List of participating nations at the Winter Olympic Games

Flagbearers for each of the participating nations at the I Olympic Winter Games (1924) recite the athlete's oath.

This is a list of nations, as represented by National Olympic Committees (NOCs), that have participated in the Winter Olympic Games between 1924 and 2014. The Winter Olympic Games have been held every four years (once during each Olympiad) since 1924, except for the cancelled Games of 1940 and 1944, and in 1994 when the Winter Games were moved to the middle of the Olympiad, two years after the previous Games. 119 NOCs (110 of the current 206 NOCs and 9 obsolete NOCs) have participated in at least one Winter Games, and twelve nations (Austria, Canada, Finland, France, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) have participated in all twenty-two Winter Games to date. Including continuity from Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia have also been represented in every edition.


Origin and early Games

The first winter sport to be contested at the modern Olympic Games was figure skating at the 1908 Games in London. A total of 21 skaters from six countries (Argentina, Germany, Great Britain, Sweden, Russia, and the United States) competed in four events on October 28–29.[1] Skating was not in the program of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, but returned for the 1920 Games in Antwerp. Ice hockey was also part of the 1920 program of events, with seven teams competing.[2]

The first Winter Games were held in 1924, in Chamonix, France. They were originally called International Winter Sports Week and held in association with the 1924 Summer Olympics, but were in retrospect designated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as the I Olympic Winter Games.[3] Sixteen nations participated in these Games: fourteen from Europe and two from North America.[4] Four years later, 25 nations were represented at the 1928 Winter Olympics, in St. Moritz, Switzerland, including Argentina (the first nation from the Southern Hemisphere), Japan (the first Asian nation), and Mexico.[5] Participation in the 1932 Games, held in Lake Placid, United States, during the Great Depression, was reduced to 17 nations.[6] The 1936 Winter Games, in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, had 28 participating nations, the largest number to that date.[7] These would be the last Winter Games for twelve years, as the planned 1940 Games and 1944 Games were cancelled due to World War II.[8]

Post-war years and Cold War era

After the war, 28 nations would return to St. Moritz for the 1948 Winter Olympics, but not Germany or Japan, who were not invited because of their roles in the war.[9] The 1952 Winter Games in Oslo, Norway, featured 30 participating nations.[10] The 1956 Games in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy, marked the Winter Games debut of the Soviet Union, along with 31 other nations.[11] The NOCs of East Germany and West Germany would be represented by a single German team, an arrangement that would continue until 1964.[12] Thirty nations would participate at the 1960 Winter Olympics in Squaw Valley, United States,[13] including South Africa, the first African nation to participate in the Winter Games. Thirty-six nations were represented in Innsbruck, Austria, in 1964.[14]

The 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France, marked the first time that East Germany and West Germany competed as independent teams, two of the 37 nations that took part.[15] The Games of 1972 were held in Sapporo, Japan, the first time the Winter Games were held outside of Europe or the United States. A total of 35 nations were represented, including the Philippines, the first appearance by a southeast Asian nation.[16] The Winter Games returned to Innsbruck, in 1976, with 37 participating nations.[17]

Lake Placid was once again the site of the Winter Games, in 1980, with 37 competing nations.[18] The People's Republic of China made their Olympic debut but, in response, the Republic of China boycotted the Games, after participating in 1972 and 1976. Sarajevo, SFR Yugoslavia was host to the 1984 Winter Olympics, which welcomed 49 nations.[19] Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were the first two Caribbean NOCs to compete in the Winter Games. Several more tropical nations would participate at the 1988 Winter Olympics, in Calgary, Canada, including the famed Jamaican Bobsled Team.[20]

Recent Games

The post-Cold War events of the early 1990s led to a large increase in participating nations at the Olympics. At the 1992 Games, in Albertville, France, a total of 64 NOCs were represented, including a single Germany team—following the German reunification in 1990—and a Unified Team composed of six of the ex-republics of the Soviet Union.[21] The Baltic states competed independently for the first time since 1936, and some of the ex-Yugoslav nations started to compete independently in 1992.

In October 1986, the IOC had voted to hold the Olympic Winter Games halfway through the four-year Olympiad, rather than in the same year as the summer Games,[22] and this change started with the XVIIth Olympic Winter Games in 1994 in Lillehammer, Norway. A total of 67 nations took part, including the Czech Republic and Slovakia as independent teams, and each of the ex-Soviet nations.[23]

The Winter Games have continued to grow in the recent past, with 72 nations at the 1998 Winter Olympics, in Nagano, Japan,[24] 77 nations at the 2002 Winter Olympics, in Salt Lake City, United States,[25] 80 nations at the 2006 Winter Olympics, in Turin, Italy,[26] 82 nations at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Canada,[27] and a record 88 nations at the 2014 Games in Sochi, Russia.[28]

List of nations


This list includes 119 NOCs (110 of the current 206 NOCs and 9 obsolete NOCs),[29] arranged alphabetically. The three-letter country code is also listed for each NOC. Since the 1960s, these codes have been frequently used by the IOC and each Games organizing committee to identify NOCs, such as within the official report of each Games.[30]

Several nations have changed during their Olympic history. Name changes due to geographical renaming are explained by footnotes after the nation's name, and other changes are explained by footnotes links within the table itself.

Obsolete nations

Obsolete nations are included in the table to more clearly illustrate past Olympic appearances for their successor nations.

Table legend

24   In the table headings, indicates the Games year, from 1924 through 2014
Participated in the specified Games
H Host nation for the specified Games
[A] Additional explanatory comments at the linked footnote
  The planned Games of 1940 and 1944 were cancelled due to World War II
  NOC superseded or preceded by other NOC(s) during these years

Alphabetical list

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N P R S T U V Y Z Total
A Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
AlbaniaALB 3
AlgeriaALG 3
American SamoaASA 1
AndorraAND 11
ArgentinaARG 18
ArmeniaARM Soviet UnionEUN6
AustraliaAUS 18
AustriaAUT HH22
AzerbaijanAZE Soviet Union 5
B Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
BelarusBLR Soviet UnionEUN6
BelgiumBEL 20
BermudaBER 7
BoliviaBOL 5
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBIH Yugoslavia6
BrazilBRA 7
British Virgin IslandsIVB 2
BulgariaBUL 19
C Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
CameroonCMR 1
CanadaCAN HH22
Cayman IslandsCAY 2
ChileCHI 16
China, People's Republic ofCHN 10
Chinese TaipeiTPE[]TPE 11
ColombiaCOL 1
Costa RicaCRC [B] 6
CroatiaCRO Yugoslavia7
CyprusCYP 10
Czech RepublicCZE Czechoslovakia6
Czechoslovakia [^]TCH 16
D Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
DenmarkDEN 13
DominicaDMA 1
E Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
EgyptEGY 1
EstoniaEST [A] Soviet Union9
EthiopiaETH 2
F Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
FijiFIJ 3
FinlandFIN 22
FranceFRA HHH22
G Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
GeorgiaGEO Soviet Union 6
GermanyGER H 11
East Germany [^]GDR EUA 6
West Germany [^]FRG EUA 6
United Team of Germany [^]EUA 3
GhanaGHA 1
Great BritainGBR 22
GreeceGRE 18
GuamGUM 1
GuatemalaGUA 1
H Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
HondurasHON 1
Hong KongHKG 4
HungaryHUN 22
I Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
IcelandISL 17
IndiaIND [D]9
IranIRI 10
IrelandIRL 6
IsraelISR 6
ItalyITA HH22
J Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
JamaicaJAM 7
JapanJPN HH20
K Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
KazakhstanKAZ Soviet UnionEUN6
KenyaKEN 3
North KoreaPRK 8
South KoreaKOR 17
KyrgyzstanKGZ Soviet Union 6
L Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
LatviaLAT Soviet Union10
LebanonLIB 16
LiechtensteinLIE 18
LithuaniaLTU Soviet Union8
LuxembourgLUX 8
M Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
MacedoniaMKD Yugoslavia 5
MadagascarMAD 1
MaltaMLT 1
MexicoMEX 8
MoldovaMDA Romania Soviet Union 6
MonacoMON 9
MongoliaMGL 13
MontenegroMNE Yugoslavia SCG2
MoroccoMAR 6
N Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
NepalNEP 4
NetherlandsNED 20
Netherlands Antilles [^]AHO 2
New ZealandNZL 15
NorwayNOR HH22
P Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
PakistanPAK 2
ParaguayPAR 1
PeruPER 2
PhilippinesPHI 4
PolandPOL 22
PortugalPOR 7
Puerto RicoPUR 6
R Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
RomaniaROU 20
RussiaRUS Soviet UnionEUNH6
Unified Team [^]EUN 1
Soviet Union [^]URS EUN 9
S Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
San MarinoSMR 9
SenegalSEN 5
SerbiaSRB Yugoslavia SCG2
Serbia and MontenegroSCG[] [^]SCG Yugoslavia 3
Yugoslavia [^]YUG H 14
SlovakiaSVK Czechoslovakia6
SloveniaSLO Yugoslavia7
South AfricaRSA 6
SpainESP 19
SwazilandSWZ 1
SwedenSWE 22
SwitzerlandSUI HH22
T Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
TajikistanTJK Soviet Union 4
ThailandTHA 3
Timor-LesteTLS 1
TogoTOG 1
TongaTGA 1
Trinidad and TobagoTRI 3
TurkeyTUR 16
U Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
UkraineUKR Soviet UnionEUN6
United StatesUSA H HHH22
UruguayURU 1
UzbekistanUZB Soviet UnionEUN6
V Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
VenezuelaVEN 4
Virgin IslandsISV [C] 7
Z Code 242832364044485256606468727680848892949802061014Total
ZimbabweZIM 1
Total NOCs number 16251728 2830323036373537374957646772788082881025

Nations that have never competed

96 of the 206 active NOCs have yet to compete in a Winter Olympics.[34]

Nation Code
Antigua and BarbudaANT
Burkina FasoBUR
Cape VerdeCPV
Central African RepublicCAF
Cook IslandsCOK
Dominican RepublicDOM
El SalvadorESA
Equatorial GuineaGEQ
The GambiaGAM
Ivory CoastCIV
Marshall IslandsMHL
Papua New GuineaPNG
Saint Kitts and NevisSKN
Saint LuciaLCA
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesVIN
São Tomé and PríncipeSTP
Saudi ArabiaKSA
Sierra LeoneSLE
Solomon IslandsSOL
South SudanSSD
Sri LankaSRI
United Arab EmiratesUAE


Name changes notes

^ TPE: The Chinese Taipei was designated Republic of China (ROC) in 1972[16] and 1976.[17] In 1979, the IOC started to use Chinese Taipei to refer to this NOC, a compromise that was acceptable for the People's Republic of China to start participating in the Olympic Games.[35][36]
^ SCG: The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, consisting of the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro, participated at the Games since 1998. It was reconstituted as the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. At the 1998[24] and 2002[25] Games, the nation was still designated Yugoslavia (YUG). The Serbia and Montenegro (SCG) designation and code were first used at the Winter Games in 2006.[26]

Participation notes

  1. ^ A single speed skater from Estonia registered for the 1924 Winter Olympics and carried the flag in the opening ceremonies, but did not compete.[4]
  2. ^ Costa Rica did not take part in the Opening Ceremony of the 2002 Winter Olympics, but its athletes did compete; 78 nations participated in the 2002 Games, however the IOC web site states that 77 nations participated, probably erroneously not counting Costa Rica.[37]
  3. ^ Anne Abernathy was the lone competitor from the Virgin Islands at the 2006 Winter Olympics, but withdrew from the women's luge event after injuring herself during a practice run.[38]
  4. ^ India's athletes originally competed as Independent Olympic Participants and marched under the Olympic Flag during the opening ceremony due to the Indian Olympic Association's suspension. On February 11, the Indian Olympic Association was reinstated and India's athletes were allowed the option to compete under their own flag from that time onward.[39]

See also


  1. Cook, Theodore Andrea (May 1909). The Fourth Olympiad London 1908 Official Report (PDF). London: British Olympic Association. pp. 284–295. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
  2. Olympic Games Antwerp 1920 — Official Report (PDF) (in French). Belgian Olympic Committee. 1957. pp. 144, 168–170. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
  3. "Decisions taken by the Technical Congress at Prague" (PDF). Official Bulletin of the International Olympic Committee (PDF). Lausanne: International Olympic Committee (1): 17. January 1926. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
  4. 1 2 (ed.) M. Avé, Comité Olympique Français. Les Jeux de la VIIIe Olympiade Paris 1924 - Rapport Officiel (PDF) (in French). Paris: Librairie de France. p. 669. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  5. Comité Olympique Suisse (1928). Rapport Général du Comité Exécutif des IImes Jeux Olympiques d'hiver (PDF) (in French). Lausanne: Imprimerie du Léman. p. 7. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  6. (ed.) George Lattimer (1932). Official Report III Olympic Winter Games Lake Placid 1932 (PDF). pp. 70–72, 270. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  7. (ed.) Peter von le Fort (1936). IV. Olympische Winterspiele 1936 Amtlicher Bericht (PDF) (in German). Berlin: Reichssportverlag. p. 272. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  8. (ed.) Carl Diem (January 1940). "The Fifth Olympic Winter Games Will Not Be Held" (PDF). Olympic Review (PDF). Berlin: International Olympic Institute (8): 8–10. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
  9. Comité Olympique Suisse (January 1951). Rapport Général sur les Ves Jeux Olympiques d'hiver St-Moritz 1948 (PDF) (in French). Lausanne: H. Jaunin. p. 11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  10. (ed.) Rolf Petersen (1952). The Official Report of the Organising Committee of the VIth Winter Olympic Games 1952 at Oslo (PDF). Oslo. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  11. VII Olympic Winter Games Cortina d'Ampezzo 1956 Official Report (PDF). Rome: Società Grafica Romana. p. 70. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  12. 1 2 (ed.) Berlioux, Monique (July–August 1975). "The Federal Republic of Germany and Olympism" (PDF). Olympic Review. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee (93–94): 290–306. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
  13. (ed.) Robert Rubin. VIII Olympic Winter Games Squaw Valley California 1960 Final Report (PDF). California Olympic Commission. p. 92. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  14. (ed.) Friedl Wolfgang and Bertl Neumann (1967). Offizieller Bericht der IX. Olympischen Winterspiele Innsbruck 1964 (PDF) (in German). Vienna, Munich: Österreichischer Bundesverlag für Unterricht, Wissenschaft und Kunst. p. 51. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  15. Xth Winter Olympic Games Official Report (PDF). Comité d'Organisation des xèmes Jeux Olympiques d'Hiver de Grenoble. 1969. p. 399. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  16. 1 2 The Official Report of XIth Winter Olympic Games, Sapporo 1972 (PDF). The Organizing Committee for the Sapporo Olympic Winter Games. 1973. pp. 228–229. ISBN 0-900315-05-9. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  17. 1 2 (ed.) Bertl Neumann. XII.Olympische Winterspiele Innsbruck 1976 Final Report (PDF). Organizing Committee for the XIIth Winter Olympic Games 1976 at Innsbruck. p. 163. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  18. Final Report XIII Olympic Winter Games (PDF). Ed Lewi Associates. 1980. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  19. 1 2 Official Report of the Organising Committee of the XlVth Winter Olympic Games 1984 at Sarajevo (PDF). Sarajevo: Oslobodenje. 1984. pp. 89–90. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  20. (ed.) Rodney Chapman (1988). XV Olympic Winter Games Official Report (PDF). Calgary Olympic Development Association. pp. 621–645. ISBN 0-921060-26-2. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  21. 1 2 (ed.) Claudie Blanc, Jean-Marc Eysseric (1992). "Results". Official Report of the XVI Winter Olympic Games of Albertville and Savoie (PDF). Albertville, France: Comité d'organisation des XVIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver d'Albertville et de la Savoie. p. 3. ISBN 2-9507109-0-5. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  22. (ed.) Gafner, Raymond (November–December 1986). "Decisions of the 91st IOC Session" (PDF). Olympic Review. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee (229–230): 651. Retrieved 2008-03-31.
  23. "Volume IV". Official Report of the XVII Olympic Winter Games (PDF). 1994. p. 63. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  24. 1 2 3 (ed.) Shinano Mainichi Shimbun (1998). "Volume Three Competition Results and Participants". The XVIII Olympic Winter Games Official Report (PDF). The Organizing Committee for the XVIII Olympic Winter Games, Nagano 1998. p. 12. ISBN 4-7840-9827-5. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  25. 1 2 3 Official Report of the XIX Olympic Winter Games (PDF). Salt Lake Organizing Committee. 2002. ISBN 0-9717961-0-6. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  26. 1 2 3 Torino 2006 - XX Olympic Winter Games (PDF). Retrieved 2014-02-02.
  27. Vancouver 2010 - Staging the Olympic Winter Games Knowledge Report (PDF). Retrieved 2014-02-02.
  28. "Record 88 nations to participate in Winter Games". Global News. Sochi, Russia. Associated Press. 2 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  29. "National Olympic Committees". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
  30. Mallon, Bill; Karlsson, Ove (May 2004). "IOC and OCOG Abbreviations for NOCs" (PDF). Journal of Olympic History. 12 (2): 25–28. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
  31. "Olympic Medal Winners". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
  32. (ed.) Berlioux, Monique (September–October 1975). "The German Democratic Republic and Olympism" (PDF). Olympic Review. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee (95–96): 362–377. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  33. "Curtain comes down on 123rd IOC Session".
  34. "Olympic Countries". sports-reference.
  35. (ed.) Berlioux, Monique (August–September 1983). "China and Olympism" (PDF). Olympic Review. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee (190–191): 583–592. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
  36. Chan, Gerald (Autumn 1985). "The "Two-Chinas" Problem and the Olympic Formula". Pacific Affairs. Vancouver: University of British Columbia. 58 (3): 473–490. doi:10.2307/2759241. JSTOR 2759241.
  37. "Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
  38. "Olympics: 'Grandma Luge' crashes out". 2006-02-13. Retrieved 2008-04-01.
  39. "IOC Executive Board lifts suspension of NOC of India". Retrieved 11 February 2014.

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