List of participating nations at the Summer Olympic Games

Participating nations at the Opening Ceremony of the 1912 Games in Stockholm.

This is a list of nations, as represented by National Olympic Committees (NOCs), that have participated in the Summer Olympic Games between 1896 and 2016. As of the 2016 Games, all of the current 206 NOCs have participated in at least one edition of the Olympic Games, and athletes from Australia, France[K], Great Britain, Greece and Switzerland[L] have competed in all twenty-eight Summer Olympic Games.


Early years

Participating nations at the Opening Ceremony of the 1908 Games in London.

Early Games were not clearly documented with respect to participating nations. Competitors from 11 to 16 different nations participated in the inaugural 1896 Games, in Athens. Eleven nations (Australia, Austria, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) are mentioned in the official report for the Games,[1] and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) states that 14 nations were represented.[2] The NOCs for Bulgaria[3] and Chile[4] each claim that they were represented by a single athlete in Athens. Other sources also list Egypt, Italy, and the Turkish Empire.[5][6]

While official report was actually the summary of the sporting events held at the 1900 Exposition Universelle and so can not be considered as reliable source,[7] the IOC states that 24 nations participated in the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris,[8] but additional sources list up to 28 nations, with Haiti, Iran, Luxembourg, and Peru being the additions.[9][10] The 1904 Games, held in St. Louis, were poorly organized, with participation of only 12 nations,[11][12] and many events contested only by athletes from the host United States. Although the Intercalated Games of 1906 are no longer considered official Games of the Olympiad by the IOC, they helped restore the Olympic movement. Participation at subsequent Games grew steadily, with 22 nations in London for 1908[13] and 28 nations in Stockholm for the 1912 Games.[14] At these two Games (only), one of the delegations was actually a combined team of athletes from Australia and New Zealand, designated Australasia. The Games of 1916, planned for Berlin, were cancelled due to World War I.

Inter-war years

After the First World War, the Olympic Games resumed in 1920, in Antwerp. Twenty-nine nations participated,[15] but not Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, or Turkey, none of which were invited because of their roles in the war. Several newly created European states, such as Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, made their Olympic debut.

The Games grew rapidly for the 1924 Summer Olympics, in Paris, with 44 nations present,[16] even though Germany was still not invited back to the Games. This situation would change for the 1928 Games where Germany returned to join a total of 46 participating nations.[17] Because of the economic effects of the Great Depression, competitors from only 37 nations—with less than half the number of participants that competed in the 1928 Summer Olympics—travelled to Los Angeles for the 1932 Summer Olympics.[18] The 1936 Summer Olympics, in Berlin, were attended by 49 nations (a new high) but were highly politicized.[19] The scheduled Games of 1940 in Tokyo and 1944 in London were each cancelled due to the outbreak of World War II in 1939.

Post-war years and Cold War era

Participating nations at the Opening Ceremony of the 1952 Games in Helsinki.

Twelve years after the previous Games, the 1948 Summer Olympics, in London, attracted competitors from 59 nations, including 14 that made their Olympic debut; once again, Germany was not invited to take part, and neither was Japan.[20] The 1952 Games, in Helsinki, again set a new high, with 69 nations participating, including the first appearance by the Soviet Union and the return of Germany and Japan.[21] The 1956 Summer Olympics, attended by 67 nations in Melbourne, were the first to be marred by a boycott.[22] Egypt, Iraq, and Lebanon withdrew in response to the Suez Crisis, and the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland withdrew in response to the Soviet invasion of Hungary. Interestingly, because of Australian quarantine restrictions, the equestrian events were held five months earlier in Stockholm, with a total of 29 participating nations, including five nations that did not compete in Melbourne.[23]

Participation by African and Latin American nations increased significantly during the 1960s. A total of 84 nations were represented at the 1960 Summer Olympics, in Rome,[24] 94 nations at the 1964 Games, in Tokyo,[25] and 112 nations at the 1968 Summer Olympics, in Mexico City.[26] The 1968 Games also marked the first time that West Germany and East Germany competed as independent teams. For the previous three Olympiads (1956–1964), the two NOCs were jointly represented by a united German team.[27] The 1972 Summer Olympics, in Munich, featured 121 nations, the highest total yet.[28]

The next three Games were each marred by significant boycotts. At the 1976 Summer Olympics, in Montreal, only 92 nations were represented.[29] Twenty-nine African nations (Ivory Coast and Senegal being the only two exceptions) boycotted the Games because of New Zealand's participation, as New Zealand maintained other sporting relations with apartheid South Africa.[30] The largest Olympic boycott took place at the 1980 Games, in Moscow, when only 81 nations participated.[31] The United States led the boycott in protest of the December 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and were joined by more than 60 other nations. In response, the 1984 Summer Olympics, in Los Angeles, were boycotted by the Soviet Union and many of their allies, yet a total of 140 nations did participate.[32] The 1988 Games, in Seoul, marked a new high, with 160 participating nations.[33]

Recent Games

Several events in the 1990s led to a large increase in participating nations at the Olympic Games. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Baltic states competed as independent nations for the first time since 1936 at the 1992 Games, in Barcelona.[34] The remaining twelve ex-republics of the Soviet Union competed together as the Unified Team for these Games. A single German team competed for the first time since 1964, after the German reunification in 1990, while the breakup of Yugoslavia resulted in the Olympic debut of new nations.

The Centennial Olympics, in Atlanta, were attended by athletes from 197 nations,[35] including 24 nations making their Summer Games debut. Czechoslovakia had split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and all ex-Soviet republics competed as independent nations. The Games continued to grow, with 199 nations represented in Sydney, for the 2000 Summer Games,[36] and 201 nations in Athens, for the 2004 Summer Olympics.[37]

A record number of nations (204) were represented at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing,[38] with Marshall Islands and Tuvalu making their Olympic debut. After competing together as Serbia and Montenegro in 2004, Serbia and Montenegro sent independent teams to Beijing. Only Brunei failed to participate in the Games, after failing to register any athletes for competition.[39] The 2012 Games in London increased this record to 206 nations, even though only 204 NOCs were represented.[40] Brunei returned to the Games, but athletes from the former Netherlands Antilles competed as Independent Olympic Athletes, after the Netherlands Antilles Olympic Committee's membership in the IOC was withdrawn in 2011 as a consequence of the dissolution of the Caribbean country. One athlete from South Sudan also competed as an independent athlete, since the nation had not yet formed a National Olympic Committee after its independence in 2011.

List of nations


This list includes all 206 current NOCs,[41] 20 obsolete NOCs and 3 other entries, arranged alphabetically. The three-letter country code is also listed for each NOC. Since the 1960s, these codes have been frequently used by the IOC and each Games organizing committee to identify NOCs, such as within the official report of each Games.[42]

Several nations have changed during their Olympic history. Name changes due to geographical renaming are explained by footnotes after the nation's name, and other notes are explained by footnotes linked within the table itself.

Obsolete nations

Obsolete nations are included in the table to more clearly illustrate past Olympic appearances for their successor nations.

Other entries

Table legend

96   In the table headings, indicates the Games year
Participated in the specified Games
H Host nation for the specified Games
[A] Additional explanatory comments at the linked footnote
  The planned Games of 1916, 1940, and 1944 were cancelled due to world wars
  NOC superseded or preceded by other NOC(s) during these years

Alphabetical list

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V Y Z Other Total
A Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
AfghanistanAFG 14
AlbaniaALB 8
AlgeriaALG 13
American SamoaASA 8
AndorraAND 11
AngolaANG 9
Antigua and BarbudaANT[]ANT 10
ArgentinaARG 24
ArmeniaARM Russian Empire Soviet UnionEUN6
ArubaARU 8
AustraliaAUS ANZ HH26
Australasia [^]ANZ 2
AustriaAUT 27
AzerbaijanAZE Russian Empire Soviet UnionEUN6
B Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
BahamasBAH 16
BahrainBRN 9
BangladeshBAN 9
BarbadosBAR BWI 12
BelarusBLR Russian Empire Soviet UnionEUN6
BelgiumBEL H 26
BelizeBIZ[]BIZ 12
BeninBEN[]BEN 11
BermudaBER 18
BhutanBHU 9
BoliviaBOL 14
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBIH Yugoslavia7
BotswanaBOT 10
BrazilBRA [D] H22
British Virgin IslandsIVB 9
BruneiBRU [P] 5
BulgariaBUL [A] 20
Burkina FasoBUR[]BUR 9
BurundiBDI 6
C Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
CambodiaCAM [L] 9
CameroonCMR [O]14
CanadaCAN H 26
Cape VerdeCPV 6
Cayman IslandsCAY 10
Central African RepublicCAF 10
ChadCHA 12
ChileCHI [B] 23
China, People's Republic ofCHN Republic of China H10
Chinese TaipeiTPE[]TPE Japan ROC 14
China, Republic of [^]ROC 3
ColombiaCOL [E] 19
ComorosCOM 6
CongoCGO 12
DR CongoCOD[]COD 10
Cook IslandsCOK 8
Costa RicaCRC 15
Ivory CoastCIV[]CIV 13
CroatiaCRO Austria/Hungary Yugoslavia7
CubaCUB 20
CyprusCYP 10
Czech RepublicCZE Bohemia Czechoslovakia6
Czechoslovakia [^]TCH 16
Bohemia [^]BOH 3
D Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
DenmarkDEN 27
DjiboutiDJI [P]8
DominicaDMA 6
Dominican RepublicDOM 14
E Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
EcuadorECU 14
EgyptEGY[]EGY [C] [L][O] 22
El SalvadorESA 11
Equatorial GuineaGEQ 9
EritreaERI 5
EstoniaEST Russian Empire Soviet Union12
EthiopiaETH 13
F Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
FijiFIJ 14
FinlandFIN H25
FranceFRA H[K] H 28
G Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
GabonGAB 10
The GambiaGAM 9
GeorgiaGEO Russian Empire Soviet UnionEUN6
GermanyGER H 16
East Germany [^]GDR EUA 5
West Germany [^]FRG EUA H 5
United Team of Germany [^]EUA 3
Saar [^]SAA 1
GhanaGHA[]GHA 14
Great BritainGBR H HH28
GreeceGRE H H28
GrenadaGRN 9
GuamGUM 8
GuatemalaGUA 14
GuineaGUI 11
Guinea-BissauGBS 6
GuyanaGUY[]GUY 17
H Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
HaitiHAI [F] 15
HondurasHON 11
Hong KongHKG 16
HungaryHUN 26
I Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
IcelandISL 20
IndiaIND 24
IndonesiaINA 15
IranIRI [G] 16
IraqIRQ 14
IrelandIRL 21
IsraelISR 16
ItalyITA H27
J Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
JamaicaJAM BWI17
JapanJPN H 22
JordanJOR 10
K Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
KazakhstanKAZ Russian Empire Soviet UnionEUN6
KenyaKEN 14
KiribatiKIR 4
North KoreaPRK Japan 10
South KoreaKOR H17
KosovoKOS Yugoslavia SCG Serbia1
KuwaitKUW [^]12
KyrgyzstanKGZ Russian Empire Soviet UnionEUN6
L Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
LaosLAO 9
LatviaLAT Russian Empire Soviet Union11
LebanonLIB 17
LesothoLES 11
LiberiaLBR [P] 12
LibyaLBA [P] 10
LiechtensteinLIE 17
LithuaniaLTU Russian Empire Soviet Union9
LuxembourgLUX [H] 23
M Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
MacedoniaMKD YugoslaviaIOP6
MadagascarMAD 12
MalawiMAW 10
MalaysiaMAS Malaya, North Borneo 13
Malaya [^]MAL 2
North Borneo [^]NBO 1
MaldivesMDV 8
MaliMLI 13
MaltaMLT 16
Marshall IslandsMHL 3
MauritaniaMTN 9
MauritiusMRI 9
MexicoMEX H23
MicronesiaFSM 5
MoldovaMDA Russian Empire Romania Soviet UnionEUN6
MonacoMON 20
MongoliaMGL 13
MontenegroMNE Yugoslavia SCG3
MoroccoMAR [O] 14
MozambiqueMOZ 10
MyanmarMYA[]MYA 17
N Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
NamibiaNAM 7
NauruNRU 6
NepalNEP 13
NetherlandsNED H [L]26
Netherlands Antilles [^]AHO [^] 13
New ZealandNZL [I] ANZ 23
NicaraguaNCA 12
NigerNIG 12
NigeriaNGR 16
NorwayNOR 25
O Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
OmanOMA 9
P Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
PakistanPAK 17
PalauPLW 5
PalestinePLE 6
PanamaPAN 17
Papua New GuineaPNG 10
ParaguayPAR 12
PeruPER [J] 18
PhilippinesPHI 21
PolandPOL 21
PortugalPOR 24
Puerto RicoPUR 18
Q Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
QatarQAT 9
R Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
RomaniaROU 21
RussiaRUS Russian Empire Soviet UnionEUN6
Unified Team [^]EUN 1
Soviet Union [^]URS H EUN 9
Russian Empire [^]RU1 3
RwandaRWA 9
S Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
Saint Kitts and NevisSKN 6
Saint LuciaLCA 6
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesVIN 8
SamoaSAM[]SAM 9
San MarinoSMR 14
São Tomé and PríncipeSTP 6
Saudi ArabiaKSA 11
SenegalSEN 14
SerbiaSRB Yugoslavia SCG4
Serbia and MontenegroSCG[] [^]SCG Yugoslavia IOP 3
[[<span class="wrap">Independent Olympic Participants</span> at the Olympics|Indep. Olympic Participants]] [^]IOP 1
Yugoslavia [^]YUG 16
SeychellesSEY 9
Sierra LeoneSLE 11
SingaporeSIN [N] 16
SlovakiaSVK Hungary Czechoslovakia6
SloveniaSLO Austria/Hungary Yugoslavia7
Solomon IslandsSOL 9
SomaliaSOM 9
South AfricaRSA 19
SpainESP [L]H23
Sri LankaSRI[]SRI 17
SudanSUD 12
South SudanSSD Sudan Sudan Sudan[^]1
SurinameSUR [P] 12
SwazilandSWZ 10
SwedenSWE H 27
SwitzerlandSUI [L]28
SyriaSYR [M] 13
T Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
TajikistanTJK Russian Empire Soviet UnionEUN6
TanzaniaTAN[]TAN 13
ThailandTHA 16
Timor-LesteTLS [^]4
TogoTOG 10
TongaTGA 9
Trinidad and TobagoTTO BWI17
British West Indies [^]BWI 1
TunisiaTUN [O] 14
TurkeyTUR 22
TurkmenistanTKM Russian Empire Soviet UnionEUN6
TuvaluTUV 3
U Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
UgandaUGA 15
UkraineUKR Russian Empire Soviet UnionEUN6
United Arab EmiratesUAE 9
United StatesUSA H H HH27
UruguayURU 21
UzbekistanUZB Russian Empire Soviet UnionEUN6
V Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
VanuatuVAN 8
VenezuelaVEN 18
VietnamVIE 15
Virgin IslandsISV 12
Y Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
YemenYEM South Yemen, North Yemen7
South Yemen [^]YMD 1
North Yemen [^]YAR 2
Z Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
ZambiaZAM[]ZAM 13
ZimbabweZIM[]ZIM 13
Other entries Code 96000408121620242832364044485256606468727680848892960004081216Total
Mixed team [^]ZZX ^^^
Indiv. Olympic Athletes [^]IOA ^ ^^
Refugee Olympic Team [^]ROT ^
Total 1424122228 2944463749 596972839311212192801401591691971992012042042052764


Name changes notes

^ ANT: Prior to Antigua and Barbuda's independence in 1981, The Associated State of Antigua participated as Antigua in 1976.[29]
^ BIZ: Belize participated under its former name of British Honduras (HBR) in 1968[26] and 1972.[28]
^ BEN: Benin was known as Dahomey (DAH) in 1972.[28]
^ BUR: Burkina Faso was known as Upper Volta (VOL) in 1972.[28]
^ TPE: The Chinese Taipei was designated Republic of China (ROC) in 1956,[22] 1960,[24] and 1972,[28] and was designated Taiwan in 1964[25] and 1968.[26] In 1979, the IOC started to use Chinese Taipei to refer to this NOC, a compromise that was acceptable for the People's Republic of China to start participating in the Olympic Games.[49][50]
^ COD: The Democratic Republic of the Congo was known as Zaire (ZAI) between 1984[32] and 1996.[35]
^ CIV: Côte d'Ivoire was known as Ivory Coast between 1964[25] and 1988.[33]
^ EGY: Egypt participated as the United Arab Republic between 1960[24] and 1968.[26]
^ GHA: Prior to Ghana's independence in 1957, Gold Coast participated in the 1952 Games.[21]
^ GUY: Prior to Guyana's independence in 1966, British Guiana participated from 1948[20] to 1964.[25]
^ MYA: Myanmar was known as Burma (BIR) between 1948[20] and 1988.[33]
^ SAM: Samoa was known as Western Samoa between 1984[32] and 1996.[35]
^ SCG: The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, consisting of the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro, participated at the Games since 1996. It was reconstituted as the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. At the 1996[35] and 2000[36] Games, the nation was still designated Yugoslavia (YUG). The Serbia and Montenegro (SCG) designation and code were first used at the 2004 Games.[37]
^ SRI: Sri Lanka was known as Ceylon (CEY) between 1948[20] and 1972.[28]
^ TAN: Although Tanganyika and Zanzibar had already merged to form Tanzania in April 1964, the nation was designated Tanganyika in the official report of the 1964 Games.[25]
^ ZAM: Zambia achieved independence on the last day of the 1964 Games, but had participated as Northern Rhodesia (NRH) during those Games.[25]
^ ZIM: Prior to Zimbabwe's independence in 1980, Southern Rhodesia participated as Rhodesia (RHO) in 1928,[17] 1960,[24] and 1964.[25]

Participation notes

  1. ^ The Bulgarian Olympic Committee claims that Charles Champaud, a Swiss gymnastics teacher living in Sofia, competed for the nation in 1896.[3]
  2. ^ Chile claims that one athlete, Luis Subercaseaux Errázuriz, competed for the nation in 1896.[4]
  3. ^ Dionysios Kasdaglis, tennisman in 1896, was maybe Egyptian.
  4. ^ For athletics at the 1900 Summer Olympics, Adolphe Klingelhoeffer was the son of a Brazilian diplomat. Although he was born and raised in Paris, he had Brazilian citizenship in 1900 and maintained this citizenship until at least the 1940s per French athletics historian Alain Bouille. As this was discovered in late 2008, his participation is usually attributed to France.
  5. ^ For tug of war at the 1900 Summer Olympics, Francisco Henríquez de Zubiría, living in Paris in 1900, had Colombian citizenship but has played with French team of tug of war.
  6. ^ Some sources[9][51] consider Léon Thiércelin and André Corvington, competitors in fencing at the 1900 Games, and Constantin Henriquez in rugby, of Haitian nationality.
  7. ^ Some sources[9][51] consider Freydoun Malkom, a fencer who competed at the 1900 Games, of Persian nationality and therefore the first Olympic appearance by Iran.
  8. ^ Michel Théato's gold medal in the marathon at the 1900 Games is currently attributed to France, although it has since been discovered that he was born in Luxembourg.[9]
  9. ^ Victor Lindberg, maybe water polo player in 1900, was New Zealander.
  10. ^ Some sources[9][51] consider Carlos de Candamo, a competitor in fencing at the 1900 Games, of Peruvian nationality.
  11. a b Sources are inconsistent regarding Albert Corey's participation for France in 1904. Although the Games report refers to Corey as a "Frenchman wearing the colors of the Chicago Athletic Association",[52] the IOC attributes his medal in the marathon to the United States instead of France, and in contradiction, the medal in the four mile team race to a mixed team composed of athletes from multiple nations instead of just the United States.[45]
  12. a b c d e Cambodia, Egypt, the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland participated in the equestrian events of the 1956 Games held in Stockholm in June,[23] but did not attend the Games in Melbourne later that year.[22]
  13. ^ Syria was part of the United Arab Republic in 1960, but it is unknown if any Syrian athletes participated as part of the UAR team.
  14. ^ Singapore was part of the Federation of Malaysia in 1964 before gaining independence in 1965.
  15. a b c d Cameroon, Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia competed for the first three days of the 1976 Games before withdrawing in support of the boycott by most African nations.[29]
  16. a b c d e Suriname at the 1960 Games, Libya at the 1964 Games, Liberia at the 1980 Games, Brunei at the 1988 Games, Djibouti at the 2004 Games took part in the Opening Ceremony, but neither athlete competed, so they are not counted as the participation nations at the IOC Olympic Games web site. Suriname's lone athlete withdrew from 1960 Games due to a scheduling error. Libya marched in the opening ceremony of the 1964 Games,[25] but then withdrew from competition. Liberia's athletes withdrew from 1980 Games after marching in the Opening Ceremony and took part of the boycott. Brunei's participation in the 1988 Games consisted only of a single official, but no competing athletes.[33] Djibouti marched in the Parade of Nations 2004 Games, but neither athlete competed.

See also


  1. De Coubertin, Pierre; Philemon, Timolean; Politis, N.G.; Anninos, Charalambos (1897). "Second Part: The Olympic Games in 1896". The Olympic Games: BC 776 – AD 1896 (PDF). Athens: Charles Beck. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  2. "Athens 1896 Summer Olympics". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
  3. 1 2 "Olympic Games Athens 1896". Bulgarian Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
  4. 1 2 "La Presencia de Chile en los Juegos Olimpicos" (in Spanish). Comité Olímpico de Chile. Archived from the original on 2008-01-11. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  5. Mallon, Bill; Widlund, Ture (1998). "1896 Olympic Games — Analysis and Summaries" (PDF). The 1896 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. McFarland. pp. 22–23. ISBN 0-7864-0379-9. Retrieved 2008-03-11.
  6. De Wael, Herman (2005-06-13). "Herman's Top Athina 1896 Olympians". Retrieved 2014-02-02.
  7. Exposition Universelle Internationale de 1900 – Rapports (PDF). Retrieved 2014-02-02.
  8. "Paris 1900". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mallon, Bill (December 1997). "1900 Olympic Games — Analysis and Summaries" (PDF). The 1900 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. McFarland. pp. 10, 23–26. ISBN 978-0-7864-0378-3. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  10. De Wael, Herman (2002-10-10). "Herman's Top Paris 1900 Olympians". Retrieved 2014-02-02.
  11. Mallon, Bill (February 1999). "1904 Olympic Games — Analysis and Summaries" (PDF). The 1904 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. McFarland. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-7864-0550-3. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  12. "St. Louis 1904". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
  13. 1 2 3 4 Cook, Theodore Andrea (May 1909). The Fourth Olympiad London 1908 Official Report (PDF). London: British Olympic Association. p. 656. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  14. 1 2 3 4 (ed). Bergvall, Erik (December 1913). The Olympic Games of Stockholm 1912 Official Report (PDF). Stockholm: Wahlström and Widstrand. p. 889. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  15. Olympic Games Antwerp 1920 — Official Report (PDF) (in French). Belgian Olympic Committee. 1957. pp. 168–170. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  16. (ed.) M. Avé, Comité Olympique Français. Les Jeux de la VIIIe Olympiade Paris 1924 - Rapport Officiel (PDF) (in French). Paris: Librairie de France. p. 79. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  17. 1 2 (ed.) G. Van Rossem (1928). The Ninth Olympiad Amsterdam 1928 Official Report (PDF). Amsterdam: J. H. De Bussy. pp. 87–88. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  18. 1 2 The Games of the Xth Olympiad Los Angeles 1932 (PDF). Xth Olympiade Committee of the Games of Los Angeles, U.S.A. 1932. 1933. p. 374. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  19. Diem, Carl (1937). XIth Olympic Games, Berlin 1936 Official Report (PDF). Berlin: Wilhelm Limpert. pp. 596–597. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 (ed.) Lord Burghley (1951). The Official Report of the Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad (PDF). London: Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad. pp. 546–547. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  21. 1 2 3 (ed.) Kolkka, Sulo (1955). The Official Report of the Organising Committee for the Games of the XV Olympiad Helsinki 1952 (PDF). Helsinki: Organising Committee for the XV Olympiad Helsinki 1952. pp. 244–255. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Official Report of the Organizing Committee for the Games of the XVI Olympiad Melbourne 1956 (PDF). Melbourne: The Organizing Committee of the XVI Olympiad, Melbourne, 1956. 1958. pp. 260–261. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  23. 1 2 The Equestrian Games of the XVI Olympiad Stockholm 1956 (PDF). Stockholm: Esselte Aktiebolag. 1959. p. 23. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (ed.) Giacomini, Romolo (May 1963). The Games of the XVII Olympiad Rome 1960, The Official Report of the Organizing Committee, Volume 2 (PDF). Rome: Carlo Colombo. p. 56. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The Official Report of the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, Tokyo 1964, Volume II (PDF). Tokyo: The Organizing Committee for the Games of the XVIII Olympiad. October 1966. pp. 2–13. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  26. 1 2 3 4 (ed.) Trueblood, Beatrice (1969). The Official Report of the Organizing Committee of the Games of the XIX Olympiad Mexico 1968, Volume 3: The Games (PDF). Organizing Committee of the Games of the XIX Olympiad. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
  27. 1 2 3 (ed.) Berlioux, Monique (July–August 1975). "The Federal Republic of Germany and Olympism" (PDF). Olympic Review. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee (93–94): 290–306. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (ed.) Kunze, Herbert (1974). The official report of the Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXth Olympiad Munich 1972, Volume 3 The competitions (PDF). Munich: proSport. pp. 541–563. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  29. 1 2 3 (ed.) Chantigny, Louis (1978). Games of the XXI Olympiad Montréal 1976 Official Report, Volume I Organization (PDF). Montreal: COJO 76. pp. 139–150. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
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