|G protein-coupled receptor 172A|
|Locus||Chr. 8 q24.3|
The γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) receptor (GHBR), originally identified as GPR172A, is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that binds the neurotransmitter and psychoactive drug γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB).
The existence of a specific GHB receptor was predicted by observing the action of GHB and related compounds that primarily act on the GABAB receptor, but also exhibit a range of effects which were found not to be produced by GABAB activity, and so were suspected of being produced by a novel and at the time unidentified receptor target. Following the discovery of the "orphan" G-protein coupled receptor GPR172A, it was subsequently found to be the GHB receptor whose existence had been previously predicted. The rat GHB receptor was first cloned and characterised in 2003 followed by the human receptor in 2007.
The function of the GHB receptor appears to be quite different from that of the GABAB receptor. It shares no sequence homology with GABAB, and administration of mixed GHB/GABAB receptor agonists along with a selective GABAB antagonist or selective agonists for the GHB receptor which are not agonists at GABAB, do not produce a sedative effect, instead causing a stimulant effect followed by convulsions at higher doses, thought to be mediated through increased Na+/K+ current and increased release of dopamine and glutamate.
- 3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA)
- γ-Butyrolactone (GBL)
- γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)
- γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV; 4-methyl-GHB)
- γ-Valerolactone (GVL)
- trans-Hydroxycrotonic acid (T-HCA)
- Aceburic acid
- NCS-356 (4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-but-2-enoic acid, CAS# 430440-66-7)
- NCS-435 (4-(p-methoxybenzyl)-GHB)
- Snead OC (November 2000). "Evidence for a G protein-coupled gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor". J. Neurochem. 75 (5): 1986–96. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2000.0751986.x. PMID 11032888.
- Andriamampandry C, Taleb O, Viry S, et al. (September 2003). "Cloning and characterization of a rat brain receptor that binds the endogenous neuromodulator gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)". FASEB J. 17 (12): 1691–3. doi:10.1096/fj.02-0846fje. PMID 12958178.
- Andriamampandry C, Taleb O, Kemmel V, Humbert JP, Aunis D, Maitre M (March 2007). "Cloning and functional characterization of a gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor identified in the human brain". FASEB J. 21 (3): 885–95. doi:10.1096/fj.06-6509com. PMID 17197387.
- Cash, C; Gobaille, S; Kemmel, V; Andriamampandry, C; Maitre, M (1999). "γ-hydroxybutyrate receptor function studied by the modulation of nitric oxide synthase activity in rat frontal cortex punches". Biochemical Pharmacology. 58 (11): 1815–9. doi:10.1016/S0006-2952(99)00265-8. PMID 10571257.
- Maitre M, Humbert JP, Kemmel V, Aunis D, Andriamampandry C (March 2005). "[A mechanism for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) as a drug and a substance of abuse]" [A mechanism for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) as a drug and a substance of abuse]. Med Sci (Paris) (in French). 21 (3): 284–9. doi:10.1051/medsci/2005213284. PMID 15745703.
- Castelli MP, Ferraro L, Mocci I, et al. (November 2003). "Selective gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor ligands increase extracellular glutamate in the hippocampus, but fail to activate G protein and to produce the sedative/hypnotic effect of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid". J. Neurochem. 87 (3): 722–32. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.02037.x. PMID 14535954.
- Castelli MP (November 2008). "Multi-faceted aspects of gamma-hydroxybutyric Acid: a neurotransmitter, therapeutic agent and drug of abuse". Mini Rev Med Chem. 8 (12): 1188–202. doi:10.2174/138955708786141025. PMID 18855733.
- Crunelli V, Emri Z, Leresche N (February 2006). "Unravelling the brain targets of γ-hydroxybutyric acid". Curr Opin Pharmacol. 6 (1): 44–52. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2005.10.001. PMC 2174623. PMID 16368267.
- Carter LP, Koek W, France CP (October 2008). "Behavioral Analyses of GHB: Receptor Mechanisms". Pharmacol. Ther. 121 (1): 100–14. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2008.10.003. PMC 2631377. PMID 19010351.
- Ticku MK, Mehta AK (October 2008). "Characterization and pharmacology of the GHB receptor". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1139: 374–85. doi:10.1196/annals.1432.048. PMID 18991884.
- Absalom N, Eghorn LF, Villumsen IS, Karim N, Bay T, Olsen JV, Knudsen GM, Bräuner-Osborne H, Frølund B, Clausen RP, Chebib M, Wellendorph P (2012). "α4βδ GABA(A) receptors are high-affinity targets for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109 (33): 13404–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.1204376109. PMC 3421209. PMID 22753476.
- Høg S, Wellendorph P, Nielsen B, et al. (2008). "Novel High-Affinity and Selective Biaromatic 4-Substituted gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Analogues as GHB Ligands: Design, Synthesis, and Binding Studies". J. Med. Chem. 51 (24): 8088–95. doi:10.1021/jm801112u. PMID 19053823.