Aliases GPRC5A, GPCR5A, RAI3, RAIG1, PEIG-1, TIG1, G protein-coupled receptor class C group 5 member A
External IDs MGI: 1891250 HomoloGene: 2961 GeneCards: GPRC5A
Species Human Mouse









RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 12: 12.89 – 12.92 Mb Chr 6: 135.07 – 135.08 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
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Retinoic acid-induced protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPRC5A gene.[3][4]


This gene encodes a member of the type 3 G protein-coupled receptor family, characterized by the signature 7-transmembrane domain motif. The encoded protein may be involved in interaction between retinoic acid and G protein signalling pathways. Retinoic acid plays a critical role in development, cellular growth, and differentiation. This gene may play a role in embryonic development and epithelial cell differentiation.[4]

Post transcriptional regulation

GPRC5A is one of only a handful of genes known in the literature that are post-transcriptionally controlled by miRNAs through their 5'UTR.[5]

Clinical Significance

GPRC5A is dysregulated in many human cancers and in other diseases.[6]

See also


  1. "Human PubMed Reference:".
  2. "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  3. Cheng Y, Lotan R (1998). "Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel retinoic acid-inducible gene that encodes a putative G protein-coupled receptor". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (52): 35008–15. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.52.35008. PMID 9857033.
  4. 1 2 "Entrez Gene: GPRC5A G protein-coupled receptor, family C, group 5, member A".
  5. Zhou H, Rigoutsos I (2014). "MiR-103a-3p targets the 5' UTR of GPRC5A in pancreatic cells". RNA. 20 (9): 1431–9. doi:10.1261/rna.045757.114. PMC 4138326Freely accessible. PMID 24984703.
  6. Zhou H, Rigoutsos I (2014). "The emerging roles of GPRC5A in diseases". Oncoscience. 1 (12): 765–76. PMC 4303886Freely accessible. PMID 25621293.

Further reading

  • Cafferata EG, Gonzalez-Guerrico AM, Pivetta OH, Santa-Coloma TA (1996). "Identification by differential display of a mRNA specifically induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in T84 human colon carcinoma cells". Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand). 42 (5): 797–804. PMID 8832110. 
  • Bräuner-Osborne H, Krogsgaard-Larsen P (2000). "Sequence and expression pattern of a novel human orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, GPRC5B, a family C receptor with a short amino-terminal domain". Genomics. 65 (2): 121–8. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6164. PMID 10783259. 
  • Robbins MJ, Michalovich D, Hill J, Calver AR, Medhurst AD, Gloger I, Sims M, Middlemiss DN, Pangalos MN (2000). "Molecular cloning and characterization of two novel retinoic acid-inducible orphan G-protein-coupled receptors (GPRC5B and GPRC5C)". Genomics. 67 (1): 8–18. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6226. PMID 10945465. 
  • Tao Q, Cheng Y, Clifford J, Lotan R (2004). "Characterization of the murine orphan G-protein-coupled receptor gene Rai3 and its regulation by retinoic acid". Genomics. 83 (2): 270–80. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(03)00237-4. PMID 14706456. 
  • Wu Q, Ding W, Mirza A, Van Arsdale T, Wei I, Bishop WR, Basso A, McClanahan T, Luo L, Kirschmeier P, Gustafson E, Hernandez M, Liu S (2005). "Integrative genomics revealed RAI3 is a cell growth-promoting gene and a novel P53 transcriptional target". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (13): 12935–43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M409901200. PMID 15659406. 
  • Zhang Y, Wolf-Yadlin A, Ross PL, Pappin DJ, Rush J, Lauffenburger DA, White FM (2005). "Time-resolved mass spectrometry of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling network reveals dynamic modules". Mol. Cell Proteomics. 4 (9): 1240–50. doi:10.1074/mcp.M500089-MCP200. PMID 15951569. 
  • Nousiainen M, Silljé HH, Sauer G, Nigg EA, Körner R (2006). "Phosphoproteome analysis of the human mitotic spindle". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (14): 5391–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507066103. PMC 1459365Freely accessible. PMID 16565220. 
  • Hirano M, Zang L, Oka T, Ito Y, Shimada Y, Nishimura Y, Tanaka T (2006). "Novel reciprocal regulation of cAMP signaling and apoptosis by orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPRC5A gene expression". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 351 (1): 185–91. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.10.016. PMID 17055459. 

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.

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