Electoral cycle of Turkey

The Electoral cycle of Turkey is composed of three different types of elections, namely general elections every four years, local elections every five years and presidential elections every five years. Occasionally, referendums may be held if at least 330 Members of Parliament in the Grand National Assembly vote in favour of a constitutional amendment. Elections are overseen by the Supreme Electoral Council of Turkey.


Main article: Elections in Turkey

A summary of the purpose of each type of election is as follows.

Historical changes

The 2007 constitutional referendum brought about significant changes to the Turkish electoral system, lowering the parliamentary terms from five years to four. As a result, general elections are now held every four years rather than five. Furthermore, the constitutional changes adopted in the referendum made the President elected by direct ballot rather than indirectly within parliament as had previously been the case. Before 2014, presidential elections were held every seven years by MPs, but are now held directly every five years. The incumbent may seek re-election once for a maximum of two terms, whereas the term limit for previous presidents elected indirectly were capped at one term.

Electoral cycle since 1999

Turkish electoral cycle, 1999 onwards
Election 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
General 18 April 1999
DSP-MHP-ANAP coalition
3 November 2002
AK Party majority
22 July 2007
AK Party majority
12 June 2011
AK Party majority
7 June 2015
Local 18 April 1999
DSP victory
28 March 2004
AK Party victory
29 March 2009
AK Party victory
30 March 2014
AK Party victory
Presidential 5 May 2000 (indirect)
Ahmet Necdet Sezer (cross-party)
28 August 2007 (indirect)
Abdullah Gül (AK Party)
10 August 2014
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (AK Party)
Referenda 21 October 2007
12 September 2010
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