History of Turkish presidential elections
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There have been 17 elections for the President of Turkey since the establishment of the republic in 1923, electing 9 distinct Turkish citizens as president. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and İsmet İnönü were elected four times, Celal Bayar was elected three times, and Cemal Gürsel, Cevdet Sunay, Fahri Korutürk, Turgut Özal, Süleyman Demirel, and Ahmet Necdet Sezer were each elected once. Kenan Evren became the president without an election, so that he assumed the title by the ratification of the present constitution on 7 November 1982 (Constitution of Turkey provisional article 1).
The 2014 presidential elections in August 2014 was the first direct election of a President (which was before elected by MPs in the Turkish parliament), a result of a 2007 referendum created and backed by the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP).
In the event of a temporary absence of the president on account of illness, travel abroad or similar circumstances, the speaker of the parliament serves as acting president, and exercises the powers of the president until the president resumes his functions, and in the event that the presidency falls vacant as a result of death or resignation or for any other reason, until the election of a new president.
- Roger P. Nye (1977). "Civil-Military Confrontation in Turkey: The 1973 Presidential Election". International Journal of Middle East Studies, 8, pp 209-228. doi:10.1017/S0020743800026957.