (25.2 °C), and highs exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on an average 27 days per year, not factoring in the oft-higher heat index.
The city receives precipitation ranging from 2.9 to 4.8 inches (74 to 122 mm) per month, usually falling on 8 to 12 days per month. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −14 °F (−26 °C) on February 9, 1934 to 108 °F (42 °C) on July 22, 2011.
|Climate data for Newark, New Jersey (Newark Liberty Int'l)|
|Record high °F (°C)|| 74
|Mean maximum °F (°C)|| 60.2
|Average high °F (°C)|| 38.8
|Average low °F (°C)|| 24.5
|Mean minimum °F (°C)|| 7.8
|Record low °F (°C)|| −8
|Average precipitation inches (mm)|| 3.53
|Average snowfall inches (cm)|| 8.9
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.4||9.8||11.0||11.5||11.3||11.0||10.1||9.7||8.6||8.7||9.5||10.6||122.1|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||5.0||3.7||2.4||.4||0||0||0||0||0||0||.4||2.9||14.7|
|Source: NOAA (normals 1981–2010, extremes 1931–present)|
|Newark, New Jersey|
|Population sources: 1810–1920|
1810–1910 1840 1850–1870
1850 1870 1880–1890
1930–1990 2000 2010
* = Territory change in previous decade.
|Racial & Ethnic composition||2010||2000||1990||1950||1900|
|Black or African American||52.4%||53.4%||58.5%||17.1%||2.7%|
|Some Other Race||15.2%||13.9%||11.5%||n/a||n/a|
|Two or More Races||3.8%||5.0%||n/a||n/a||n/a|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||33.8%||29.4%||26.0%||n/a||n/a|
The city had a population of 277,140 as of the 2010 Census, retaining its position as the largest city in the state and making it the nation's 67th most-populous municipality. After reaching a peak of 442,337 residents counted in the 1930 Census, the city's population saw a decline of nearly 40% as residents moved to surrounding suburbs, with the increase in 2010 of 3,594 (+1.3%) from the 273,546 counted in the 2000 Census marking the second census in 70 years in which the city's population had grown from the previous enumeration.
"White flight" from Newark to the suburbs, which started in the 1940s accelerated in the 1960s. The 1967 riots resulted in a significant population loss of the city's middle class, many of them Jewish, which continued from the 1970s through to the 1990s. The city lost about 130,000 residents between 1960 and 1990.
From the 1950s to 1967, white population shrank from 363,000 to 158,000, its black population grew from 70,000 to 220,000. The percentage of Non-Hispanic whites declined from 82.8% in 1950 to 11.6% by 2010. The percentage of Latinos in Newark grew between 1980 and 2010, from 18.6% to 33.8% while that of Blacks decreased from 58.2% to 52.4%.
In advance of the 2000 United States Census, city officials made a push to get residents to respond and participate in the enumeration, citing calculations by city officials that as many as 30,000 people were not reflected in estimates from the Census Bureau, which resulted in the loss of government aid and political representation. It is believed that heavily immigrant areas of Newark were significantly undercounted in the 2010 Census, especially in the East Ward. Many households refused to participate in the census, with immigrants often reluctant to submit census forms because they believed that the information could be used to justify their deportation.
At the 2010 United States Census, there were 277,140 people, 94,542 households, and 61,641 families residing in the city. The population density was 11,458.3 per square mile (4,424.1/km2). There were 109,520 housing units at an average density of 4,528.1 per square mile (1,748.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 26.31% (72,914) White, 52.35% (145,085) Black or African American, 0.61% (1,697) Native American, 1.62% (4,485) Asian, 0.04% (118) Pacific Islander, 15.22% (42,181) from other races, and 3.85% (10,660) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 33.83% (93,746) of the population.
There were 94,542 households, of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.0% were married couples living together, 28.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.8% were non-families. 27.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.36.
In the city, 25.6% of the population were under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.3 years. For every 100 females there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.3 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $35,659 (with a margin of error of +/- $1,009) and the median family income was $41,684 (+/- $1,116). Males had a median income of $34,350 (+/- $1,015) versus $32,865 (+/- $973) for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,367 (+/- $364). About 22.0% of families and 25.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.9% of those under age 18 and 22.4% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 273,546 people, 91,382 households, and 61,956 families residing in the city. The population density was 11,495.0 per square mile (4,437.7/km²). There were 100,141 housing units at an average density of 4,208.1 per square mile (1,624.6//km²). The racial makeup of the city as of the 2000 Census was 53.46% (146,250) African American, 26.52% (72,537) White, 1.19% (3,263) Asian, 0.37% (1,005) Native American, 0.05% (135) Pacific Islander, 14.05% (38,430) from other races, and 4.36% (11,926) from two or more races. 29.47% (80,622) of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
As of the 2000 Census, 49.2% of the city's 80,622 residents who identified themselves as Hispanic or Latino were from Puerto Rico, while 9.4% were from Ecuador and 7.8% from the Dominican Republic. There is a significant Portuguese-speaking community concentrated in the Ironbound district. 2000 Census data showed that Newark had 15,801 residents of Portuguese ancestry (5.8% of the population), while an additional 5,805 (2.1% of the total) were of Brazilian ancestry.
There were 91,382 households out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.0% were married couples living together, 29.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.2% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.8 and the average family size was 3.40.
In the city the age distribution of the population shows 27.9% under the age of 18, 12.1% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, and 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females of age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $26,913, and the median income for a family was $30,781. Males had a median income of $29,748 versus $25,734 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,009. 28.4% of the population and 25.5% of families were below the poverty line. 36.6% of those under the age of 18 and 24.1% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. The city's unemployment rate was 8.5%.
More than 100,000 people commute to Newark each workday, making it the state's largest employment center with many white-collar jobs in insurance, finance, import-export, health-care, and government. As a major courthouse venue including federal, state, and county facilities, it is home to more than 1,000 law firms. The city is also a "college town", with nearly 50,000 students attending the city's universities and medical and law schools. Its airport, maritime port, rail facilities, and highway network make Newark the busiest transshipment hub on the East Coast in terms of volume.
Though Newark is not the industrial colossus of the past, the city does have a considerable amount of industry and light manufacturing. The southern portion of the Ironbound, also known as the Industrial Meadowlands, has seen many factories built since World War II, including a large Anheuser-Busch brewery that opened in 1951 and distributed 7.5 million barrels of beer in 2007. The service industry is also growing rapidly, replacing those in the manufacturing industry, which was once Newark's primary economy. In addition, transportation has become a large business in Newark, accounting for more than 17,000 jobs in 2011.
Newark is one of nine cities in New Jersey designated as eligible for Urban Transit Hub Tax Credits by the state's Economic Development Authority. Developers who invest a minimum of $50 million within 0.5 miles of a train station are eligible for pro-rated tax credit. After the election of Cory Booker, millions of dollars of public-private partnership investment were made in Downtown development but persistent underemployment continue to characterize many of the city's neighborhoods. Poverty remains a consistent problem in Newark. As of 2010, roughly one-third of the city's population was impoverished.
Newark is the third-largest insurance center in the United States, after New York City and Hartford. The Prudential Financial, Mutual Benefit Life, Fireman's Insurance, and American Insurance Company all originated in the city. The first, one of the largest insurance companies in the world, has its "home office in Newark. Many other companies are headquartered in the city, including IDT Corporation, NJ Transit, Public Service Enterprise Group (PSEG), Manischewitz, Horizon Blue Cross and Blue Shield of New Jersey. and Audible.com. In 2013 Panasonic moved its North American headquarters to a new 250,000-square-foot (23,000 m2) office building.
Portions of Newark are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate (versus the 7% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants.
Port Newark is the part of Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal and the largest cargo facility in the Port of New York and New Jersey. Located on Newark Bay, it is run by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and serves as the principal container ship facility for goods entering and leaving the New York metropolitan region and the northeastern quadrant of North America. The Port moved over $100 billion in goods in 2003, making it the 15th busiest in the world at the time, but was the number one container port as recently as 1985. Plans are underway for billions of dollars of improvements – larger cranes, bigger railyard facilities, deeper channels, and expanded wharves.
Arts and culture
Architecture and sculptures
There are several notable Beaux-Arts buildings, such as the Veterans' Administration building, the Newark Museum, the Newark Public Library, and the Cass Gilbert-designed Essex County Courthouse. Notable Art Deco buildings include several 1930s era skyscrapers, such as the National Newark Building and Eleven 80, the restored Newark Penn Station, and Arts High School. Gothic architecture can be found at the Cathedral of the Sacred Heart by Branch Brook Park, which is one of the largest gothic cathedrals in the United States. It is rumored to have as much stained glass as the Cathedral of Chartres. Newark also has two public sculpture works by Gutzon Borglum — Wars of America in Military Park and Seated Lincoln in front of the Essex County Courthouse. Moorish Revival buildings include Newark Symphony Hall and the Prince Street Synagogue, one of the oldest synagogue buildings in New Jersey.
The New Jersey Performing Arts Center, located near Military Park opened in 1997, is the home of the New Jersey Symphony Orchestra and the New Jersey State Opera, The center's programs of national and international music, dance, and theater make it the nation's sixth-largest performing arts center, attracting over 400,000 visitors each year.
Prior to the opening of the performing arts center, Newark Symphony Hall was home to the New Jersey Symphony, the New Jersey State Opera, and the Garden State Ballet, which stills maintains an academy there. The 1925 neo-classic building, originally built by the Shriners, has three performance spaces, including the main concert named in honor of famous Newarker Sarah Vaughan, offering rhythm and blues, rap, hip-hop, and gospel music concerts, and is part of the modern-day Chitlin' Circuit.
The Newark Boys Chorus, founded in 1966, performs regularly in the city. The African Globe Theater Works presents a new works seasonally. The biennial Geraldine R. Dodge Poetry Festival took place in Newark for the first time in 2010.
Venues at the universities in the city are also used to present professional and semi-professional theater, dance, and music. Since its opening, the Prudential Center in 2007 has presented Diana Ross, Katy Perry, Lady Gaga, Britney Spears, The Eagles, Hannah Montana/Miley Cyrus, Spice Girls, Jonas Brothers, Metro Station, Metallica, Alicia Keys, Demi Lovato, David Archuleta, Taylor Swift and American Idol Live!, among others. Bon Jovi performed a series of ten concerts to mark the venue's opening.
Museums, libraries, and galleries
The Newark Museum is the largest in New Jersey. Highlights of its collection include American and Tibetan art. The museum also contains science galleries, a planetarium, a gallery for children's exhibits, a fire museum, a sculpture garden and an 18th-century schoolhouse. Also part of the museum is the historic John Ballantine House, a restored Victorian mansion which is a National Historic Landmark. The museum co-sponsors the Newark Black Film Festival, which has premiered numerous films since its founding in 1974.
The city is also home to the New Jersey Historical Society, which has rotating exhibits on New Jersey and Newark. The Newark Public Library, the state's largest system with 11 locations, also produces a series of historical exhibits. The library houses more than a million volumes and has frequent exhibits on a variety of topics, many featuring items from its Fine Print and Special Collections.
Since 1962, Newark has been home to the Institute of Jazz Studies, the world's foremost jazz archives and research libraries. Located in the John Cotton Dana Library at Rutgers-Newark, the Institute houses more than 200,000 jazz recordings in all commercially available formats, more than 6,000 monograph titles, including discographies, biographies, history and criticism, published music, film and video; over 600 periodicals and serials, dating back to the early 20th century; and one of the country's most comprehensive jazz oral history collections, featuring more than 150 jazz oral histories, most with typed transcripts.
In February 2004, plans were announced for a new Smithsonian Institution-affiliated Museum of African American Music to be built in the city's Coast/Lincoln Park neighborhood. The museum will be dedicated to black musical styles, from gospel to rap. The new museum will incorporate the façade of the old South Park Presbyterian Church, where Abraham Lincoln once spoke.
On December 9, 2007, the Jewish Museum of New Jersey, located at 145 Broadway in the Broadway neighborhood, held its grand opening. The museum is dedicated to the cultural heritage of New Jersey's Jewish people. The museum is housed at Ahavas Sholom, the last continually operating synagogue in Newark. By the 1950s there were 50 synagogues in Newark serving a Jewish population of 70,000 to 80,000, once the sixth-largest Jewish community in the United States.
Newark is also home to numerous art galleries including the Paul Robeson Galleries at Rutgers University–Newark, as well as Aljira, a Center for Contemporary Art, City Without Walls, Gallery Aferro and Sumei Arts Center.
In April 2010, plans were announced for a new Children's Museum of New Jersey to be created across from Newark Penn Station. These plans have yet to be realized. According to planners, due to a reported lack of funding and a poor economy, "the project went to sleep".
Since 2009, the Newark Planning Office, in collaboration with local arts organizations, has sponsored Newark Murals, and seen the creation of 21 outdoor murals about significant people, places, and events in the city. New initiatives through private sponsorship were announced in 2014.
Festivals and parades
Festivals and parades held annually or bi-annually include the Cherry Blossom Festival (April) in Branch Brook Park, the Portugal Day Festival (June) in The Ironbound, the McDonald's Gospelfest (June) at Prudential Center, the Lincoln Park Music Festival (July) at Lincoln Park, the Newark Black Film Festival (Summer) and Paul Robeson Awards (biennial), the Geraldine R. Dodge Poetry Festival (October, biennial) at various venues and the citywide Open Doors (October).
Media and communications
Newark is within the metro New York media market.
The state's leading newspaper, The Star-Ledger, owned by Advance Publications, is based in Newark. The newspaper sold its headquarters in July 2014, with the offices of the publisher, the editorial board, columnists, and magazine relocating to the Gateway Center.
Pioneer radio station WOR was started by Bamberger Broadcasting Service in 1922 and broadcast from studios at its retailer's downtown department store. Today the building serves telecom, colocation, and computer support industries.
Radio station WJZ (now WABC) made its first broadcast in 1921 from the Westinghouse plant near Broad Street Station. It moved to New York City in the 1920s. Radio station WNEW-AM (now WBBR) was founded in Newark in 1934 and later moved to New York City. WBGO, a National Public Radio affiliate with a format of standard and contemporary jazz, is at 54 Park Place in downtown Newark. WNSW AM-1430 (formerly WNJR) and WQXR (which was formerly WHBI and later WCAA) 105.9 FM are also licensed to Newark.
Newark was used by the Bell System in 1915 to test panel switching technology; using an exchange called Mulberry which cutover on January 16, 1915, and then the Waverly exchange which cutover on June 12, 1915; the Panel system was the Bell answer to the big city problem. As originally introduced in these exchanges, subscribers had no dials on their telephones and continued to make calls by asking an operator to ring their called party, at which point the operator keyed the number into the panel equipment, instead of making cord connections manually.
New Jersey's first television station, WATV Channel 13, signed-on May 15, 1948, from studios at the Mosque Theater known as the "Television Center Newark." The studios were home to WNTA-13 beginning in 1958 and WNJU-47 until 1989.
WNET, a flagship station of the Public Broadcasting Service, and Spanish-language WFUT-TV, a UniMás owned-and-operated station, are licensed to Newark. Tempo Networks, producing for the pan-Caribbean television market, is based in the city. NwkTV has been the city's government access channel since 2009 and broadcast on as Channel 78 on Cablevision. The company has a high-tech call center in Newark, employing over 500 people. PBS network NJTV's main broadcasting studios (NJTV is also a sister station of the Newark-licensed WNET) are also located in the Gateway Center Office Complex.
Filming in the city
Numerous movies, television programs, and music videos have been shot in Newark, its period architecture and its streetscape seen as an ideal "urban setting". The Jersey Motion Picture and Television Commission is located in the city. In 2011, the city created the Newark Office of Film and Television in order to promote the making of media productions. Some months earlier the Ironbound Film & Television Studios, the only, "stay and shoot" facility in the metro area opened, its first production being Bar Karma. In 2012 the city hosted the seventh season of the reality show competition America's Got Talent.
There have been several film and TV productions depicting life in Newark. Life of Crime, was originally produced in 1988 and was followed by a 1998 sequel. New Jersey Drive, a 1995 film about the city when it was considered the "car theft capital of the world". Street Fight is an Academy Award-nominated documentary film which covered the 2002 mayoral election between incumbent Sharpe James and challenger Cory Booker. In 2009, the Sundance Channel aired Brick City, a five-part television documentary about Newark, focusing on the community's attempt to become a better and safer place to live, against a history of nearly a half century of violence, poverty and official corruption. The second season premiered January 30, 2011. Revolution '67 is an award winning documentary which examines the causes and events of the 1967 Newark riots. The HBO television series The Sopranos filmed many of its scenes in Newark, and is partially based on the life of Newark mobster Richard Boiardo. The Once and Future Newark (2006) is documentary travelogue about places of cultural, social and historical significance by Rutgers History Professor Clement Price.
Newark has hosted many teams, though much of the time without an MLB, NBA, NHL, or NFL team in the city proper. Currently, the city is home to just one, the NHL's New Jersey Devils. As the second largest city in New York metropolitan area Newark is part the regional professional sports and media markets.
Two venues in the northeastern New Jersey metro region are in Downtown Newark: Prudential Center, a multi-purpose indoor arena designed by HOK Sport that opened in October 2007 with a Bon Jovi concert and a hockey game. Known as "The Rock", the arena is the home of the National Hockey League's New Jersey Devils and the NCAA's Seton Hall Pirates men's basketball team, seating 18,711 for basketball and 16,514 for hockey. Riverfront Stadium was a 6,200-seat baseball park that was home to the baseball teams of the Rutgers-Newark Scarlet Raiders, who play in the New Jersey Athletic Conference as part of NCAA Division III, and the NJIT Highlanders, who play in the Atlantic Sun Conference as part of NCAA Division I. The stadium opened in July 1999 as the home of the Newark Bears, who played in the stadium until the team folded in 2014. The site of the stadium was sold in March 2016 to a developer who plans a mixed-use residential high rise project.
Red Bull Arena, home of the New York Red Bulls of Major League Soccer, opened in 2010 just across the Passaic River in Harrison. The Meadowlands Sports Complex is less than 10 miles (16 km) from Downtown and can be reached with the Meadowlands Rail Line via Newark Penn Station or Broad Street Station.
|New Jersey Devils||Ice Hockey||1982 (Moved to Newark in 2007)||NHL||Prudential Center|
|Newark Bears||Baseball||1998 (Disbanded in 2014)||Atlantic League 1998–2010
Can-Am League 2010–2014
The New Jersey Nets played two seasons (2010–2012) at the Prudential Center until moving to the Barclays Center. The New York Liberty of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) also played there for three seasons (2011–2013) during renovations of Madison Square Garden. The center has hosted 2012 Stanley Cup Finals, the 2011 NBA draft, the 2011 NBA draft, the 2013 NHL Entry Draft. EliteXC: Primetime, a mixed martial arts (MMA) event which took place on May 31, 2008, was the first MMA event aired in primetime on major American network television.
Newark was a host city and its airport a gateway for Super Bowl XLVIII which was played on February 2, 2014. The game took place at Met Life Stadium, home of the hosting teams New York Giants and New York Jets. Media Day, the first event leading up to the game, took place on January 28 at the Prudential Center. The original Vince Lombardi Trophy, produced by Tiffany & Co. in Newark in 1967 and borrowed from the Green Bay Packers, was being displayed at the Newark Museum from January 8 until March 30, 2014. Ultimate Fighting Championship's annual Super Bowl weekend mixed martial arts event, UFC 169: Cruz vs. Barao, took place on February 1 at the Prudential Center.
The city is governed within the Faulkner Act, formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law, under the Mayor-Council Plan C form of local government, which became effective as of July 1, 1954, after the voters of the city of Newark passed a referendum held on November 3, 1953. There are nine council members elected on a nonpartisan basis at the regular municipal election or at the general election for terms of four years: one council member from each of five wards and four council members on an at-large basis. The mayor is also elected for a term of four years.
The Mayor of Newark is Ras Baraka, who is serving a term of office ending on June 30, 2018. After becoming acting mayor on October 31, 2013, Luis A. Quintana, born in Añasco, Puerto Rico, was sworn in as Newark's first Latino mayor on November 4, 2013, assuming the unexpired term of Cory Booker, who vacated the position to become the junior U.S. Senator from New Jersey. Quintana's term ended on June 30, 2014. He was selected unanimously at a council meeting to replace the previously elected Booker, who resigned and was sworn in on October 31, 2013 after winning the October 16 special election for U.S. Senator to replace the seat held by Frank Lautenberg until his death. The Newark mayoral election took place on May 13, 2014, and was won by Baraka, who was sworn in as Newark's 40th Mayor on July 1, 2014.
As of 2016, Newark's Municipal Council consists of the following members, all serving concurrent terms of office ending June 30, 2018:
- Council President Mildred C. Crump (At-Large)
- Augusto Amador (East Ward)
- Gayle Chaneyfield-Jenkins (Central Ward)
- Carlos M. Gonzalez (At-Large)
- John Sharpe James (South Ward)
- Joe McCallum (West Ward)
- Eddie Osborne (At-Large)
- Luis A. Quintana (At-Large)
- Anibal Ramos Jr. (North Ward)
Federal, state, and county representation
Newark is split between the 8th and 10th Congressional Districts and is part of New Jersey's 28th and 29th state legislative districts. Prior to the 2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, Newark had been split between the 27th, 28th and 29th state legislative districts. Prior to the 2010 Census, Newark had been split between the 10th Congressional District and the 13th Congressional District, a change made by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission that took effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections. As part of the split that took effect in 2013, 123,763 residents in two non-contiguous sections in the city's north and northeast were placed in the 8th District and 153,377 in the southern and western portions of the city were placed in the 10th District.
New Jersey's Eighth Congressional District is represented by Albio Sires (D, West New York). New Jersey's Tenth Congressional District is represented by Donald Payne Jr. (D, Newark). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark, term ends 2021) and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus, 2019).
For the 2016–2017 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 28th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Ronald Rice (D, Newark) and in the General Assembly by Ralph R. Caputo (D, Nutley) and Cleopatra Tucker (D, Newark). For the 2016–2017 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 29th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Teresa Ruiz (D, Newark) and in the General Assembly by Eliana Pintor Marin (D, Newark) and Blonnie R. Watson (D, Newark). Watson was sworn into office on July 21, 2016, to fill the seat of L. Grace Spencer, who had resigned from office on June 30, 2016, to become a judge of the New Jersey Superior Court. The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Essex County is governed by a directly-elected County Executive, with legislative functions performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders. As of 2014, the County Executive is Joseph N. DiVincenzo, Jr. The county's Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, four elected on an at-large basis and one from each of five wards, who serve three-year terms of office on a concurrent basis, all of which end December 31, 2014. Essex County's Freeholders are Freeholder President Blonnie R. Watson (at large; Newark), Freeholder Vice President Patricia Sebold (at large; Livingston), Rufus I. Johnson (at large; Newark), Gerald W. Owens (At large; South Orange, filling the vacant seat after the resignation of Donald Payne, Jr.) Rolando Bobadilla (District 1 - Newark's North and East Wards, parts of Central and West Wards; Newark), D. Bilal Beasley (District 2 - Irvington, Maplewood and Newark's South Ward and parts of West Ward; Irvington), Carol Y. Clark (District 3 - East Orange, Newark's West and Central Wards, Orange and South Orange; East Orange) and Leonard M. Luciano (District 4 - Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Fairfield, Livingston, Millburn, North Caldwell, Roseland, Verona, West Caldwell and West Orange; West Caldwell), and Brendan W. Gill (District 5 - Belleville, Bloomfield, Glen Ridge, Montclair and Nutley; Montclair). Constitutional elected countywide are County Clerk Christopher J. Durkin (West Caldwell, 2015), Sheriff Armando B. Fontoura (2015) and Surrogate Theodore N. Stephens, II (2016).
On the national level, Newark leans strongly toward the Democratic Party. As of March 23, 2011, out of a 2010 Census population of 277,140 in Newark, there were 136,785 registered voters (66.3% of the 2010 population ages 18 and over of 206,253, vs. 77.7% in all of Essex County of the 589,051 ages 18 and up) of which, 68,393 (50.0% vs. 45.9% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 3,548 (2.6% vs. 9.9% countywide) were registered as Republicans, 64,812 (47.4% vs. 44.1% countywide) were registered as Unaffiliated and there were 30 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 95.0% of the vote (78,352 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 4.7% (3,852 votes), and other candidates with 0.4% (298 votes), among the 82,030 ballots cast by the city's 145,059 registered voters for a turnout of 56.5%. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 90.8% of the vote (77,112 ballots cast), ahead of Republican John McCain who received 7.0% of the vote (5,957 votes), with 84,901 of the city's 140,946 registered voters participating, for a turnout of 60.2% of registered voters. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 85.9% of the vote (62,700 ballots), outpolling Republican George W. Bush, who received 12.8% (9,344), with 72,977 of 127,049 registered voters participating, for a turnout percentage of 57.4%.
In the 2016 presidential election, Democrat Hillary Clinton received 90.7% of the vote (69,042 cast); Republican, Donald Trump received 6.7% of the vote (5,094 cast); and other candidates received 1.5% of the vote (1,139 cast).
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 80.8% of the vote (29,039 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 17.9% (6,443 votes), and other candidates with 1.2% (437 votes), among the 37,114 ballots cast by the city's 149,778 registered voters (1,195 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 24.8%. In the 2009 Gubernatorial Election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 90.2% of the vote (36,637 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie who received 8.3% of the vote (5,957 votes), with 40,613 of the city's 134,195 registered voters (30.3%) participating.
Newark has been marred with episodes of political corruption throughout the years. Five of the previous seven mayors of Newark have been indicted on criminal charges, including the three mayors before Cory Booker: Hugh Addonizio, Kenneth Gibson and Sharpe James. As reported by Newsweek: "... every mayor since 1962 (except one, Cory Booker) has been indicted for crimes committed while in office".
Addonizio was mayor of Newark from 1962 to 1970. A son of Italian immigrants, a tailor and World War II veteran, he ran on a reform platform, defeating the incumbent, Leo Carlin, whom, ironically, Addonizio characterized as corrupt and a part of the political machine of the era. In December 1969, Addonizio and nine present or former officials of the municipal administration in Newark were indicted by a Federal grand jury; five other persons were also indicted. In July 1970, the former mayor, and four other defendants, were found guilty by a Federal jury on 64 counts each, one of conspiracy and 63 of extortion. In September 1970, Addonizio was sentenced to ten years in federal prison and fined $25,000 by Federal Judge George Herbert Barlow for his role in a plot that involved the extortion of $1.5 million in kickbacks, a crime that the judge said "tore at the very heart of our civilized society and our form of representative government".
His successor was Kenneth Gibson, the city's first African American mayor, elected in 1970. He pleaded guilty to federal tax evasion in 2002 as part of a plea agreement on fraud and bribery charges. During his tenure as mayor in 1980, Gibson was tried and acquitted of giving out no-show jobs by an Essex County jury.
Sharpe James, who defeated Gibson in 1986 and declined to run for a sixth term in 2006, was indicted on 33 counts of conspiracy, mail fraud, and wire fraud by a federal grand jury sitting in Newark. The grand jury charged James with spending $58,000 on city-owned credit cards for personal gain and orchestrating a scheme to sell city-owned land at below-market prices to his companion, who immediately re-sold the land to developers and gained a profit of over $500,000. James pleaded not guilty on 25 counts at his initial court appearance on July 12, 2007. On April 17, 2008, James was found guilty for his role in the conspiring to rig land sales at nine city-owned properties for personal gain. The former mayor was sentenced to serve up to 27 months in prison, and was released on April 6, 2010, for good behavior.
Colleges and universities
Newark is the home of the multiple institutions of higher education, including: a Berkeley College campus, the main campus of Essex County College, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), the Newark Campus of Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences (formerly University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey), Rutgers University–Newark and Seton Hall University School of Law. Most of Newark's academic institutions are located in the city's University Heights district. The colleges and universities have worked together to help revitalize the area, which serves more than 50,000 students and faculty.
As of the 2006–2010 American Community Survey, 16.0% of Newark residents ages 25 and over had never attended high school and 15.9% didn't graduate, while 68.1% had at least graduated from high school, including the 12.3% who had earned a bachelor's degree or higher. The total school enrollment in Newark city was 75,025 in the 2006–2010 ACS, with pre-primary school enrollment of 10,560, elementary or high school enrollment of 46,691 and college enrollment of 17,774.
The Newark Public Schools, a state-operated school district, is the largest school system in New Jersey. The district is one of 31 former Abbott districts statewide, which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority. As of the 2013–14 school year, the district's 73 schools had an enrollment of 34,976 students and 3,057 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 11.4:1.
Science Park High School, which was the 69th-ranked public high school in New Jersey out of 322 schools statewide, in New Jersey Monthly magazine's September 2010 cover story on the state's "Top Public High Schools", after being ranked 50th in 2008 out of 316 schools. Technology High School has a GreatSchools rating of 9/10 was ranked 165th in New Jersey Monthly's 2010 rankings. Newark high schools ranked in the bottom 10% of the New Jersey Monthly 2010 list include Central (274th), East Side (293rd), Newark Vocational (304th), Weequahic (310th), Barringer (311th), Malcolm X Shabazz (314th) and West Side (319th). Facebook co-founder Mark Zuckerberg donated a challenge grant of $100 million to the district in 2010, choosing Newark because he stated he believed in Mayor Cory Booker and Governor Chris Christie's abilities.
Charter schools in Newark include the Robert Treat Academy Charter School, a National Blue Ribbon School drawing students from all over Newark. It remains one of the top performing K-8 schools in New Jersey based on standardized test scores. University Heights Charter School is another charter school, serving children in grades K-5, recognized as a 2011 Epic Silver Gain School. Gray Charter School, like Robert Treat, also won a Blue Ribbon Award. Also, Newark Collegiate Academy (NCA) opened in August 2007 and currently serves 420 students in grades 9–12. It will ultimately serve over 570 students, mostly matriculating from other charter schools in the area.
The city hosts three high schools as part of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark: the coeducational Christ The King Prep, founded in 2007, is part of the Cristo Rey Community; Saint Benedict's Preparatory School is an all-boys Roman Catholic high school founded in 1868 and conducted by the Benedictine monks of Newark Abbey, whose campus has grown to encompass both sides of MLK Jr. Blvd. near Market Street and includes a dormitory for boarding students; and Saint Vincent Academy, is an all-girls Roman Catholic high school founded and sponsored by the Sisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth and operated continuously since 1869.
Link Community School is a non-denominational coeducational day school located serving approximately 128 students in seventh and eighth grades. The Newark Boys Chorus School was founded in the 1960s. University Heights Charter School, which opened in 2006, taught 614 students in grades PK-8 in 2014–2015.
Newark is a hub of air, road, rail, and ship traffic, making it a significant gateway into the New York metropolitan area and the northeastern United States. Newark Liberty International Airport is the second-busiest airport in the New York region and the 15th-busiest in the United States (in terms of passenger traffic). Newark Airport was the New York City area's first commercial airport, opened in 1928 on land reclaimed by the Port Authority.
Just east of the airport lies Port Newark, the fifteenth-busiest port in the world and the largest container port on the East Coast of the United States. In 2003, the port moved over $100 billion in goods.
Early modes of transport
The Morris Canal, stretching 102 miles (164 km) to Newark from Phillipsburg on the Delaware River, was completed in 1831 and allowed coal and other industrial and agricultural products from Pennsylvania to be transported cheaply and efficiently to the New York metropolitan area. The canal's completion led to increased settlement in Newark, vastly increasing the population for years to come. After the canal was decommissioned, the its right of way was converted into the Newark City Subway, now known as the Newark Light Rail. Many of the subway stations still portray the canal in its original state, in the form of mosaic works.
As the city became increasingly congested further means of transportation were sought, eventually leading to horse-drawn trolleys. These, in turn, were replaced by electric trolleys that traveled down the main streets of downtown Newark, including Broad Street, and up Market Street near the courthouse The trolley cars did not last long as the personal motor vehicle quickly gained popularity and slowly made the trolley system seem like a burden.
Roads and highways
As of May 2010, the city had a total of 368.21 miles (592.58 km) of roadways, of which 318.77 miles (513.01 km) were maintained by the municipality, 17.61 miles (28.34 km) by Essex County and 22.66 miles (36.47 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 9.17 miles (14.76 km) by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority.
Newark is served by numerous highways including the New Jersey Turnpike (Interstate 95), Interstate 280, Interstate 78, the Garden State Parkway, U.S. Route 1/9, U.S. Route 22, and Route 21. Newark is connected to the Holland Tunnel and Lower Manhattan by the Pulaski Skyway, spanning both the Passaic and Hackensack Rivers, which was first constructed in 1938 and will be undergoing a $900 million renovation project.
Local streets in Newark conform to a quasi-grid form, with major streets radiating outward (like spokes on a wheel) from the downtown area. Some major roads in the city are named after the towns to which they lead, including South Orange Avenue, Springfield Avenue, and Bloomfield Avenue, as well as Broadway, which had been renamed from Belleville Avenue.
In a city extensively served by mass transit, 44.2% of Newark residents did not have a car as of the 2000 Census, ranked second in the U.S. to New York City in the proportion of households without an automobile among cities with more than 250,000 people.
Newark Penn Station, situated just east of downtown, is the city's major train station. It is served by the interurban PATH train (which links Newark to Jersey City and Manhattan), three NJ Transit (NJT) commuter rail lines, and Amtrak service. It was designed by McKim, Mead & White and completed in 1935. One mile north, the Newark Broad Street Station is served by two NJT commuter rail lines. The two train stations are linked by the Newark Light Rail system, which also provides services from Newark Penn Station to Newark's northern communities and into the neighboring towns of Belleville and Bloomfield. Built in the bed of the Morris Canal, the light rail cars run underground in Newark's downtown area. The city's third train station, Newark Liberty International Airport, connects the Northeast Corridor to the airport via AirTrain Newark. Bus service in Newark is provided by New Jersey Transit, CoachUSA contract operators and DeCamp in North Newark.
Newark is served by NJ Transit bus routes 1, 5, 11, 13, 21, 25, 27, 28, 29, 34, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 59, 62, 65, 66, 67, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 90, 92, 93, 94, 96, 99, 107, and 108. Bus route 308 is an express bus route to Six Flags Great Adventure from Newark Penn Station while 319 is an express service to Atlantic City.
Newark is home to five hospitals. University Hospital, an independent institution that is a teaching hospital of Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, has been the busiest Level I trauma center in the state. Newark Beth Israel Medical Center is the largest hospital in the city and is a part of Barnabas Health, the state's largest system of hospital and health care facilities. Beth Israel is also one of the oldest hospitals in the city, dating back to 1901. This 669-bed regional facility is also home to the Children's Hospital of New Jersey. Catholic Health East operates Saint Michael's Medical Center. Columbus Hospital LTACH is a longterm acute care hospital designed to focus on patients with serious and complex medical conditions that require intense specialized treatment for an extended period of recovery time. Hospitals which have been closed in recent years include the Saint James Hospital, Mount Carmel Guild Hospital and the United Hospitals Medical Center.
Emergency Medical Services
University Hospital EMS (UH-EMS) operates the EMS system for the city. The department operates a fleet of eight BLS units staffed with two EMTs 24/7, four 12-hour power trucks, and five ALS units staffed with two paramedics (one of which is stationed at Newark Airport and covers the airport and Port Newark-Elizabeth, and frequently responds into the City of Elizabeth). With distinction they also staff the only hospital based heavy rescue truck in the country. The EMS system is the busiest system per unit in the nation. On average, a BLS unit may be sent to 20-25 dispatches in a 12-hour shift. They also provide the medical staffing for Northstar, with one of the two NJ State Police medevac helicopters, staffing one flight nurse and a flight medic around the clock. The EMS system in Newark handles upwards of 125,000 requests for service annually.
The city is protected by more than 700 full-time, paid firefighters of the Newark Fire Department (NFD). Founded in 1863, the NFD operates out of 16 firehouses, located throughout the city, organized into 3 battalions, under the command of a deputy chief. There is also a Safety Battalion, Battalion2, and a Special Operations Battalion, Battalion 6, on duty 24/7. The NFD operates 16 engine companies, 8 ladder companies, 1 rescue company, an Urban search and rescue (USAR) Collapse Rescue Unit, 2 fire boats, a scuba diving unit, an air cascade unit, a foam unit, a mobile command unit, a HazMat unit, and numerous special, support, and reserve units. The NFD responds to approximately 45,000 emergency calls annually. In 2006, the NFD responded to 2,681 fire and hazardous condition calls.
The Newark Police Department is a city-operated law enforcement agency. As of January 2014, the force had 1,006 officers in its ranks.
The Essex County Sheriff's Office, New Jersey Transit Police Department (headquartered in Penn Plaza East) and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Police Department are also within their jurisdiction in the city, as are the New Jersey State Police. In April 2014, it was announced that the State Police would play a more prominent role in patrolling the streets of the city under the "TIDE-TAG" program. The Essex County College Police Department, New Jersey Institute of Technology Police Department and Rutgers University Police Department patrol their respective college campuses in the city.
In 1996, Money magazine ranked Newark "The Most Dangerous City in the Nation." By 2007, the city recorded a total of 99 homicides for the year, representing a significant drop from the record of 161 murders set in 1981. The number of murders in 2008 dropped to 65, a decline of 30% from the previous year and the lowest in the city since 2002 when there were also 65 murders.
In 2010, Newark recorded 90 homicides. March 2010 was the first calendar month since 1966 in which the city did not record a homicide. Overall, there was a 6% increase in crime numbers over the previous year, including a rise in carjackings for the third straight year, with the 337 incidents raising concerns that the city was returning to its status as the "car theft capital of the world". Along with the increase in crime, the Newark Police Department increased its recovery of illegally owned guns in 2011 to 696, up from 278 in 2010. The Federal Bureau of Investigation recorded 94 homicides in 2011 and 95 in 2012. In 2012 CNNMoney ranked Newark as the 6th most dangerous city in the United States based on numbers by FBI Crime in the United States 2011 report. The city had 10 murders in 10 days during the period ending September 6, 2013, a statistic largely attributed to the reduction of the police force. In 2013 Newark recorded 111 homicides, the first year ending in triple digits in seven years and the highest tally since 1990, accounting for 27% of all murders statewide. In 2014, the total number of homicides in Newark was 93, while Essex County as a whole had 117 murders. The Star-Ledger reported that there were 105 homicides in the city in 2015.
The Consulate-General of Ecuador in New Jersey is located at 400 Market Street. The Consulate-General of Portugal in Newark is located at the main floor of the Newark Legal Center at One Riverfront Plaza. The Consulate-General of Colombia is located at 550 Broad Street. The Vice Consulate of Italy, was located at 1 Gateway Center, until it was closed in 2014 for economic reasons.
Pope John Paul II visited the city in 1995 at which time he elevated the city's cathedral to a basilica to become the Cathedral Basilica of the Sacred Heart. In 2011, the Dalai Lama was guest of honor at the Newark Peace Education Summit.
Twin towns—sister cities
- Aveiro, Portugal
- Banjul, Gambia
- Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
- Douala, Cameroon
- Freeport, Bahamas
- Ganja, Azerbaijan
- Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil
- Kumasi, Ghana
- Monrovia, Liberia
- Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
- Reserva, Paraná, Brazil
- Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
- Seia, Portugal
- Umuaka, Nigeria
- Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China
- 2010 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey County Subdivisions, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
- US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 125.
- The Mayor, City of Newark. Accessed July 4, 2016.
- 2016 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed June 13, 2016. As of date accessed, Baraka was listed as mayor with an incorrect term-end date of December 31, 2017.
- About the Director, City of Newark. Accessed August 18, 2013.
- Office of the City Clerk, City of Newark. Accessed November 20, 2016.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: City of Newark, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 8, 2013.
- DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Newark city, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 13. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Table DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Newark city, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- The Counties and Most Populous Cities and Townships in 2010 in New Jersey: 2000 and 2010, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015 - 2015 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 22, 2016.
- Gaquin, Deirdre A.; Ryan, Mary Meghan. Places, Towns, and Townships 2012, p. xvii. Bernan Press, 2012. ISBN 9781598885330. Accessed August 6, 2013.
- GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 6, 2013.
- Dickson, Paul. Labels for Locals: What to Call People from Abilene to Zimbabwe, p. 160. HarperCollins, 2006. ISBN 9780060881641. Accessed August 6, 2013.
- ZIP codes for Newark, New Jersey, United States Postal Service. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed August 18, 2013.
- Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Newark, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed September 11, 2014.
- American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed June 28, 2012.
- US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Newark - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Merriam-Webster. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- Newark, Dictionary Reference. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- County Explorer, National Association of Counties. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- Essex County, NJ, National Association of Counties. Accessed January 20, 2013.
- PEPANNRSIP - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2015 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015 - United States -- Places of 50,000+ Population from the 2015 Population Estimates, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 5, 2016.
- History of Newark Liberty International Airport, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- Facts & Information, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- Sturken, Barbara. "Newark Airport Gains In International Travel", The New York Times, February 11, 1990. Accessed June 25, 2012. "The oldest airport in the New York metropolitan region, Newark opened in 1928 on 68 acres (28 ha) of reclaimed swampland. It underwent a major overhaul in 1973, when an immense $400 million complex opened to replace an outmoded 20-year-old terminal."
- Mazzola, Jessica. "Newark park adding 1,000 more trees to nation's largest collection of cherry blossoms", The Star-Ledger, March 25, 2015. Accessed August 30, 2015.
- Staff. "Student scientists track nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees at Essex County park", The Star-Ledger, August 13, 2010. Accessed September 11, 2014.
- Hinds, Kate. "Look | Cherry Blossom Trees Flourish in Newark", WNYC, March 25, 2012. Accessed September 11, 2014.
- Scarantino, Drew Anne. "In Full Bloom" Archived November 13, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., New Jersey Monthly, March 14, 2011. Accessed September 11, 2014.
- Miller, Andy. Puritans in Search of a New Haven: 1630–1668
- Hutchinson, Viola L. The Origin of New Jersey Place Names, New Jersey Public Library Commission, May 1945. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- Gannett, Henry. The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States, p. 222. United States Government Printing Office, 1905. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- Staff. "Newark on Trent Shows Interest in Newark, New Jersey", p. 123. Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, Volume VI, 1921. Accessed September 10, 2015. "It seems to be understood that the name of Newark, New Jersey, is traceable to the influence of the first pastor of the settlement, Rev. Abraham Pierson, who was a native of Yorkshire, England, and is said to have probably ministered first to a church in Newark-on-Trent in Nottinghamshire."
- Princeton Alumni Weekly vol. 78; The Puritans in America: a narrative anthology, by Andrew Delbanco, Alan Heimert
- National Archives, Kew, England, T 1/65261-64; Bernard C. Steiner and James McHenry, The life and correspondence of James McHenry (Cleveland: Burrows Brothers Co., 1907)
- Riche, Patrick. "Newark's Prudential Center: A Key Player in Newark's Re-Branding Efforts", Forbes, January 10, 2012. Accessed June 25, 2012. "Newark is currently undergoing a major revitalization. The Prudential Center, the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, The Newark Symphony, Riverfront Stadium and Red Bull Park in nearby Harrison and home to Major League Soccer's New York Red Bulls represent just part of the nearly $2 billion in construction underway."
- Munn, David C. Battles and Skirmishes of the American Revolution in New Jersey, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Geology and Topography.
- Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 130. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - United States - Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Area, in Principal City, Not in Principal City, and County; and for Puerto Rico. United States Census Bureau American Fact Finder. Accessed June 4, 2012.
- The Official Website of the City of Newark, NJ. 2005. Accessed May 28, 2012.
- A View of Mt. Prospect, NewarkHistory.com. Accessed June 25, 2012. "Of the upper class districts of Old Newark – High Street, Lincoln Park, Weequahic and Forest Hill – Forest Hill is the most famous and best preserved."
- Erminio, Vinessa. "Gateway? Renaissance? A reviving city earns its nicknames", The Star-Ledger, December 8, 2005. Accessed June 25, 2012. "Newark also was known as the Gateway City about 1960. This may have been because of a statewide tourism campaign in which regions of the state were designated with names. Newark, Jersey City and the surrounding communities were called Gateway."
- Newark City Ward Boundaries (2000), Rutgers University. Accessed September 11, 2014.
- Living Here: Neighborhoods, Brick City Development Corporation for Newark, New Jersey. Accessed June 25, 2012. "The city is divided into five wards, each with distinct neighborhoods. Residential neighborhoods exist primarily in the North, Central and West Wards, while industry is concentrated largely in the East and South Wards near the airport and seaport.... East Ward. The most densely populated section of Newark, the East Ward, is home of one of the largest Portuguese-speaking communities in the country."
- Reock Jr., Ernest C. Redistricting New Jersey After the Census of 2010, Rutgers University Center for Government Studies, March 2008, pp. 7-9. Accessed September 10, 2015. "The law requires that wards be formed of compact and contiguous territory. The most precise requirement is that the population of the largest ward may not exceed the population of the smallest ward by more than 10% of the mean average population of the wards."
- Staff. "'Obvious gerrymander,' Scrimmage says of plans", Afro-American (newspaper), April 12, 1969. Accessed June 25, 2012.
- Hernandez, Roger. "Hispanics Deserve a Slice of the Pie", Rocky Mountain News, May 31, 1991. Accessed June 25, 2012. "In Newark, New Jersey, Hispanic leaders are considering a lawsuit to reverse a decision that chops a heavily Hispanic ward among three legislative districts..."
- Waggoner, Walter H. "Voting Boundaries Awaited in Essex", The New York Times, November 27, 1977. Accessed June 25, 2012.
- Central Ward, City of Newark, backed up by the Internet Archive as of November 9, 2012. Accessed August 30, 2015.
- North Ward, City of Newark, backed up by the Internet Archive as of April 5, 2014. Accessed August 30, 2015.
- West Ward, City of Newark, backed up by the Internet Archive as of June 23, 2014. Accessed August 30, 2015.
- Strunsky, Steve. "Fatal shooting of West Ward pizza chef is latest 'tragic and senseless' Newark slaying", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, March 4, 2012. Accessed August 30, 2015
- South Ward, City of Newark, backed up by the Internet Archive as of April 5, 2014. Accessed August 30, 2015.
- Ironbound, Marriott. Accessed January 4, 2014.
- Home Page, Ironbound Business Improvement District, backed up by the Internet Archive as of January 27, 2014. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Staff. "EPA Grant to Help Newark Community Target Environmental Problems", Environmental Protection Agency, March 11, 2010. Accessed June 25, 2012. "Ironbound Community Corporation is the largest comprehensive social service provider located in the East Ward of Newark, NJ. The community that will be served has a population of more than 50,000 people and is one of the most densely populated and diverse areas of the city."
- East Ward, City of Newark, backed up by the Internet Archive as of June 27, 2014. Accessed August 30, 2015.
- 2015 Hardiness Zone Map, Arbor Day Foundation. Accessed June 13, 2016/
- NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Accessed April 18, 2016.
- Station Name: NJ NEWARK INTL AP, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Accessed March 2, 2013.
- Census Estimates for New Jersey April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 22, 2016.
- Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed August 6, 2013.
- Wack, Henry Wellington. Official guide and manual of the 250th anniversary celebration of the founding of Newark, New Jersey, 1666-1916: The city of Newark, chief industrial center of New Jersey : historical, statistical and general review, together with numerous articles relating to the city and its celebration, Newark Sales and Advertising Co., 1916. Accessed June 25, 2012.
- Bowen, Francis. American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge for the Year 1843, p. 231, David H. Williams, 1842. Accessed August 6, 2013. Population for 1840 is listed as 17,303, which is 13 higher than the number shown in other sources.
- Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, p. 245, J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed August 6, 2013. "Newark is now the largest city in the state and is extensively engaged in manufacturing. The population in 1850 was 38,894; in 1860 71,941; and in 1870, 105,059. The city is divided into fourteen wards ."
- Debow, James Dunwoody Brownson. The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850, p. 138. R. Armstrong, 1853. Accessed August 6, 2013.
- Staff. A compendium of the ninth census, 1870, p. 259. United States Census Bureau, 1872. Accessed August 6, 2013.
- Porter, Robert Percival. Preliminary Results as Contained in the Eleventh Census Bulletins: Volume III - 51 to 75, p. 98. United States Census Bureau, 1890. Accessed August 6, 2013.
- Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 336. Accessed June 25, 2012.
- Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 711. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- Table 6. New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed June 28, 2015.
- Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Newark city, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 21, 2013.
- DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Newark city, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 21, 2013.
- "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers New Jersey's 2010 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting", United States Census Bureau, February 3, 2011. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- P007 HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE from the Census 2000 Summary File 3 (SF 3) - Sample Data for Newark city, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 20, 2016.
- Gibson, Campbell; and Jung, Kay. "Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For Large Cities And Other Urban Places In The United States", United States Census Bureau, February 2005. Accessed April 7, 2015.
- Table 27. Incorporated Places With 175,000 or More Inhabitants in 2010—Population: 1970 to 2010, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 15, 2012.
- Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed November 20, 2012.
- 2010-2015 HUD Consolidated Plan & 2010-2011 Annual Action Plan, City of Newark, New Jersey. Accessed November 21, 2012. "The City of Newark has been the most populous city in New Jersey for many years, with a peak population of 442,337 reported in the 1930 Census. Since that peak, however, the City's population has declined as residents migrated to suburban areas."
- Dolan, Thomas. "Newark and Its Gateway Complex - Part 2: Old Newark, New Newark", The Newark Metro. Accessed April 7, 2015. "Even prior to the riots, Newark was on a steady decline as residents began to leave the city. 'White flight' from Newark to the suburbs, which started in the '40s and accelerated in the '60s, meant that an increasing number of people who worked in the city no longer lived there."
- Burr, Ty. "Heart of Stone: Seeing the good one man can do", The Boston Globe, October 22, 2009. Accessed February 15, 2012. "The twin forces of light at Weequahic are principal Ron Stone and the school's alumni association, the latter made up almost entirely of white middle-class Jews. Until the Newark riots and ensuing white flight crippled the neighborhood in the late 1960s, Weequahic was one of the country's finest schools..."
- "Newark: A Brief History: From Puritan stronghold to industrial mecca to 'Renaissance City,' Newark, New Jersey, one of the poorest cities in the US, has undergone a series of radical transformations.", PBS. Accessed April 7, 2015.
- State & County QuickFacts for Newark (city), New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed April 7, 2015.
- Gillespie, Andra; Perry, Ravi K. (editor). "Chapter 3 - Beyond Booker: Assessing the Prospects of Black and Latino Mayoral Contenders in Newark, New Jersey" in 21st Century Urban Race Politics: Representing Minorities as Universal Interests, p. 33. Emerald Group Publishing, 2013. ISBN 9781781901847. Accessed April 7, 2015.
- Gillespie, Andra. The New Black Politician: Cory Booker, Newark, and Post-Racial America, New York University Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0814732441. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Giambusso, David. "With Newark council president vote, Ras Baraka could win Latino support", The Star-Ledger, September 22, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Wharton, Jonathon L. A Post-Racial Change Is Gonna Come Newark, Cory Booker, and the Transformation of Urban America, Springer Publishing, 2013. ISBN 9781137277725. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Wilwohl, Joshua. "Report: Newarkers Among New Jersey's Poorest", Newark Patch, September 26, 2011. Accessed May 10, 2016. "U.S. Census Bureau statistics reveal there are 79,243 people living in poverty in the city of Newark. Those numbers, which were part of the census' American Community Survey released last Thursday, mean roughly one in three residents of New Jersey's largest city are poor."
- Cohn, D'Vera. "In Newark, a High-Stakes Push to Improve the Census; Overlooked Residents Cost City Dearly in '90s", The Washington Post, March 25, 2000. Accessed June 14, 2016. "Census estimates show that Newark's population has leveled off at 267,000 after dropping for decades. Newark officials, including Campana, the city's assistant business manager and chief census technocrat, insist there are more than 300,000 people here."
- Mascarenhas, Rohan. "Census Bureau makes final push for N.J. residents to submit forms", The Star-Ledger, April 15, 2010. Accessed September 13, 2011.
- DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Newark city, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- Cities with 100,000 or More Population in 2000 ranked by Population, 2000 in Rank Order, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- QT-P9 - Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2000 from the Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Newark city, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 21, 2013.
- QT-P13 - Ancestry: 2000 from the Census 2000 Summary File 3 (SF 3) - Sample Data for Newark city, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 21, 2013.
- Mitter, Siddhartha. "In the battle for Newark, fears of becoming the next Detroit; Two visions of a city's turnaround clash in a heated election", Al Jazeera America, May 6, 2014. Accessed September 10, 2015. "An estimated 100,000 people commute to Newark each day, many to universities and county offices excluded from the city's property tax base."
- Newark Data Book, Newark Regional Business Partnership. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- Delgado, Samuel A. "Newark could be a real college town", The Star-Ledger, February 3, 2012. Accessed April 7, 2015. "With 60,000 students and faculty at six colleges and universities, Newark has the fifth-highest concentration of higher education on the East Coast, after Boston, New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C."
- Newark The Living Downtown Development Plan, City of Newark, 2008. Accessed May 10, 2016. "Downtown Newark is the largest downtown in the state of New Jersey. Its assets include nearly 50,000 office workers, the headquarters of five major corporations, five university campuses with nearly 50,000 students and faculty, two hospital campuses, one of the best public transit systems in the nation among mid-sized cities, and important sports, cultural, and entertainment destinations...In 2000, the daytime population of Newark was estimated at over 330,000, including a workforce of 47,000 people within one half-mile of the intersection of Broad and Market Streets, Newark's legendary Four Corners."
- U.S. Port Ranking By Cargo Volume, American Association of Port Authorities, 2013. Accessed May 23, 2015.
- U.S. International Air Passenger and Freight Statistics, December 2014, United States Department of Transportation International Aviation Developments Series. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Mistry, Nisha. "Newark's Manufacturing Competitiveness: Findings and Strategies", Brookings Institution, May 28, 2013. Accessed April 7, 2015.
- Morley, Hugh R. "Anheuser-Busch announces 60 NJ jobs cuts", The Record (Bergen County), January 20, 2015. Accessed June 14, 2016. "A company spokesman declined to say how many employees work at the plant, which was opened in 1951 and makes Budweiser, Bud Light and other company brands. In 2007, there were 800 workers at the brewery, which at that time shipped 7.5 million barrels of beer annually."
- Newark Data Book, Newark Regional Business Partnership. Accessed June 25, 2012.
- "Incentive Programs - Urban Transit Hub Tax Credit Program", New Jersey Economic Development Authority. Accessed April 7, 2015.
- Essex County: Newark - Urban Transit Hub Tax Credits, New Jersey Economic Development Authority. Accessed April 7, 2015.
- Giambusso, David. "Cory Booker's legacy in Newark under spotlight as he looks to Senate", The Star-Ledger, October 6, 2013. Accessed April 7, 2015.
- Zernike, Kate. "Promise vs. Reality in Newark on Mayor's Watch", The New York Times, December 13, 2012. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Zezima, Katie. "Bound for DC, Booker leaves mixed legacy in Newark", The Trentonian, October 18, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Staff. "When Cory's gone", The Economist, August 14, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Bradley, Bill. "Is Cory Booker Really the People's Choice?", Next City, September 13, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Rose, Joel. "Cory Booker: Supermayor Or Self-Promoter?", National Public Radio, August 6, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Luxenberg, Stan. "Developers Rediscover Newark", National Real Estate Investor, May 18, 2011. Accessed August 15, 2012. "Downtown Newark accounts for 50,000 jobs. The city is the third largest insurance center in the U.S. after New York City and Hartford, Conn."
- Burd, Joshua. "To see Newark rebirth, look up; As big names plan high rises in city, real estate firms see rising demand", NJBiz, August 13, 2012. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- About Newark, Newark Regional Business Partnership. Accessed June 25, 2012.
- Verdon, Joan. "Manischewitz calls Newark a key ingredient in its growth plan", Herald News, June 15, 2011. Accessed March 31, 2012. "Newark landed the new corporate headquarters of The Manischewitz Co., executives said Tuesday, because city officials provided one crucial ingredient — they moved quickly to solve problems."
- About Audible, Audible.com. Accessed September 10, 2015. "'The vision behind the move was to try to combine a missionary, disruptive, technology-driven company with Newark's transformation. I consider the Newark move one of the best decisions we've made as a company.' – Donald Katz, Audible Founder & CEO"
- Morley, Hugh R. "Hartz withdraws suit over Panasonic move", The Record (Bergen County), September 12, 2011. Accessed September 13, 2011.
- De Poto, Tom. "Christie cuts ribbon on Panasonic's new headquarters in Newark, salutes bipartisanship", The Star-Ledger, September 17, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Geographic & Urban Redevelopment Tax Credit Programs: Urban Enterprise Zone Employee Tax Credit, State of New Jersey, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 25, 2009. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- Webster, Elnardo. "Newark growing from food desert to oasis: Opinion", The Star-Ledger, December 13, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Navarro, Marco; and Leuchten, Donna. "Solving Newark's food desert problem is a measure of city's revitalization | Opinion", The Star-Ledger, October 28, 2015. Accessed June 14, 2016. "The Whole Foods will bring healthful options to an area the USDA has designated a food desert, and in so doing, will create 200 new jobs."
- Lipton, Eric. "New York Port Hums Again, With Asian Trade", The New York Times, November 22, 2004. Accessed September 13, 2011. "New York is not the only seaport lifted by the tide of Asian imports. No one expects it to regain its status as the world's busiest container port – a title it held until 1985 – or the nation's. Today it is ranked 15th in the world, 3rd in the United States."
- Terminal Improvements, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Accessed September 13, 2011.
- Baglivo, Vince. "South Orange synagogue supports Greater Newark Conservancy renovation of historic Prince Street synagogue", The Star-Ledger, October 26, 2010. Accessed June 25, 2012. "Built and dedicated by Oheb Shalom in 1884, the building is the second oldest synagogue structure in New Jersey and one of the 35 oldest buildings, originally built as synagogues and still standing, in the United States."
- Ahearn, James. "Opinion: Mission accomplished, NJPAC chief moves on", The Record (Bergen County), October 26, 2010. Accessed April 7, 2015. "The first project, on a 1.2-acre lot across the street from the center, is conceived as a high-rise, multi-use tower, which at 44 stories would be the tallest building in the city.... The sixth-largest performing arts center in the country, home to the increasingly respected New Jersey Symphony Orchestra, NJPAC attracts more than 400,000 patrons annually."
- About, Newark Symphony Hall. Accessed June 13, 2016. "Newark Symphony Hall enjoys a long and rich cultural history as New Jersey's oldest and largest showcase for the arts, education and entertainment programming. This multi-facility edifice was built by the Shriners, a Masonic order, in 1925 and known as the Salaam Temple."
- McGlone, Peggy. "Historic music hall has brighter days ahead", The Record (Bergen County), September 24, 2007. Accessed June 26, 2012.
- "2014 GERALDINE R. DODGE POETRY FESTIVAL TO BE HELD OCTOBER 23-26 AT NEW JERSEY PERFORMING ARTS CENTER AND NEWARK'S DOWNTOWN ARTS DISTRICT", New Jersey Performing Arts Center, April 22, 2014. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Sanneh, Kelefa. "A Brand-New Arena and a Not-So-New Rock Star", The New York Times, October 27, 2007. Accessed June 26, 2012. "And to celebrate the grand opening, the center — which may or may not come to be known by its publicist-approved nickname, the Rock — booked New Jersey's most indefatigable rock band, Bon Jovi, to play a 10-night stand."
- Newark Black Film Festival, Newark Museum. Accessed June 13, 2016. "Since its inception in 1974, the Newark Black Film Festival (NBFF) has become known among its peers as the longest running black film festival in the United States."
- Collection Development Policy Adopted by the Board of Trustees September 24, 1997, Newark Public Library. Accessed June 26, 2012. "The Library system includes the Main Library, eight community branches, and two storefront facilities.... The Library's collection numbers 1.4 million cataloged volumes and nearly half a million titles. The collection includes books, compact discs, video and audio tapes."
- History of the Institute of Jazz Studies, Rutgers-Newark. Accessed September 10, 2015. "In 1984, the Institute became part of the Rutgers University Libraries and formally affiliated with the Dana Library at Rutgers – Newark."
- About IJS, Institute of Jazz Studies. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- Lincoln Park Coast Cultural District/Museum of African American Music, Smithsonian Institution. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- About Us, Jewish Museum of New Jersey. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- History, Congregation Ahavas Sholom. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- Levinson, Jay. "This City is Just Memories", Jewish magazine. Accessed June 28, 2012. "The Jewish community of Newark, New Jersey is a page in history. The era of some 50 synagogues and 70,000 Jewish residents in the city during the 1950s is long over. Today there is just one remaining synagogue building which is owned by Jews, and it operates only on Shabbat."
- Frankston, Janet via Associated Press. "NEWARK'S JEWISH HERITAGE TOURS VISIT LAST TRACES OF VANISHED COMMUNITY.", Sun Sentinel, July 28, 2006. Accessed June 28, 2012. "During its heyday, from the 1920s to the 1950s, between 65,000 and 80,000 Jews lived in New Jersey's largest city."
- About Paul Robeson Galleries, Rutgers University–Newark. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- Museums & Galleries, Newark Happening. Accessed September 10, 2015
- Giambusso, David. "Children's Museum of New Jersey will add another gem to Newark's downtown", The Star-Ledger, April 11, 2010. Accessed September 10, 2015. "An organization searching for a decade for a place to build what it hopes will be the state's largest children's museum has found a location, and Newark has an opportunity to add a potential gem to its downtown. Museum officials and community leaders are expected to announce today a plan to transform the former Portuguese Airlines building across from Newark Penn Station into the Children's Museum of New Jersey."
- Kofsky, Jared. "What Happened to the Proposed Children's Museum of New Jersey?", Essex County Place, December 15, 2015. Accessed May 10, 2016.
- Newark Murals 2009-13, Newark Planning Office, March 2014. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- Carter, Barry. "Newark artists feel slighted over downtown mural projects", The Star-Ledger, August 29, 2014. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- Lincoln Park Music Festival, Newark Arts Council. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- Open Doors, Newark Arts Council. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- Gale, Dennis E. Greater New Jersey: Living in the Shadow of Gotham, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006. ISBN 9780812219579. Accessed May 10, 2016.
- Sherman, Ted. "Newark headquarters of Star-Ledger sold to New York real estate development firm", The Star-Ledger, July 24, 2014. Accessed September 10, 2015. "The Star-Ledger has sold its long-time home in Newark, where the state's largest daily newspaper was headquartered for nearly 50 years, according to publisher Richard Vezza. The company would not disclose a sale price for the 177,000-square-foot building — many of the offices already vacant because of layoffs, attrition and the move of some operations to new offices in Woodbridge and Secaucus."
- Home Page, 165 Halsey Street. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Radio Stations in Newark, New Jersey, Radio-Locator. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- Colburn, Robert. "Your Engineering Heritage: Newark’s Past and Future as a High-Technology Center", IEEE, December 15, 2015. Accessed October 21, 2016. "Large-scale field trials of semiautomatic telephone switching were another Newark high-tech advance. Two switching offices, Mulberry (3,640 lines) and Waverly (6,480 lines), went into commercial service on 16 January 1915 and 12 June 1915, respectively."
- Model, Eric. "Remembering Channel 13 — New Jersey's first television station", NewJerseyNewsroom.com, August 8, 2011. Accessed September 11, 2014. "Initially the station was known as WATV, and was a commercial television station owned by Atlantic Television, a subsidiary of Bremer Broadcasting Corporation. It started broadcasting on May 15, 1948 on Channel 13. Bremer also owned two northern New Jersey radio stations, WAAT (970 AM, now WNYM) and WAAT-FM (94.7 MHz, now WFME). The three stations were based in the Mosque Theater on Broad Street in Newark."
- "Rutgers-Newark Small Business Development Center honors Frederick A. Morton Jr. of TEMPO TV", Rutgers Business School – Newark and New Brunswick, October 20, 2011. Accessed August 30, 2015. "TEMPO currently broadcast in 24 Caribbean islands, with approximately 3.5M viewers throughout the Caribbean and is based in Newark, New Jersey."
- The City of Newark's Government Access Channel, City of Newark. Accessed May 10, 2016.
- Ortega, Ralph R. "Newark launches its own digital TV channel", The Star-Ledger, January 25, 2009. Accessed May 10, 2016.
- Staff. "EDA approves $37M Urban Transit Hub grant to Cablevision", NJBiz, June 12, 2012. Accessed May 10, 2016.
- Currently Filming In New Jersey, New Jersey Department of State. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Getto, Erica. "Booker Creates Newark Office of Film and Television", WNYC, August 4, 2011, backed up by the Internet Archive as of April 19, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Honan, Edith. "Newark's Film Hopes Snag on State Budget Fight", Backstage (magazine), March 14, 2011. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Home Page, Ironbound Film and Television Studios . Accessed June 13, 2016.
- McGlone, Peggy. "America's Got Talent to film at NJPAC in Newark", The Star-Ledger, April 8, 2012. Accessed May 10, 2016.
- Kannapell, Andrea. "CITY LIFE; Giving Away a Film's Ending: It's Not Happy", The New York Times, December 13, 1998. Accessed January 19, 2012. "And the backdrop to these unhappy lives, the Ironbound -- a residential and industrial section outlined in Newark's southeast corner by various train lines -- emerges as a vicious trap of a neighborhood, a painful counterpoint to downtown Newark's spreading veneer of investment and municipal energy."
- Quinn, Zachary. "Analysis of New Jersey Drive", University of Minnesota Duluth. Accessed January 19, 2012. "The story takes place in Newark, New Jersey, the car theft capital of the world. And in this urban setting we find the young African American teens involved in stealing cars and dodging police in what can be described as empty lives, no goals, no focus and no direction. The only thing that these young men are interested in is the ride."
- About the series Brick City, Sundance Channel. Accessed January 19, 2012.
- via Associated Press. "'The Sopranos' draws stargazers in Newark", USA Today, February 6, 2006. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Malanga, Steven. "Unglamorous Mobsters; As a 1988 HBO documentary reveals, the real Sopranos were brutal—and banal.", City Journal, July 3, 2012. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- The Once and Future Newark, Rutgers University, November 29, 2013. Accessed May 10, 2016.
- Petrecca, Laura. "Super Bowl 2014: New Jersey out in the cold?", USA Today, December 9, 2013. Accessed May 10, 2016.
- Tuttle, Brad R. How Newark Became Newark: The Rise, Fall, and Rebirth of an American City, Rutgers University Press, 2009. ISBN 9780813544908. Accessed May 10, 2016.
- Staff. "Prudential Center Opens Doors For First Devils Hockey Game", Sports Business Daily, October 29, 2007. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- Resident Life, New Jersey Medical School. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- Hague, Jim. "Ridiculous auction last sad chapter for Newark Bears", The Observer Online, April 30, 2014. Accessed June 14, 2016. "After all, it was the kind of Saturday in April where baseball was played at the ballpark every year since 1999, when the Newark Bears rose from the ashes of an era long gone and brought professional baseball back to the Brick City for the first time in almost 50 full years. Sure, Rutgers-Newark and NJIT have also called Riverfront Stadium home since the $34 million facility was opened 15 years ago."
- Ivers, Dan. "Former Newark Bears stadium sold to NYC developer for $23M", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, March 20, 2016. Accessed November 20, 2016. "The former home of the Newark Bears minor league baseball team — left to languish along Broad Street since the hard-luck franchise folded in 2013 — has been sold to a New York-based developer for $23.5 million.The site at the corner of Broad Street and Orange Street has been sold to the Lotus Equity Group, city officials confirmed this week. Lotus plans to demolish Riverfront Stadium and build a mixed-use, high-rise tower in its place."
- Mascarenhas, Rohan. "Red Bull Arena opening in Harrison sparks nearby redevelopment", The Star-Ledger, March 20, 2010. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- Meadowlands Rail Service, NJ Transit. Accessed May 10, 2016.
- Mazzeo, Mike. "Chris Christie: No love lost for Nets", ESPN New York, April 24, 2012. Accessed June 26, 2012. "The New Jersey Nets are playing their final game in New Jersey on Monday night and leaving for Brooklyn at the end of this season, but the governor of New Jersey isn't about to get all nostalgic over it."
- "NEW YORK LIBERTY RETURN TO MADISON SQUARE GARDEN FOR 2012 HOME OPENER", Prudential Center, May 14, 2012. Accessed June 26, 2012. "The Liberty's 2012 season will mark the second of three seasons the team will call Prudential Center home court while Madison Square Garden continues a historic, top-to-bottom Transformation."
- Fowlkes, Ben. "UFC Not the First on Network TV, but Can It Learn From Others' Mistakes?", mmafighting.com, November 9, 2011. Accessed July 9, 2015. "On May 31, 2008, EliteXC brought a live MMA event to primetime network television for the first time in American TV history. The aptly named Primetime event went down in Newark's Prudential Center, and was loaded with EliteXC's most marketable stars, including Kimbo Slice, Gina Carano, Robbie Lawler, and Phil Baroni."
- Strunsky, Steve. "Newark airport gets upgrades for Super Bowl XLVIII", The Star-Ledger, October 11, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Staff. "Super Bowl XLVIII To Create Traffic Jam At Newark, Teterboro Airports; Port Authority Is Consulting With Airports In Cities That Hosted Previous Super Bowls", WCBS-TV, August 24, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Kell, John. "Newark Airport Gets Ready for 2014 Super Bowl", The Wall Street Journal, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Nix, Naomi. "Original Vince Lombardi trophy comes home to Newark", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, January 7, 2014. Accessed June 13, 2016. "The first-ever Vince Lombardi trophy, which was made in Newark, arrived this week at the Newark Museum."
- Lee, Eunice. "UFC's Super Bowl weekend event moving to New Jersey in 2014", The Star-Ledger, July 6, 2013. Accessed April 7, 2015.
- Government, City of Newark. Accessed April 7, 2015.
- Sherman, Ted. "Luis Quintana sworn in as Newark's first Latino mayor, filling unexpired term of Cory Booker", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, November 4, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2016. "Newark Municipal Council President Luis Quintana was sworn in this morning as mayor, filling the unexpired term of Cory Booker, who resigned last week to take his seat as a newly elected U.S. senator."
- Lee, Eunice. "See Cory Booker's resignation letter as he bids farewell to Newark City Hall, goes to Washington", The Star-Ledger, October 30, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Sherman, Ted. "Luis Quintana sworn in as Newark's first Latino mayor, filling unexpired term of Cory Booker", The Star-Ledger, November 4, 2013. Accessed November 13, 2015.
- via Associated Press. "With Booker leaving, who will run Newark?; Council President Luis Quintana expected to act as interim mayor; Booker to be sworn in as U.S. senator Thursday", FiOS1, October 30, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Giambusso, David. "Quintana looks like a lock to become interim mayor of Newark", The Star-Ledger, October 25, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- About Mayor Booker, City of Newark, backed up by the Internet Archive as of July 24, 2013. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Dawsey, Josh. "Ras Baraka Is Elected Mayor of Newark", The Wall Street Journal, May 13, 2014. Accessed June 12, 2015.
- Nix, Naomi. "Ras Baraka sworn in today as Newark's 40th mayor", The Star-Ledger, July 1, 2014. Accessed June 12, 2015.
- City Council, City of Newark. Accessed May 10, 2016.
- 2016 Municipal Data Sheet, City of Newark. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Essex County Directory, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 1, 2016. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- 2014 Non-Partisan Municipal Election May 13, 2014, Essex County, New Jersey Clerk, April 18, 2016. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- 2014 Newark Run-Off Election June 10, 2014, Essex County, New Jersey Clerk, April 18, 2016. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- 2016 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 61, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed July 20, 2016.
- Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- 2011 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 62, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed May 22, 2015.
- New Jersey Congressional Districts 2012-2021 for Newark, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
- Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
- About Cory Booker, United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "He now owns a home and lives in Newark's Central Ward community."
- Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "He currently lives in Paramus and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
- Senators of the 114th Congress from New Jersey. United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "Booker, Cory A. - (D - NJ) Class II; Menendez, Robert - (D - NJ) Class I"
- Legislative Roster 2016-2017 Session, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 17, 2016.
- Legislative Roster 2016-2017 Session, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed August 21, 2016.
- "Watson Sworn-In to Represent 29th Legislative District", New Jersey Assembly Democrats, July 21, 2016. Accessed August 21, 2016.
- "About the Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- General Information, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014. "The Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, five of whom are elected from districts and four of whom are elected at-large. They are elected for three-year concurrent terms and may be re-elected to successive terms at the annual election in November."
- Essex County Executive, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Essex County Elected Officials, Essex County Clerk, as of February 2012. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Definition of a Freeholder, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Blonnie R. Watson, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Patricia Sebold, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Rufus I. Johnson, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Lee, Eunice. "Labor leader from South Orange tapped as new Essex County freeholder", The Star-Ledger, December 19, 2012. Accessed July 9, 2014. "A longtime labor union leader from South Orange was sworn in this afternoon as the newest Essex County freeholder.Gerald Owens, 74, is a general organizer for the International Longshoremen's Association.... Owens is filling the seat vacated by former at-large freeholder Donald Payne Jr., who stepped down from the post last month after securing the 10th Congressional District seat left open by his late father."
- Rolando Bobadilla, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- D. Bilal Beasley, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Carol Y. Clark, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Leonard M. Luciano, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Brendan W. Gill, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- The Board of Chosen Freeholders, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Breakdown of Freeholder Districts, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- About Christopher J. Durkin, Essex County Clerk. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Armando B. Fontoura - Essex County Sheriff, Essex County Sheriff's Office. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Office of Surrogate, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- County Directory, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Voter Registration Summary - Essex, New Jersey Department of State, March 23, 2011. Accessed June 25, 2012.
- "Presidential General Election Results - November 6, 2012 - Essex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. March 15, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast - November 6, 2012 - General Election Results - Essex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. March 15, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State, December 23, 2008. Accessed June 25, 2012.
- 2004 Presidential Election: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State, December 14, 2004. Accessed June 25, 2012.
- Petenko, Erin (November 11, 2016). "See How Your Tow Voted in the 2016 Presidential Election". www.nj.com. Advance Media.
- "Governor – Essex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast - November 5, 2013 - General Election Results - Essex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- 2009 Governor: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State, December 31, 2009. Accessed June 25, 2012.
- Romano, Andrew. "The Swamps of Jersey - The Daily Beast", Newsweek, March 10, 2010. Accessed April 7, 2015.
- Grutzner, Charles. "U.S. INDICTS MAYOR OF NEWARK, 9 PRESENT OR FORMER OFFICIALS ON $253,000 EXTORTION CHARGES; ADDONIZIO ON BAIL Evasion of Tax Also Charged -- Boiardo Among Accused Mayor Addonizio Is Indicted on Extortion Charge", The New York Times, December 18, 1969. Accessed November 13, 2016. "Mayor Hugh J. Addonizio and nine present or former officials of the municipal administration in Newark were indicted yesterday by a Federal grand jury with five other persons, among whom was Anthony (Tony Boy) Boiardo, a reputed member of the Mafia."
- Brady, Thomas F. "Addonizio and 4 Convicted Of Extortion by U.S. Jury", The New York Times, July 23, 1970. Accessed November 13, 2016. "Hugh J. Addonizio, former Mayor of Newark, and four other defend ants were found guilty by Federal jury tonight on 64 counts each, one of conspiracy and 63 of extortion."
- Sullivan, Ronald. "Addonizio Given a 10-Year Term", The New York Times, September 23, 1970. Accessed November 13, 2016. "Former Mayor Hugh J. Addonizio of Newark was sentenced to 10 years in prison and fined $25,000 in Federal Court here today for conspiracy and extortion. Convicted of sharing in the proceeds of extorted kickbacks totaling $1.5 million from contractors on city water and sewer lines, Addonizio stood impassively with his head bowed as Judge George H. Barlow declared that his crimes were of 'monumental proportion' that 'tore at the very heart of our civilized society and our form of representative government.'"
- Barbanel, Josh. "HUGH J. ADDONIZIO, 67, EX-MAYOR OF NEWARK JAILED 5 YEARS, DEAD", The New York Times, February 2, 1981. Accessed April 7, 2015. "Hugh J. Addonizio, a former Congressman and two-term Mayor of Newark who was sentenced to 10 years in Federal prison and fined $25,000 for conspiracy and extortion died early this morning at Riverview Hospital in Red Bank, N.J."
- Narvaez, Alfonso A. "GIBSON ACQUITTED OF A CONSPIRACY IN 'NO SHOW' CASE", The New York Times, October 22, 1982. Accessed September 10, 2015. "Mayor Kenneth A. Gibson was found not guilty today of conspiracy in connection with charges that he had helped create a 'no show' job for a former city official. But the Superior Court jury could not reach a unanimous verdict on a charge of official misconduct."
- Martin, John. "Judge, prosecutors clash over James' 27-month jail term", NJ.com, July 29, 2008. Accessed April 7, 2015. "Former Newark mayor Sharpe James was ordered Tuesday to serve 27 months in prison and pay a $100,000 fine for fraud and conspiracy -- a sentence that capped a spectacular downfall for one of New Jersey's political titans, but one that incensed prosecutors who thought it was too light."
- Newark, Berkeley College. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- About, Essex County College. Accessed June 14, 2016. "The main campus is located in the heart of University Heights in Newark, New Jersey."
- About NJIT, New Jersey Institute of Technology. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- Rutgers Health Sciences at Newark, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- Campus Resources and Facilities, Rutgers University–Newark. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- History, Seton Hall University School of Law. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- Economic and Community Development Initiatives, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Accessed June 26, 2012. "Co-existing with four college campuses (boasting 40,000 students, faculty and staff) and many other anchors such as a county government complex and the surrounding University Heights neighborhood was desperately poor, blighted, without a supermarket and other basic neighborhood services. The 700 acres (283 ha) of land that comprise University Heights forms a strategically located neighborhood that rises above downtown Newark, enclosing Essex County College, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology and UMDNJ."
- Abbott School Districts, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed June 1, 2016. Accessed August 15, 2012.
- What are SDA Districts?, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed August 15, 2012. "SDA Districts are 31 special-needs school districts throughout New Jersey. They were formerly known as Abbott Districts, based on the Abbott v. Burke case in which the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that the State must provide 100 percent funding for all school renovation and construction projects in special-needs school districts. ... The districts were renamed after the elimination of the Abbott designation through passage of the state's new School Funding Formula in January 2008."
- SDA Districts, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed August 15, 2012.
- District information for the Newark School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed May 23, 2016.
- Staff. "2010 Top High Schools", New Jersey Monthly, August 16, 2010. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- Margolin, Josh. "Facebook CEO Zuckerberg announces $100M grant to Newark schools on Oprah Winfrey show", NJ.com Statehouse Bureau, September 24, 2010. Accessed June 13, 2016. "Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg just announced on the Oprah Winfrey show that the title of a program to pump $100 million into the Newark school system is the 'Start Up Education Foundation.'"
- History, Robert Treat Academy Charter School. Accessed September 13, 2011.
- University Heights Charter School wins national award, LocalTalkNews.com. Accessed February 19, 2012.
- About Us, Gray Charter School. Accessed February 19, 2012.
- About NCA, Newark Collegiate Academy. Accessed February 19, 2012.
- Essex County Secondary Schools. Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- About NBCS, Newark Boys Chorus School. Accessed November 12, 2016.
- Annual Report 2014-2015, University Heights Charter School. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- New Jersey's Long-Range Transportation Plan: Urban Supplement Report, City of Newark, New Jersey Department of Transportation, September 2008. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- 2015 North American (ACI-NA) Top 50 airports, Airports Council International-North America. Accessed August 12, 2016.
- Lipton, Eric. "New York Port Hums Again, With Asian Trade", The New York Times, November 22, 2004. Accessed June 26, 2012. "Last year, $100 billion worth of wares moved through the port, up 12 percent in just a year."
- Solarino, Audrey. "The history of the Morris Canal", Suburban Trends, May 20, 2010. Accessed June 28, 2012.
- "Broad & Market Street, Newark – 1928 Transportation & Streetscapes" on YouTube
- Drummond, James O. Transportation and the Shaping of the Physical Environment In an Urban Place: Newark, New York University dissertation.
- Essex County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed July 18, 2014.
- McGeehan, Patrick. "Commuters Feel Pinch as Christie Tightens", The New York Times, May 16, 2011. Accessed June 26, 2012. "Without the Port Authority money, Mr. Simpson said, New Jersey would have to spend about $30 million a year just to keep the Pulaski Skyway — a 70-year-old bridge that serves as a link between Newark Liberty International Airport and the Holland Tunnel — from falling down. Now, it will invest about $900 million over five years to 'basically rebuild the whole bridge.'"
- On Broadway, NewarkHistory.org. Accessed June 26, 2012. "Newark's Broadway was called Belleville Avenue in the Nineteenth Century. Like Springfield Avenue, Bloomfield Avenue, and South Orange Avenue, Broadway is one of Newark's great radial streets. The name of the street, for reasons unknown to me, was changed from Belleville Ave to Broadway in the early Twentieth century."
- Communities in any state having populations between 250000 and 999999999, Bikes at Work, backed up by the Internet Archive as of October 6, 2012. Accessed September 10, 2015.
- Greater Newark Bus System Study, North Jersey Transportation Planning Authority. Accessed June 26, 2012. "Approximately 50 of these bus routes, operated by NJ TRANSIT and Coach USA, converge in the City of Newark, making it a critical hub for people transferring between buses, as well as between bus and rail."
- Essex County Bus/Rail Connections, NJ Transit, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 22, 2009. Accessed August 26, 2011.
- GoBus 25, NJ Transit. Accessed April 7, 2015.
- GoBus 28, NJ Transit. Accessed April 7, 2015.
- About University Hospital, University Hospital (Newark, New Jersey). Accessed November 27, 2013.
- Romano, Jay. "A Busy Weekend At Trauma Center", The New York Times, September 19, 1993. Accessed November 27, 2013. "And so began a typical weekend at the busiest trauma center in New Jersey."
- Keller, Susan Jo. "NEW JERSEY DAILY BRIEFING;Hospitals Consider Partnership", The New York Times, November 6, 1995. Accessed March 11, 2012. "Newark Beth Israel, founded in 1901 and the only hospital in New Jersey that performs heart and lung transplants, has 607 beds and about 3,300 employees."
- What Is, Columbus Hospital LTACH. Accessed August 30, 2015.
- Heininger, Claire. "Two Newark hospitals to close under deal; Mayor Booker 'furious'", The Star-Ledger, January 10, 2008. Accessed June 21, 2016. "Two struggling Newark hospitals – Saint James and Columbus – will close their doors this spring, while the city's third Catholic hospital will receive an infusion of cash under an agreement reached tonight."
- "Public Announcement: Closure of Mount Carmel Guild Behavior Health Hospital", Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of Newark, January 31, 2010. Accessed June 21, 2016.
- Hull, Sarah. United Hospitals Medical Center Records 1873-1996, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey University Libraries Special Collections, July 1998, backed up by the Internet Archive as of February 24, 2010. Accessed June 21, 2016.
- University Hospital Emergency Medical Services, The University Hospital. Accessed June 26, 2012. "Ranking among the top providers in the country and representing among the busiest and most experienced units nationally, in excess of 125,000 requests for service are received annually within our coverage areas."
- Newark: Fire Incidents in 2006, New Jersey (NJ), CityData.com. Accessed July 9, 2015.
- Queally, James. "Newark to hire 100 more cops after deadliest year since 1990", The Star-Ledger, January 7, 2014. Accessed April 7, 2015. "The department was hammered by layoffs in 2010, during a statewide budget crunch that also led to mass cutbacks in Camden and Trenton. Newark lost 167 officers that year, and only has 1,006 officers in its ranks now."
- Queally, James. "State Troopers deployed to battle rising Newark crime as part of new initiative", The Star-Ledger, April 16, 2014. Accessed April 7, 2015.
- Public Safety, Essex County College. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- Department of Public Safety, New Jersey Institute of Technology. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- Rutgers Police - Newark Division, Rutgers University Police Department. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- Fried, Carla. "America's safest city: Amherst, N.Y.; the most dangerous: Newark, N.J", Money (magazine), January 1, 1997, Vol. 25, Issue 13, p. 22. Accessed June 21, 2016.
- Lueck, Thomas J. "As Newark Mayor Readies Crime Fight, Toll Rises", The New York Times, January 8, 2007. Accessed October 6, 2007. "For all of 2006, the police said, Newark had 104 homicides, far below its record of 161 in 1981, but more than in any other year since 1995."
- Murr, Andrew; and Noonoo, Jemimah. "A Return To The Bad Old Days?", Newsweek, August 17, 2007. "Murders rose 27 percent in Newark (population 280,000) in the past two years, as killings rose from 83 in 2004 to 104 last year. So far, the pace this year is slower—61 deaths since January."
- This link contains a reference to a June 11, 2007 article in Newsday stating that "Meanwhile, homicides in Newark have jumped from 65 in 2002 to 113 last year, with nonfatal shootings also on the rise." Archived July 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- Newark and New York Comparative Crime Ratios per 100,000 People, area Connect. Accessed October 7, 2007.
- Schweber, Nate. "Newark Murder Rate Dropped 30 Percent in 2008", The New York Times, January 3, 2009. Accessed February 15, 2012. "Newark recorded 67 homicides in 2008, according to the police, the fewest since 2002, when there were 65. In 2007, there were 97 homicides; in 2006, just over 100."
- "Crime in the United States by Metropolitan Statistical Area, 2010" in Crime 2010, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Accessed July 9, 2015.
- Queally, James. "Newark records first homicide-free month in more than 40 years", The Star-Ledger, April 1, 2010. Accessed July 9, 2015. "For the first time in more than 40 years, an entire calendar month has come and gone without a homicide in the state's largest city. It's been 32 days since a homicide took place in Newark, marking the first time there has been a slay-free calendar month in the city since 1966."
- Queally, James. "Newark carjackings rise for 3rd straight year", The Star-Ledger, February 3, 2012. Accessed July 9, 2015. "The increases have sparked concerns among business leaders and residents that the state's largest city is once again becoming the 'car theft capital of the world,' a dubious monicker it earned in the 1990s."
- Eustachewich, Lia. Newark Releases 2011 Crime Statistics, Newark Patch. January 26, 2012. Accessed May 3, 2012.
- Table 4 January to December 2011-2012 Offenses Reported to Law Enforcement by State by City 100,000 and over in population, Crime 2012 • January–December 2012 Preliminary Annual Uniform Crime Report in the United States 2012, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Accessed December 12, 2013.
- "Most Dangerous U.S. Cities: 6 - Newark, N.J.", CNNMoney, January 23, 2013. Accessed July 9, 2015.
- Samaha, Albert. "Newark's 10 Day Stretch of 10 Homicides Reflects Drop in Cop Numbers", The Village Voice, September 6, 2013. Accessed July 9, 2015. "And after three years, the cuts to the police budget produced a sad crescendo: In a 10 day stretch, from Monday August 26 to Wednesday September 4, there were 10 homicides in the city, as well as three more non-fatal shootings and one non-fatal stabbing."
- Queally, James; and Gaimbusso, David. "Ten days, 10 dead: Shooting deaths plague Newark", The Star-Ledger, September 5, 2013. Accessed July 9, 2015.
- Johnson, Anthony. "Newark murders hit triple digits", WABC-TV, December 27, 2013. Accessed July 9, 2015."Murders in Newark hit triple digits this year for the first time in seven years.... So far in 2013, there have been 102 murders. The last time the murder rate was in triple digits was in 2007 when there were 107 murders."
- Queally, James. "N.J. homicides soared to seven-year high in 2013 after surges in Newark, Trenton", The Star-Ledger, January 1, 2014. Accessed July 9, 2015. "A Star-Ledger survey of county prosecutors' offices found at least 409 people died violently last year. More than a quarter of those killings took place in Newark, where a spate of Christmas season slayings pushed the homicide total to 111, including one in the final hours of the year. The tally is the highest since 1990."
- NEW JERSEY Offenses Known to Law Enforcement by City, 2014, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Ivers, Dan. "Declines in Newark, Camden drive N.J. homicides to 5-year low in 2014", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, January 1, 2015, updated January 5, 2015. "More than a third of those incidents took place in Essex County, where Newark and Irvington accounted for all but five of the county's 117 homicides. The state's largest city totaled 93 for the year — by far the highest in the state, but a sizeable reduction from the 111 it recorded last year."
- Ivers, Dan. "Despite progress in cities, N.J. homicides jump 4 percent in 2015", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, January 1, 2016, updated January 14, 2016. Accessed June 13, 2016. "More than a quarter of those slayings took place in Newark, where a bloody finish to the year, which included 25 homicides over November and December, drove the city's total to 105*, according to police department statistics — an uptick of 12 over 2014."
- Home Page, Consulate-General of Ecuador. Accessed November 12, 2016.
- Consulate General of Portugal in Newark, Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros. Accessed November 12, 2016.
- Home Page, Consulado de Colombia en newark. Accessed July 9, 2015.
- Haddon, Heather. "Saying Arrivederci to N.J.'s Consulate", The Wall Street Journal, September 17, 2013. Accessed July 9, 2015. "The Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has decided to close its consulate in Newark, the only full-fledged office in a state renowned as the home of Italian-American pop-culture fixtures such as Frank Sinatra and The Sopranos."
- Rose, Liza. "Planned closure of Italian consulate in Newark sparks criticism", The Star-Ledger, September 20, 2013. Accessed July 9, 2015. "The Italian consulate in Newark is slated to close in March, passing its jurisdiction over to New York. Although 13 other Italian consulates worldwide are being shuttered due to fiscal woes, the New Jersey office is the only location in the United States that is getting the boot."
- Home Page, Consulate of Italy in Newark. Accessed July 9, 2015. "THE CONSULATE OF ITALY IN NEWARK, NEW JERSEY IS CLOSED AS OF FEBRUARY 28, 2014."
- Regan, Brian. Gothic Pride: The Story of Building a Great Cathedral in Newark, p. 227. Rutgers University Press, 2012. ISBN 9780813553467. Accessed July 9, 2015. "1995 – During his visit on October 4, Pope John Paul II designates Scared Heart a minor basilica."
- Piazza, Jo. "Dalai Lama's Latest Peace Project: Newark", The Wall Street Journal, May 13, 2011. Accessed July 9, 2015. "The Tibetan spiritual leader has been to 62 countries on six continents in his 75 years on Earth, but until Thursday, he had never had an extended stay in Newark, save for a brief stop in 1990 to consecrate a Buddhist altar at the Newark Museum."
- Sister Cities International 2015 Membership Directory, p. 42. Sister Cities International. Accessed August 31, 2015.
- Twin-cities of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijans.com. Accessed August 30, 2015.
- "Position Paper on Sister State and Sister City Relations Between Australia and China", Australia-China Chamber of Commerce and Industry of New South Wales, dated November 14, 2001. Accessed August 30, 2015.
- City of Newark, New Jersey (2005). Newark's land use plan including historical data (PDF). Newark, New Jersey.
- Cunningham, John T. (1966). Newark. Newark, New Jersey: New Jersey Historical Society.
- Galishoff, Stuart (1988). Newark: The Nation's Unhealthiest City, 1832–1895. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.
- Shales, Ezra (2010). Made in Newark: Cultivating Industrial Arts and Civic Identity in the Progressive Era. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rivergate Books/Rutgers University Press.
- Strummer, Helen M. (1994). No Easy Walk: Newark, 1980–1993. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
- 2005-Newark's land use plan including historical data
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Newark, New Jersey.|
|Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Newark, New Jersey.|
- Official website
- Newark Downtown District
- Downtown Newark Guide by The Star-Ledger
- Newark, New Jersey, at City-Data
- Newark Community Profile and Resource Links, New Jersey HomeTownLocator
- U.S. Census Bureau - State & County QuickFacts for Newark
- U.S. Census Bureau - Community Facts for Newark (enter city and state name)
- Newark Archives Project
- Newark History and Memories at OldNewark.com