Beta adrenergic receptor kinase
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Beta adrenergic receptor kinase (also referred to as βARK or BARK) is a serine/threonine intracellular kinase. It is activated by PKA and its target is the beta adrenergic receptor. It is one method by which the cell will desensitize itself from epinephrine overstimulation.
- (steps 1) Upon stimulation of the Beta adrenergic receptor by epinephrine, Gs will be activated.
- (steps 2 and 3) Gs alpha will then stimulate adenyl cyclase to make cAMP.
- (steps 3 through 6) cAMP will then activate cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA), which, among other proteins that it acts on, will phosphorylate serine and threonine residues on βARK.
- (step 7) βARK, itself a serine/threonine kinase, will then phosphorylate serine and threonine residues on the β-adrenergic receptor itself.
- (step 8) This will facilitate Beta-arrestin's binding to the receptor. Additional stimulation by epinephrine will now be unable to activate Gs due to arrestin.
Other similar systems
In the rhodopsin system, which regulates rod cell function in the retina, rhodopsin kinase will phosphorylate serine and threonine residues on the rhodopsin receptor. Similarly to the βARK system, the phosphorylated rhodopsin residues will then bind to arrestin, resulting in receptor desensitization.
The structure of βARK1 consists of a protein of 689 amino acids (79.7 kilodaltons) with a protein kinase catalytic domain that bears greatest sequence similarity to protein kinase C and the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase.
The gene spans approximately 23 kilobases and is composed of 21 exons interrupted by 20 introns. Exon sizes range from 52 bases (exon 7) to over 1200 bases (exon 21), intron sizes from 68 bases (intron L) to 10.8 kilobases (intron A). The splice sites for donor and acceptor were in agreement with the canonical GT/AG rule. Functional regions of beta ARK are described with respect to their location within the exon-intron organization of the gene. Primer extension and RNase protection assays suggest a major transcription start site approximately 246 bases upstream of the start ATG. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking/promoter region reveals many features characteristic of mammalian housekeeping genes, i.e. the lack of a TATA box, an absent or nonstandard positioned CAAT box, high GC content, and the presence of Sp1-binding sites. The extraordinarily high GC content of the 5'-flanking region (> 80%) helps define this region as a CpG island that may be a principal regulator of beta ARK expression.
Beta adrenergic receptor kinase has been shown to interact with:
- "Drugs that physically interact with Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 view/edit references on wikidata".
- "Human PubMed Reference:".
- "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
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- Day PW, Carman CV, Sterne-Marr R, Benovic JL, Wedegaertner PB (August 2003). "Differential interaction of GRK2 with members of the G alpha q family". Biochemistry. 42 (30): 9176–84. doi:10.1021/bi034442+. PMID 12885252.
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- Yang XL, Zhang YL, Lai ZS, Xing FY, Liu YH (April 2003). "Pleckstrin homology domain of G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 binds to PKC and affects the activity of PKC kinase". World J. Gastroenterol. 9 (4): 800–3. PMID 12679936.
- beta-Adrenergic Receptor Kinase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)