Aliases PRKAG3, AMPKG3, protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit gamma 3
External IDs MGI: 1891343 HomoloGene: 23006 GeneCards: PRKAG3
Species Human Mouse









RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 2: 218.82 – 218.83 Mb Chr 1: 74.74 – 74.75 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
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5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAG3 gene.[3][4]


The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit is one of the gamma regulatory subunits of AMPK. It is dominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. Studies of the pig counterpart suggest that this subunit may play a key role in the regulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle.[4]


  1. "Human PubMed Reference:".
  2. "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  3. Milan D, Jeon JT, Looft C, Amarger V, Robic A, Thelander M, Rogel-Gaillard C, Paul S, Iannuccelli N, Rask L, Ronne H, Lundström K, Reinsch N, Gellin J, Kalm E, Roy PL, Chardon P, Andersson L (May 2000). "A mutation in PRKAG3 associated with excess glycogen content in pig skeletal muscle". Science. 288 (5469): 1248–51. doi:10.1126/science.288.5469.1248. PMID 10818001.
  4. 1 2 "Entrez Gene: PRKAG3 protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 3 non-catalytic subunit".

Further reading

  • Woods A, Cheung PC, Smith FC, Davison MD, Scott J, Beri RK, Carling D (1996). "Characterization of AMP-activated protein kinase beta and gamma subunits. Assembly of the heterotrimeric complex in vitro". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (17): 10282–90. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.48.30517. PMID 8626596. 
  • Cheung PC, Salt IP, Davies SP, Hardie DG, Carling D (2000). "Characterization of AMP-activated protein kinase gamma-subunit isoforms and their role in AMP binding". Biochem. J. 346 Pt 3 (3): 659–69. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3460659. PMC 1220898Freely accessible. PMID 10698692. 
  • Nielsen JN, Mustard KJ, Graham DA, Yu H, MacDonald CS, Pilegaard H, Goodyear LJ, Hardie DG, Richter EA, Wojtaszewski JF (2003). "5'-AMP-activated protein kinase activity and subunit expression in exercise-trained human skeletal muscle". J. Appl. Physiol. 94 (2): 631–41. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00642.2002 (inactive 2015-01-01). PMID 12391032. 
  • Jeon JT, Park EW, Jeon HJ, Kim TH, Lee KT, Cheong IC (2004). "A large-insert porcine library with sevenfold genome coverage: a tool for positional cloning of candidate genes for major quantitative traits". Mol. Cells. 16 (1): 113–6. PMID 14503854. 
  • Mahlapuu M, Johansson C, Lindgren K, Hjälm G, Barnes BR, Krook A, Zierath JR, Andersson L, Marklund S (2004). "Expression profiling of the gamma-subunit isoforms of AMP-activated protein kinase suggests a major role for gamma3 in white skeletal muscle". Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 286 (2): E194–200. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00147.2003. PMID 14559719. 
  • Amarger V, Erlandsson R, Pielberg G, Jeon JT, Andersson L (2003). "Comparative sequence analysis of the PRKAG3 region between human and pig: evolution of repetitive sequences and potential new exons". Cytogenet. Genome Res. 102 (1–4): 163–72. doi:10.1159/000075743. PMID 14970697. 
  • Park HB, Marklund S, Jeon JT, Mickelson JR, Valberg SJ, Sandberg K, Andersson L (2003). "Molecular characterization and mutational screening of the PRKAG3 gene in the horse". Cytogenet. Genome Res. 102 (1–4): 211–16. doi:10.1159/000075751. PMID 14970705. 
  • Barnes BR, Long YC, Steiler TL, Leng Y, Galuska D, Wojtaszewski JF, Andersson L, Zierath JR (2006). "Changes in exercise-induced gene expression in 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase gamma3-null and gamma3 R225Q transgenic mice". Diabetes. 54 (12): 3484–9. doi:10.2337/diabetes.54.12.3484. PMID 16306365. 
  • Lindgren K, Ormestad M, Persson M, Martinsson S, Svensson LT, Mahlapuu M (2007). "Regulation of the muscle-specific AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2beta2gamma3 complexes by AMP and implications of the mutations in the gamma3-subunit for the AMP dependence of the enzyme". FEBS J. 274 (11): 2887–96. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2007.05821.x. PMID 17518971. 

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