Accession of Turkey to the European Union

Turkish EU accession bid
Status Negotiating
Opened chapters 16[1]
Closed chapters 1
EU averageTurkey
PPP GDP ($M)552,7801,665,332 [2]
PPP per capita ($)40,60021,198[2]
Area (km2)165,048783,562
Population18,583,59878,741,053 [3]
This article is part of a series about the
Ministry of European Union Affairs of Turkey


Policies and related articles

Turkey's application to accede to the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union (EU), was made on 14 April 1987. Turkey has been an associate member since 1963.[4] After the ten founding members, Turkey was one of the first countries to become a member of the Council of Europe in 1949, and was also a founding member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1961[5] and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) in 1973. The country has also been an associate member of the Western European Union from 1992 to its end in 2011, and is a part of the "Western Europe" branch of the Western European and Others Group (WEOG) at the United Nations. Turkey signed a Customs Union agreement with the EU in 1995 and was officially recognised as a candidate for full membership on 12 December 1999, at the Helsinki summit of the European Council.

Negotiations were started on 3 October 2005[6] and out of 35 Chapters necessary to complete the accession process, 16 have been opened and one has been closed.[7] The membership bid is a controversial topic of the ongoing enlargement of the European Union.[8]

Turkey has also been engaged in a visa liberalisation dialogue with the EU including a "Roadmap towards a visa-free regime".[9] Provided Turkey meets the final five conditions agreed with the EU, it will be granted visa-free travel to the Schengen Area.[10]

On 24 November 2016 the European Parliament voted to suspend accession negotiations with Turkey.[11]



Palace of Europe in Strasbourg, seat of the Council of Europe, which Turkey joined on 9 August 1949.

After the Ottoman Empire's collapse following World War I, Turkish revolutionaries led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk emerged victorious in the Turkish War of Independence, establishing the modern Turkish Republic as it exists today. Atatürk, President of Turkey, implemented a series of reforms, including secularisation and industrialisation, intended to "Europeanise" or Westernise the country.[12] During World War II, Turkey remained neutral until February 1945, when it joined the Allies. The country took part in the Marshall Plan of 1947, became a member of the Council of Europe in 1949,[13] and a member of NATO in 1952.[14] During the Cold War, Turkey allied itself with the United States and Western Europe. The Turkish expert Meltem Ahıska outlines the Turkish position vis-à-vis Europe, explaining how “Europe has been an object of desire as well as a source of frustration for Turkish national identity in a long and strained history”.[15]


The country first applied for associate membership in the European Economic Community in 1959, and on 12 September 1963 signed the "Agreement Creating An Association Between The Republic of Turkey and the European Economic Community", also known as the Ankara Agreement. This agreement came into effect the following year on 12 December 1964. The Ankara Agreement sought to integrate Turkey into a customs union with the EEC whilst acknowledging the final goal of membership.[12] In November 1970, a further protocol called the "Additional Protocol" established a timetable for the abolition of tariffs and quotas on goods traded between Turkey and the EEC.[12]

On 14 April 1987, Turkey submitted its application for formal membership into the European Economic Community. The European Commission responded in December 1989 by confirming Ankara’s eventual membership but also by deferring the matter to more favourable times, citing Turkey’s economic and political situation, as well its poor relations with Greece and the conflict with Cyprus as creating an unfavourable environment with which to begin negotiations.[16] This position was confirmed again in the Luxembourg European Council of 1997 in which accession talks were started with central and eastern European states and Cyprus, but not Turkey. During the 1990s, Turkey proceeded with a closer integration with the European Union by agreeing to a customs union in 1995. Moreover, the Helsinki European Council of 1999 proved a milestone as the EU recognised Turkey as a candidate on equal footing with other potential candidates.


The next significant step in Turkey–EU relations came with the December 2002 Copenhagen European Council.[17] According to it, "the EU would open negotiations with Turkey 'without delay' if the European Council in December 2004, on the basis of a report and a recommendation from the Commission, decides that Turkey fulfills the Copenhagen political criteria."[17]

The European Commission recommended that the negotiations should begin in 2005, but also added various precautionary measures. The EU leaders agreed on 16 December 2004 to start accession negotiations with Turkey from 3 October 2005.[18] While Austria and Germany initially wanted to leave open the possibility that negotiations with Turkey would lead to a privileged partnership, less than full membership, accession negotiations were ultimately launched with the "shared objective" of membership.[19]

Turkey's accession talks have since been stalled by a number of domestic and external problems. Both Austria and France have said they would hold a referendum on Turkey's accession. In the case of France, a change in its Constitution was made to impose such a referendum, but later another constitutional change has enabled the parliament (if a large majority of its members agrees) to prevent such a referendum.[20] The issue of Cyprus continues to be a major obstacle to negotiations.[21] European officials have commented on the slowdown in Turkish reforms which, combined with the Cyprus problem, led the EU’s Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn in March 2007 to warn of an impeding ‘train crash’ in the negotiations.[22] Due to these setbacks, negotiations again came to a halt in December 2006, with the EU freezing talks in 8 of the 35 key areas under negotiation.[23]

In December 2009, the Republic of Cyprus blocked 6 chapters of Turkish accession negotiations, including those on Judiciary and Fundamental Rights, Energy and Education and Culture, arguing that Turkey needs to first normalise relations with Cyprus.[24][25] As a result, no chapter have been opened since June 2010.[26][27][28] Hence, there is no chapter Turkey can open other than the difficult and economically detrimental chapters Competition Policy, Social Policy and Employment, and Public Procurement that most candidate countries open at the end of accession as all other chapters are blocked. In February 2013, Turkish Deputy Undersecretary of the Ministry for EU Affairs, Burak Erdenir, claimed that the EU had yet to communicate to Turkey the benchmark criteria for opening chapters 23 and 24, Judiciary & Fundamental Rights and Justice, Freedom & Security, which was to be done after screening of the chapters was completed in 2006, thus making it impossible to comply with them. He also suggested this was a deliberate attempt to slow their accession process.[29]

Positive Agenda

After over 2 years of no chapter openings, the European Commission set up a "Positive agenda" designed to focus on common EU-Turkey interests. EU Commissioner for expansion Stefan Füle describes that the goal was "to keep the accession process alive and put it properly back on track after a period of stagnation which has been a source of frustration for both sides."[30] The EU Commission mentioned a broad range of areas as the main elements of the Agenda such as “intensified dialogue and cooperation on political reforms”, “visa”, “mobility and migration”, “energy”, “fight against terrorism”, “further participation of Turkey in Community programmes”, “town twinning”, “trade and the Customs Union” and “supporting efforts to align with the acquis, including on chapters where accession negotiations cannot be opened for the time being”. The proposal was considered favorably on the condition that it serves as an instrument in support of and complementary to the negotiation process with the EU.

In the framework of “Positive Agenda”, Working Groups were established on 8 chapters (“3-Right of Establishment and Freedom to Provide Services”, “6-Company Law”, “10-Information Society and Media”, “18-Statistics”, “23-Judiciary and Fundamental Rights”, “24-Justice, Freedom and Security”, “28-Consumer and Health Protection” and “32-Financial Control”). The “Positive Agenda” kick-off meeting was held on 17 May 2012 in Ankara with the participation of Stefan Füle, EU Commissioner for Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy. As a result of the Working Groups meetings held so far, a total of four closing benchmarks were confirmed to have been met by Turkey in three chapters (Company Law, Consumer and Health Protection and Financial Control chapters).[31][32]


In 2007, Turkey stated that they were aiming to comply with EU law by 2013,[33] but Brussels refused to back that as a deadline for membership.[34] In 2006 European Commission President José Manuel Barroso said that the accession process will take at least until 2021.[35] In a visit to Germany on 31 October 2012, Turkish Prime Minister R.T. Erdoğan made clear that Turkey was expecting membership in the Union to be realised by 2023, the 100th Anniversary of the Turkish Republic, implying that they could end membership negotiations if the talks had not yielded a positive result by then.[36] Turkish President Abdullah Gül said that upon completing the accession process Turkey will hold a referendum for Turkish membership in the European Union.[37]

On 20 June 2013, in the wake of Ankara's crackdown on mass demonstrations in Taksim Square, Germany blocked the start to new EU accession talks with Turkey.[38] According to the Financial Times, one Turkish official said that such a move could potentially break off political relations with the bloc.[38]

A Eurobarometer poll in September 2013, which included EU countries and candidate countries as well, showed that 43% of Turks viewed the EU positively, as compared with 60% six months previously. In the same poll, 29% of Turks polled expressed support for an EU Constitution, the lowest level of support among EU countries and candidates polled.[39] Germany says that its reservation stems from a technical issue, but Angela Merkel, an opponent of Turkish entry into the EU, has described herself as "shocked" after Ankara's use of overwhelming police force against mostly peaceful demonstrators.[38] France stated that they would not waive their veto over unfreezing four accession chapters with Turkey until after elections for the European Parliament in June 2014.[40]

The crackdown following the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt by President Erdogan damaged relations with the EU. Erdogan has indicated his approval of reinstating the death penalty to punish those involved in the coup, with the EU suggesting that this would end its EU ambitions. Erdogan stated in November 2016 that he was considering putting Turkey's continued negotiations with the EU on membership to a referendum in 2017.[41] In November 2016, the European Parliament voted in favour of a non-binding resolution to request that the European Commission temporarily suspend membership negotiations due to the "disproportionate repressive measures" of the government to the coup.[42]

Visa liberalisation process

The EU Commissioner of Interior Affairs Cecilia Malmström indicated on 29 September 2011 that visa requirement for Turkish citizens will eventually be discontinued.[43] Visa liberalisation will be ushered in several phases. Initial changes were expected in the autumn of 2011, which would include the reduction of visa paperwork, more multi-entry visas, and extended stay periods. In June 2012, the EU authorised the beginning of negotiations with Turkey on visa exemptions for its citizens. Turkish EU Minister Egemen Bağış stated that he expected the process to take 3–4 years.[44] The current visa policy of the EU is a cause of much concern for Turkish businessmen, politicians and Turks with family members in the EU. Egemen Bağış described the situation as: "Even non-candidate countries such as Russia, Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia are currently negotiating for visa-free travel."[45][46][47][48][49][50] In September 2012, Turkish Economy Minister Zafer Çağlayan, during a meeting at the WKÖ, said: "We have had a Customs Union for 17 years, and half of our (Turkey's) external trade is with Europe. Our goods can move freely, but a visa is required for the owner of the goods. This is a violation of human rights."[45]

In December 2013, after signing a readmission agreement, the EU launched a visa liberalisation dialogue with Turkey including a "Roadmap towards the visa-free regime".[9] After the November 2015 2015 G20 Antalya summit held in Antalya, Turkey there was a new push forward in Turkey's EU accession negotiations, including a goal of lifting the visa requirement for Turkish citizens.[51] The EU welcomed the Turkey's commitment to accelerate the fulfilment of the Visa Roadmap benchmarks set forth by participating EU member states.[52] A joint action plan was drafted with the European Commission which developed a roadmap with certain benchmarks for the elimination of the visa requirement.[53] The agreement called for abolishing visas for Turkish citizens within a year if certain conditions are satisfied.[54]

On 18 March 2016, EU reached a migration agreement with Turkey, aiming at discouraging refugees to enter EU. Under this deal, Turkey agreed to take back migrants who enter Greece, and send legal refugees to EU. In exchange, EU agreed to give Turkey six billion euros, and to allow visa-free travel for Turkish citizens by the end of June 2016 if Turkey meets 72 conditions.[55] In March 2016, the EU assessed that Turkey at the time met 35 of the necessary 72 requirements for free visa travel throughout Europe.[56] In May 2016, this number had risen to 65 out of 72.[57]

On 19 April 2016, Jean-Claude Juncker said that Turkey must meet the remaining criteria to win visa-free access to Schengen area. But Turkish prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu argued that Turkey would not support the EU-Turkey deal if EU did not weaken the visa conditions by June 2016.[58] In May 2016, the European Commission said that Turkey had met most of the 72 criteria needed for a visa waiver, and it invited EU legislative institutions of the bloc to endorse the move for visa-free travel by Turkish citizens within the Schengen Area by 30 June 2016.[10] The European Parliament would have to approve the visa waiver for it to enter into force and Turkey must fulfil the final five criteria.[59] The five remaining benchmarks still to be met by Turkey include:

Following the Brexit, the strategy plans of the EU suggest deeper integration between member states and closer and deeper ties with Turkey, signaling an intent to press ahead with plans to provide Turks with visa-free travel which was evaluated as a signal that EU may give compromise to Turkey in remaining benchmarks for visa liberation, namely the anti-terror laws of Turkey, following the June 2016 Istanbul airport bombing.[61]


31 July 1959 – Turkey applies for associate membership in the European Economic Community.
12 September 1963Association Agreement signed, acknowledging the final goal of membership.
1 December 1964 – Association Agreement comes into effect.[12]
23 November 1970 – Protocol signed providing a timetable for the abolition of tariffs and quotas on goods.
1980 – Freeze in relations following the 1980 Turkish coup d'état.
1983 – Relations fully restored following elections.
14 April 1987 – Application for formal membership into the European Community.
18 December 1989 – European Commission refuses to immediately begin accession negotiations, citing Turkey’s economic and political situation, poor relations with Greece and their conflict with Cyprus, but overall reaffirming eventual membership as the goal.
6 March 1995European Union-Turkey Customs Union is formed.
12 December 1999European Council recognises Turkey as a candidate on equal footing with other potential candidates.
12 December 2002 – European Council states that "the EU would open negotiations with Turkey 'without delay' if Turkey fulfills the Copenhagen criteria."
24 April 2004 – Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus back the Annan Plan for Cyprus.
17 December 2004European Union agrees to start negotiations.
20 October 2005 – Screening started.
12 June 2006 – Chapter on "Science & Research" is opened and closed.
13 October 2006 – Screening completed.
11 December 2006 – Continued dispute over Cyprus prompts the EU to freeze talks on 8 chapters and state that no chapters would be closed until a resolution is found.[62]
29 March 2007 – Chapter on "Enterprise & Industrial Policy" is opened.[63]
25 June 2007 – Chapter on "Statistics & Financial Control" is opened, but the opening of the chapter on "Economic & Monetary Policy" was blocked by French President Nicolas Sarkozy.[64]
26 July 2007 – Chapter on "Financial Control" is opened.
19 December 2007 – Chapters on "Health & Consumer Protection" and "Trans-European Networks" are opened.[65]
17 June 2008 – Chapters on "Company Law" and "Intellectual Property Law" are opened.[66]
19 December 2008 – Chapters on "Free Movement of Capital" and "Information Society & Media" are opened.[67]
30 June 2009 – Chapter on "Taxation" is opened.[68]
21 December 2009 – Chapter on "Environment & Climate Change" is opened.[69]
30 June 2010 – Chapter on "Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy" is opened.
17 May 2012 – Launch of the "Positive Agenda" with Turkey.[70]
1 July 2012 – 31 December 2012 – Turkey froze relations with the European Union for the duration of Republic of Cyprus' rotating presidency.[71]
12 February 2013 – France's foreign minister Laurent Fabius announces that France has officially removed its veto over Chapter 22 ("Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments"), and will assist in the chapter's opening. This chapter is also unfrozen on this date.[72][73][74][75]
25 June 2013 – Chapter on "Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments" is partially opened, but negotiations on the chapter will not commence until after the annual Progress Report is published in October, due to Turkey's handling of protesters.[76]
5 November 2013 – Chapter on Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments is fully opened.
16 December 2013 - The EU launches the Visa Liberalisation Dialogue with Turkey.[77]
31 January 2014 - France officially removes its veto over Chapter 11 (Agriculture & Rural Development). This chapter was blocked by both Cyprus and France, so it can't be unfrozen until Cyprus removes its veto.
29 November 2015 - At the EU-Turkey Summit the EU welcomes Turkey's commitment to accelerate the fulfilment of the Visa Roadmap benchmarks in return for halting the flow of Syrian refugees from Turkey to Greece.[78]
1 December 2015France officially removes its veto over Chapter 17 (Economic & Monetary Policy).
14 December 2015 – Chapter 17 is unfrozen and opened.
18 March 2016France officially removes its veto over Chapter 33 (Financial & Budgetary Provisions). This chapter is also unfrozen on this date.
30 June 2016 - Chapter 33 is opened.
24 November 2016 - MEPs vote overwhelmingly to suspend negotiations with Turkey over human rights and rule of law concerns.

Negotiation progress

To accede to the EU, Turkey must successfully complete negotiations with the European Commission on 33 of the 35 chapters of the acquis communautaire, the total body of EU law. (Two chapters do not require negotiation.) Afterwards, the member states must unanimously agree on granting Turkey membership to the European Union.

Acquis chapterEC Assessment At StartEC Assessment in 2015[79]EC Assessment in 2016[80]Screening StartedScreening CompletedChapter Frozen Chapter UnfrozenChapter OpenedChapter Closed
1. Free Movement of Goods Further efforts needed Good level of preparation Good level of preparation 16 January 2006 24 February 2006 11 December 2006[C 1]
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers Very hard to adopt Early stage Early stage 19 July 2006 11 September 2006 8 December 2009[C 2]
3. Right of Establishment For Companies & Freedom To Provide Services Very hard to adopt Early stage Early stage 21 November 2005 20 December 2005 11 December 2006[C 1]
4. Free Movement of Capital Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared 25 November 2005 22 December 2005 19 December 2008
5. Public Procurement Totally incompatible with acquis Moderately prepared Moderately prepared 7 November 2005 28 November 2005
6. Company Law Considerable efforts needed Well advanced Well advanced 21 June 2006 20 July 2006 17 June 2008
7. Intellectual Property Law Further efforts needed Good level of preparation Good level of preparation 6 February 2006 3 March 2006 17 June 2008
8. Competition Policy Very hard to adopt Moderately prepared Some level of preparation 8 November 2005 2 December 2005
9. Financial Services Considerable efforts needed Good level of preparation Good level of preparation 29 March 2006 3 May 2006 11 December 2006[C 1]
10. Information Society & Media Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared 12 June 2006 14 July 2006 19 December 2008
11. Agriculture & Rural Development Very hard to adopt Some level of preparation Some level of preparation 5 December 2005 26 January 2006 11 December 2006[C 1][C 3][31]
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy Very hard to adopt Some level of preparation Some level of preparation 9 March 2006 28 April 2006 30 June 2010
13. Fisheries Very hard to adopt Early stage Early stage 24 February 2006 31 March 2006 11 December 2006[C 1]
14. Transport Policy Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared 26 June 2006 28 September 2006 11 December 2006[C 1]
15. Energy Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared 15 May 2006 16 June 2006 8 December 2009[C 2]
16. Taxation Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared 6 June 2006 12 July 2006 30 June 2009
17. Economic & Monetary Policy Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared 16 February 2006 23 March 2006 25 June 2007[C 3][31] 14 December 2015 14 December 2015[81]
18. Statistics Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared 19 June 2006 18 July 2006 25 June 2007
19. Social Policy & Employment[82] Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared 8 February 2006 22 March 2006
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy No major difficulties expected Good level of preparation Good level of preparation 27 March 2006 5 May 2006 29 March 2007
21. Trans-European Networks Considerable efforts needed Well advanced Well advanced 30 June 2006 29 September 2006 19 December 2007
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared 11 September 2006 10 October 2006 25 June 2007[C 3] 12 February 2013 5 November 2013[83][84][85]
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights Considerable efforts needed Some level of preparation Some level of preparation 7 September 2006 13 October 2006 8 December 2009[C 2]
24. Justice, Freedom & Security Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared 23 January 2006 15 February 2006 8 December 2009[C 2]
25. Science & Research No major difficulties expected Well advanced Well advanced 20 October 2005 14 November 2005 12 June 2006 12 June 2006
26. Education & Culture Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared 26 October 2005 16 November 2005 8 December 2009[C 2]
27. Environment and Climate Change Totally incompatible with acquis Moderately prepared Some level of preparation 3 April 2006 2 June 2006 21 December 2009[69]
28. Consumer & Health Protection Further efforts needed Good level of preparation Good level of preparation 8 June 2006 11 July 2006 19 December 2007
29. Customs Union No major difficulties expected Good level of preparation Good level of preparation 31 January 2006 14 March 2006 11 December 2006[C 1]
30. External Relations No major difficulties expected Well advanced Good level of preparation 10 July 2006 13 September 2006 11 December 2006[C 1]
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared 14 September 2006 6 October 2006 8 December 2009[C 2]
32. Financial Control Further efforts needed Good level of preparation Good level of preparation 18 May 2006 30 June 2006 26 July 2007
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions No major difficulties expected Early stage Some level of preparation 6 September 2006 4 October 2006 25 June 2007[C 3][31] 18 March 2016 30 June 2016[86]
34. Institutions Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt
35. Other Issues Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt
Progress 33 out of 33[87] 33 out of 33[87] 17 out of 33 3 out of 17 16 out of 35 1 out of 35[88]
  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The EU Council froze the opening of eight chapters over Turkey's rejection to open its ports and airports to traffic from Cyprus in 2006
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Some of the chapters do not proceed to the next stage in the process, because they are blocked by Cyprus.
  3. 1 2 3 4 France blocked some chapters from proceeding to the next stage of the process, but subsequently lifted their veto.

Turkish membership issues

Effect upon the EU

Global map of Europe (light green) and Turkey (dark green)

The problem of Turkey's membership of the EU is compounded by conflicting views as to what the EU should ultimately become.[89] This has played a significant role in the debate, due in part to the Eurozone crisis and the fact that as a result of this the eurozone and the EU overall is more federalised on both fiscal, legal and political levels than it was at the time of Turkey's application or at the time that Turkey was accepted as a candidate.[90] Generally those members of the EU who support a rights-based free trade bloc do not oppose Turkey as adamantly as those who support a broader political union. The latter, in particular, are concerned that unification would be frustrated and the European project threatened by Turkey's inclusion.[91]

With destinations in 126 countries worldwide, Turkish Airlines is the largest carrier in the world by number of countries served as of 2016.[92]

Proponents of Turkey's membership argue that it is a key regional power[93][94] with a large economy and the second-largest military force of NATO after the United States[95][96] that will enhance the EU's position as a global geostrategic player and its Common Foreign and Security Policy;[97] given Turkey's geographic location and economic, political, cultural and historic ties in regions with large natural resources that are at the immediate vicinity of the EU's geopolitical sphere of influence; such as the East Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts, the Middle East, the Caspian Sea basin and Central Asia.[98][99]

According to the former Swedish foreign minister, Carl Bildt, "the accession of Turkey would give the EU a decisive role for stability in the eastern part of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, which is clearly in the strategic interest of Europe."[100] Two of Turkey's key supporters for its bid to join the EU are Poland[101][102] and the United Kingdom.[103] .

Upon joining the EU, Turkey's 76 million inhabitants would bestow the second-largest number of MEPs in the European Parliament.[22] Demographic projections indicate that Turkey would surpass Germany by 2020.[22] However, as a single country can only hold a maximum of 96 seats in the European Parliament, this would not give Turkey an advantage in the European Parliament.

The Nabucco, TANAP, TAP and ITGI pipelines will deliver natural gas from the Caspian Sea basin to the EU member states.
The Turkish high-speed railway network and the Marmaray tunnel will improve trade and commerce between the EU and Turkey.

Turkey's membership would also affect future enlargement plans, especially the number of nations seeking EU membership,[22] grounds on which Valéry Giscard d'Estaing has opposed Turkey's admission. Giscard has suggested that it would lead to demands for accession by Morocco. Morocco's application is already rejected on geographic grounds; Turkey, unlike Morocco, has 3% of its territory in Europe. On the other hand, Cyprus, which is geographically located in Asia, joined the European Union in 2004. Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy stated in January 2007 that "enlarging Europe with no limit risks destroying European political union, and that I do not accept...I want to say that Europe must give itself borders, that not all countries have a vocation to become members of Europe, beginning with Turkey which has no place inside the European Union."[104]

EU member states must unanimously agree on Turkey's membership for the Turkish accession to be successful. In December 2011, a poll showed that as much as 71% of the participants surveyed in Austria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom were opposed to Turkey's membership in the European Union.[105] A number of nations may oppose it; notably Austria (which historically served as a bulwark for Christian Europe against the Ottoman Empire whose armies twice laid siege to Vienna in 1529 and 1683); Germany (chancellor Angela Merkel has long rejected Turkey's accession bid, and has proposed a "privileged partnership" instead);[106] and France (where some are anxious at the prospect of a new wave of Muslim immigrants, given the country's already large Muslim community.)[107]

Negotiations to remove the French constitutional requirement for a compulsory referendum on all EU accessions after Croatia resulted in a new proposal to require a compulsory referendum on the accession of any country with a population of more than 5% of the EU's total population; this clause would mainly apply to Turkey and Ukraine.[108] The French Senate, however, blocked the change in the French constitution, in order to maintain good relations with Turkey.[109] The current situation according to the French constitution is as follows: if 3/5 of the delegates (from the Senate and the Parliament) agree to the accession of Turkey, there will be no referendum.

Panoramic view of the Bosphorus strait, with the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge at right.

Benefits to Turkey

Söğütözü business district in Ankara
Marmaris on the Turquoise Coast of Turkey, which is famous for its Blue Cruise voyages with gulet type schooners.

Upon accession to the EU, Turkey expects to receive economic development aid similar to what Ireland, Greece and Portugal received. There is also an expectation that there will be an increase in European foreign investment in the Turkish economy, further driving economic growth. Additionally, in times of economic crisis, Turkey could expect economic assistance from the EU, similar to what Ireland, Greece and Portugal received after the 2008 financial crisis.

Free movement of people across the EU will give many Turkish people the opportunity to easily migrate to other parts of Europe in search of work, or a higher standard of living. The option of migration out of Turkey will inevitably ease tensions in the east of the country, as the prospect of a better standard of living will tend to cool separatist tendencies. Some secularists in Turkey envisage that the accession of Turkey will contribute to the spread of secular western values in Turkey. Conversely, some non-secularists in Turkey envisage that accession will contribute to the further growth and acceptance of Islam in Europe. The EU accession bid has stimulated Turkey's political and legal reforms and intensified the democratisation process.[110]

Given Turkey's large and growing population, Turkey will have a correspondingly large representation in the European Parliament. This will give Turkey strong direct influence over EU policies. Membership in the EU will also increase Turkey's prestige regionally and internationally.


Main article: Economy of Turkey
A view of Dolmabahçe Palace and the skyline of Levent business district from the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul, the largest city and economic capital of Turkey, and the former capital of the Roman (330–395), Byzantine (395–1204 and 1261–1453), Latin (1204–1261) and Ottoman (1453–1922) Empires.

Turkey has the world's 17th largest GDP-PPP[111] and 18th largest Nominal GDP.[112] The country is a founding member of the OECD and the G-20 major economies.

Beko and Vestel are among the largest producers of consumer electronics and home appliances in Europe.

Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase its industrial production destined for exports, while at the same time benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment into the country.[113] In 2008, Turkey's exports reached 141.8 billion USD[114] (main export partners: Germany 11.2%, UK 8%, Italy 6.95%, France 5.6%, Spain 4.3%, US 3.88%; total EU exports 56.5%.) However, larger imports amounting to about 204.8 billion USD[114] threaten the balance of trade (main import partners: Russia 13.8%, Germany 10.3%, China 7.8%, Italy 6%, USA 4.8%, France 4.6%, Iran 3.9%, UK 3.2%; total EU imports 40.4%; total Asia imports 27%).[115][116]

According to Forbes magazine, Istanbul had a total of 37 billionaires in 2013, ranking 5th in the world behind Moscow (84 billionaires), New York City (62 billionaires), Hong Kong (43 billionaires) and London (43 billionaires).[117]

The opening of talks regarding the Economic and Monetary Policy acquis chapter of Turkey's accession bid was expected to begin in June 2007, but were stalled by France.[118] Turkey became the European Union’s fifth-largest trade partner in 2015 according to data released by Eurostat.[119]

Turkey is set to receive EUR 9.2bn from the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance, a funding mechanism for EU candidate countries.


Further information: Demographics of Turkey
İstiklal Avenue in Istanbul's cosmopolitan Beyoğlu district is visited by an average of 3 million people on weekend days.

As of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 71.5 million with a yearly growth rate of 1.5%.[120][121] The Turkish population is relatively young, with 25.5% falling within the 0–15 age bracket.[122]

Turkey's large population would alter the balance of power in the representative European institutions. Upon joining the EU, Turkey's 78 million inhabitants would bestow it the second largest number of MEPs in the European Parliament.[123] Demographic projections indicate that Turkey's population will surpass Germany's by 2020. This means Turkey would get the maximal number of representatives in the European Parliament, equal to Germany's.[123]

Istanbul will become the largest metropolis in the European Union if Turkey successfully completes the accession negotiations.

Foreign relations with EU member states


Further information: Cyprus dispute

Cyprus was divided when, on 20 July 1974, Turkey occupied a third of the island in response to an Athens-engineered coup aimed at annexing Cyprus to Greece.[124][125] Since then, Turkey has refused to acknowledge the Republic of Cyprus (an EU member since 2004) as the sole authority on the island, and recognizes the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus since its establishment in 1983. The Turkish invasion in 1974 and the resulting movement of refugees along both sides of the Green Line, and the establishment of the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983, form the core issues which surround the ongoing Cyprus dispute.

Turkey and the Turkish Cypriots backed the 2004 Annan Plan for Cyprus aimed at the reunification of the island, but the plan was subsequently rejected by Greek Cypriots on the grounds that it did not meet their needs. According to Greek Cypriots, the latest proposal included maintained residence rights for the many Anatolian Turks who moved to Cyprus after the invasion (and their descendants who were born on the island after 1974), while the Greek Cypriots who lost their property after the Turkish invasion would be granted only a restricted right of return to the north following the island's proposed reunification. Although the outcome received much criticism in the EU as well, the Republic of Cyprus was admitted into the EU a week after the referendum.

The self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is recognised only by Turkey since its establishment in 1983. In 2004, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) gave observer status (without voting rights) to the representatives of the Turkish Cypriot community.[126]

The Turkish government has refused to officially recognise the Republic of Cyprus until the removal of the political and economic blockade on the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Turkey's non-recognition of the Republic of Cyprus has led to complications within the Customs Union. Under the customs agreements which Turkey had already signed as a precondition to start EU membership negotiations in 2005, it is obliged to open its ports to Cypriot planes and vessels, but Turkey has not complied so far;[127] refusing to do so until the EU eases the international isolation of Northern Cyprus.[128] In February 2013, Turkish EU Minister Egemen Bağış told the Republic of Cyprus, "if you truly want salvation, truly want peace, then remove your blockade of Ercan Airport to EU member countries and Turkey will open its ports to you."[129]

Turkey’s refusal to implement a trade pact between Turkey and the EU that requires the Turkish government to allow Greek Cypriot vessels to use its air and sea ports has prompted the EU to freeze eight chapters in Turkey's accession talks.[127]

In November 2009, Turkish Deputy Prime Minister Cemil Çiçek declared that, should Turkey be forced to choose between supporting either EU membership or Turkish Cypriots, "[then] Turkey’s choice will forever be to stand next to the Turkish Cypriots. Everybody should understand this."[127]


Further information: Greece–Turkey relations

The issue of Turkish membership has been contentious in Greece. Opinion polls suggest that only 25% of Greeks believe Turkey has a place in the European Union.[130] The former Greek Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis stated that Turkish membership of the EU could only be predicated upon, "full compliance, full accession" in December 2006.[131] In 2005 the European Commission referred to relations between Turkey and Greece as "continuing to develop positively"[132] while also citing a key barrier to progress being Turkey's ongoing claim of casus belli over a dispute about territorial waters boundaries.[132]


Further information: Religion in Turkey and Secularism in Turkey
Originally a church, later a mosque, and today (since 1935) a museum, the 6th century Hagia Sophia (532–537) in Constantinople (Istanbul) built by the Byzantine emperor Justinian the Great was the largest cathedral ever constructed in the world for nearly a thousand years, until the completion of the Seville Cathedral (1507) in Spain.

Turkey has a secular constitution, with no "official" state religion, although the chief imam (currently Mehmet Görmez) is a civil servant and head of the Religious Affairs Directorate, or Diyanet.[133] 99% of the Turkish population is Muslim[134][135] of whom over 70% belong to the Sunni branch of Islam. A minority is affiliated with the Shi'a Alevi branch.[136] The Christians (Eastern Orthodox, Catholic, Gregorian, Syriac, Protestant) and Jews (Sephardic, Ashkenazi) were formerly sizable religious minorities in the country, until the genocide of Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians. Turkey would be the first Muslim-majority country to join the European Union.[137][138]

Official population census polls in Turkey do not include information regarding a person's religious belief or ethnic background due to the regulations set by the Turkish constitution, which defines all citizens of the Republic of Turkey as Turkish in terms of nationality, regardless of faith or race.[139]

There is a tradition of secularism in Turkey. The state has no official religion nor promotes any, and actively monitors the area between the religions.[140] The constitution recognises the freedom of religion for individuals, whereas religious communities are placed under the protection of the state; but the constitution explicitly states that they cannot become involved in the political process (by forming a religious party, for instance) or establish faith-based schools. No party can claim that it represents a form of religious belief; nevertheless, religious sensibilities are generally represented through conservative parties.[140] Turkey prohibits by law the wearing of religious headcover and theo-political symbolic garments for both sexes in government buildings, schools, and universities;[141] the law was upheld by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights as legitimate in the Leyla Şahin v. Turkey case on 10 November 2005.[142] However, in 2010, the prohibition of wearing headscarfs in universities was lifted.

Cultural differences between Muslim majority Turkey and predominantly Christian majority Europe play an important part in the entire debate on Turkish accession to the European Union. In an analysis, based on the World Values Survey, the social scientists Arno Tausch and Almas Heshmati came to the conclusion that a robust measurement scale of global economic, political and social values and Turkey's place on them wields only a very qualified picture of Turkey's place on the maps of global values. The study, which is based on 92,289 representative individuals with complete data in 68 countries, representing 56.89% of the global population, looks at hard-core economic values in the countries concerned. From nine dimensions for the determination of the geography of human values, based on a promax factor analysis of the available data, six factor analytical scores to calculate a new Global Value Development Index were used, which combines: avoiding economic permissiveness; avoiding racism; avoiding distrust of the army and the press; avoiding the authoritarian character; tolerance and respect; and avoiding the rejection of the market economy and democracy. Turkey is ranked 25, ahead of several EU member countries. But there are still considerable deficits concerning the liberal values components, which are very important for an effective democracy. The deficits, the study argues, suggest that the Turkish state, Turkish civil society and European decision makers would be well advised to continue to support civil society and secular democracy in Turkey.[143]

Armenian Genocide recognition

In 2004, the French Foreign Minister Michel Barnier stated that Turkey must recognise the systematic massacres of Armenians in 1915 as a genocide.[144] However, he insisted that although France did not set a precondition for European Union entry regarding the matter, he stated that France would raise the issue during negotiations. The President of the European Parliament, Martin Schulz, stated that it must be a precondition for Turkey to recognise the systematic massacres of Armenians in 1915 as genocide.[145]

The government of Turkey rejects such a precondition for EU membership and does not accept it as a part of the EU membership criteria.

In 2006, the European Parliament voted against a proposal to formally add the issue as a membership criterion for Turkey.[146] A similar proposal by Greek and Greek Cypriot MEPs was also rejected by the European Parliament in 2011.[147]

In 2013, during the case of Perinçek v. Switzerland, the European Court of Human Rights judged that "The existence of a “genocide”, which was a precisely defined legal concept, was not easy to prove. The Court doubted that there could be a general consensus as to events such as those at issue, given that historical research was by definition open to discussion and a matter of debate, without necessarily giving rise to final conclusions or to the assertion of objective and absolute truths."[148]

LGBT rights

Main article: LGBT rights in Turkey

In contravention of European Union directives on human rights, Turkey banned LGBT pride parades in 2015 and 2016.[149][150][151] Reasons given for the ban were security concerns, and religious sensitivities caused by holding the parade during the month of Ramadan.

Article 301

Article 301 states that "a person who publicly insults the Turkish nation, the State of the Republic of Turkey, or the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, shall be punishable by imprisonment of between six months and two years" and also that "expressions of thought intended to criticise shall not constitute a crime."

The EU was especially critical of this law during the September 2005 trial of novelist Orhan Pamuk over comments that recognised the deaths of thirty thousand Kurds and a million Armenians. Enlargement commissioner Olli Rehn and members of the European Parliament called the case "regrettable", "most unfortunate", and "unacceptable".[152] After the case was dropped three months later, Turkey's Foreign Minister Abdullah Gül indicated that Turkey may abandon or modify Article 301, stating that "there may be need for a new law".[153] In September 2006, the European Parliament called for the abolition of laws, such as Article 301, "which threaten European free speech norms".[154] On 30 April 2008, the law was reformed.[155] According to the reform, it is now a crime to explicitly insult the "Turkish nation" rather than "Turkishness"; opening court cases based on Article 301 require the approval of the Justice Minister; and the maximum punishment has been reduced to two years in jail.[155]

Kemal Kerinçsiz, an ultra-nationalist lawyer, and other members of Büyük Hukukçular Birliği (Great Jurists Union) headed by Kerinçsiz, have been "behind nearly all of [Article 301] trials."[156] In January 2008, Kerinçsiz was arrested for participating in an ultra-nationalist underground organisation, Ergenekon, allegedly behind the attacks on the Turkish Council of State and Cumhuriyet newspaper,[157] the assassination of several Christian missionaries and Armenian-Turkish journalist Hrant Dink,[158] as well as allegedly plotting the assassination of Nobel laureate Orhan Pamuk.[159][160]

Women's rights

Further information: Women in Turkey
Eighteen female MPs joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections, at a time when women in a significant number of other European countries had voting rights for the local municipal elections, but not for the national parliamentary elections. In 1993 Tansu Çiller became the first female Prime Minister of Turkey.

Turkey gave women the right to vote in 1930 for municipal elections. In 1934 this right was expanded for the national elections, while women were also given the right to become elected as MPs in the Turkish Parliament, or for being appointed as Ministers, Prime Minister, Speaker of the Parliament and President of the Republic. In 1993 Tansu Çiller became the first female Prime Minister of Turkey.

In its second report on women's role in social, economic and political life in Turkey, the European Parliament emphasised that respecting human rights, including women’s rights, is an essential condition for Turkey's membership of the EU. According to the report, Turkey's legal framework on women's rights "has in general been satisfactory, but its substantive implementation remains flawed."[161]

Conscientious objectors

Turkey is one of two states (along with Azerbaijan) among the 47 members of the Council of Europe which refused to recognise the status of conscientious objectors or give them an alternative to military service.[162]

Public reactions

In the EU

Public opinion in EU countries generally opposes Turkish membership, though with varying degrees of intensity. The Eurobarometer September–October 2006 survey[163] shows that 59% of EU-27 citizens are against Turkey joining the EU, while only about 28% are in favour. Nearly all citizens (about 9 in 10) expressed concerns about human rights as the leading cause. In the earlier March–May 2006 Eurobarometer, citizens from the new member states were more in favour of Turkey joining (44% in favour) than the old EU-15 (38% in favour). At the time of the survey, the country whose population most strongly opposed Turkish membership was Austria (con: 81%), while Romania was most in favour of the accession (pro: 66%). On a wider political scope, the highest support comes from the Turkish Cypriot Community (pro: 67%) (which is not recognised as sovereign state and is de facto not EU territory and out of the European institutions). These communities are even more in favour of the accession than the Turkish populace itself (pro: 54%).[164] Opposition in Denmark to Turkish membership was polled at 60% in October 2007, despite the Danish government's support for Turkey's EU bid.[165]

In Turkey

Wikinews has related news: EU sets date for membership talks with Turkey

The opening of membership talks with the EU in December 2004 was celebrated by Turkey with much fanfare,[166] but the Turkish populace has become increasingly sceptical as negotiations are delayed based on what it views as lukewarm support for its accession to the EU and alleged double standards in its negotiations particularly with regard to the French and Austrian referendums. A mid-2006 Eurobarometer survey revealed that 43% of Turkish citizens view the EU positively; just 35% trust the EU, 45% support enlargement and just 29% support an EU constitution.[167]

Moreover, Turks are divided on whether to join at all. A 2007 poll put Turkish support for accession to the EU at 41.9% (up from 32% in 2006), with 27.7% opposed and 24.0% indifferent.[168] A 2009 poll showed that support for accession had risen to 48%, even as negative views of the EU had risen from 28% to 32%.[169] A 2013 poll showed Turkish support for the EU bid at one third of the population, and opposition to double that share.[170]

According to the Transatlantic Trends survey for 2013, 60% of Turks have an unfavourable view of the European Union[171] and most Turks believe that working with Asia is more important to their national interests than working with Europe.[172] 44% of Turks believe EU membership could be good for the economy in contrast with 61% for EU citizens.[173] During an interview with Euractiv, EU Minister Egemen Bağış stated that: "This is what Europe needs to do; they need to say that when Turkey fulfills all requirements, Turkey will become a member of the EU on date X. Then, we will regain the Turkish public opinion support in one day."[174]

Official points of view

Major current viewpoints

"... under my Presidency of the Commission ... no further enlargement will take place over the next five years. As regards Turkey, the country is clearly far away from EU membership. A government that blocks Twitter is certainly not ready for accession."


"On 29 July 2005, Turkey signed the Additional Protocol adapting the EC Turkey Association Agreement to the accession of 10 new countries on 1 May 2004. At the same time, Turkey issued a declaration stating that signature of the Additional Protocol did not amount to recognition of the Republic of Cyprus. On 21 September, the EU adopted a counter-declaration indicating that Turkey’s declaration was unilateral, did not form part of the Protocol and had no legal effect on Turkey’s obligations under the Protocol. The EU declaration stressed that recognition of all Member States was a necessary component of the accession process. It also underlined the need for supporting the efforts of the Secretary General of the UN to bring about a comprehensive settlement of the Cyprus problem which would contribute to peace, stability and harmonious relations in the region."[190]

Impact of joining

Member countries Population Area (km²) Nominal GDP
(billion US$)
Nominal GDP
per capita (US$)
Turkey Turkey 77,695,904 783,562 762 9,725 Turkish
EU27 507,890,191 4,381,376 17,267 31,997 27
EU27+1 585,586,095

See also


  1. European Commission: Accession negotiations with Turkey
  2. 1 2 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2016. 24 April 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  3. "CIA World Factbook: Turkey". Central Intelligence Agency.
  4. "EU-Turkey relations". European Information on Enlargement & Neighbours. 23 September 2004. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
  5. In 1948, Turkey became one of the original 18 members of 'Organisation for European Economic Co-operation' OEEC which became OECD in 1961 OECD convention
  6. "Interview with European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso on BBC Sunday AM" (PDF). European Commission. 15 October 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 November 2006. Retrieved 17 December 2006.
  7. Phinnemore and İçener, David and Erhan (14 May 2016). "Never mind Brexit scaremongering – Turkey is a long way from joining the EU". LSE. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  8. "Fifty Years On, Turkey Still Pines to Become European". TIME. 8 September 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2009.
  9. 1 2 "Cecilia Malmström signs the Readmission Agreement and launches the Visa Liberalisation Dialogue with Turkey". European Commission. 6 November 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  10. 1 2 "European Commission opens way for decision by June on visa-free travel for citizens of Turkey". European Commission. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  11. "Freeze EU accession talks with Turkey until it halts repression, urge MEPs". European Parliament.
  12. 1 2 3 4 "Turkey and EU". Embassy of the Republic of Turkey (Washington, DC). Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
  13. "Turkey and the Council of Europe". Council of Europe. 27 October 2006. Archived from the original on 7 December 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
  14. "Greece and Turkey accede to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization". NATO Media Library. NATO. 18 February 1952. Archived from the original on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
  15. Ahıska, Meltem (2003) “Occidentalism: The Historical Fantasy of the Modern” South Atlantic Quarterly 102/2-3, Spring-Summer 2003 (Special Issue on Turkey: “Relocating the Fault Lines. Turkey Beyond the East-West Divide”), pp. 351–379.
  16. "About Turkey and the EU". Embassy of the Republic of Turkey in London. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
  17. 1 2 European Council: EU would open accession negotiations with Turkey
  18. "Independent Commission on Turkey". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  19. Today's Zaman: Turkey Starts Full Membership Negotiations with EU
  20. Turkey, with eye on EU, says determined to reform, EUbusiness, 15 March 2009
  21. "Cyprus threatens to block EU deal on Turkey talks". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  22. 1 2 3 4 "The ins and outs: The EU's most effective foreign-policy instrument has been enlargement. But how far can it go?". The Economist. 17 March 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
  23. The Independent: EU freezes talks on Turkey membership
  24. "Cyprus won't open EU accession chapters for Turkey". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  25. "Fule urges Turkey to implement Additional Protocol". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  27. "Turkey tells EU it may postpone competition chapter if needed". TodaysZaman. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  28. "Turkey sees bleak future for EU accession talks in 2012". TodaysZaman. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  29. "Turkey: EU political benchmarks 'were never given to us'". eurActiv. 7 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  30. EU Commissioner Fule: Positive Agenda to put EU process back on track Anadolu Agency
  31. 1 2 3 4 "Turkey-EU Relations". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  32. "Bağış: 'Dört fasılda kapanış kriterlerini yerine getirdiğimizin teyidini aldık'". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  33. Kubosova, Lucia (30 March 2007). "Turkey targets 2013 for EU legal compliance". EUobserver. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
  34. Kubosova, Lucia (17 April 2007). "Brussels declines to endorse 2013 date for Turkey's EU entry". EUobserver. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
  35. "Interview with European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso on BBC Sunday AM" (PDF). Retrieved 13 April 2007.
  36. Coskun, Orhan; Hudson, Alexandra (31 October 2012). "Merkel reassures Turkey on EU talks, Erdogan raps Cyprus". Reuters. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
  37. "Gül: 'Biz de AB üyeliğini referanduma götüreceğiz'". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  38. 1 2 3 Dombey, Daniel, James Fontanella-Khan, and Quentin Peel (21 June 2013). "Germany blocks Turkey's bid to join EU". Financial Times. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
  39. "New Eurobarometer poll results show a drop in Turkish support for the EU". Hürriyet. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
  40. "Turkey welcomes new chapter in EU talks, wants more progress". Today's Zaman. 5 November 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
  41. "Turkey could put EU talks to a referendum next year: Erdogan". Reuters. 2016-11-14. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
  42. "Euro MPs vote to freeze Turkey EU membership talks". BBC. 2016-11-24. Retrieved 2016-11-24.
  43. EU prepares road map to remove visa for Turks Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review (29 September 2011)
  44. "Visa exemption in 3–4 years, says EU minister". Anatolia News Agency. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  45. 1 2 "Çağlayan'dan vize uygulamasına tepki: 'AB insanlık suçu işliyor'". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  46. "Dış Politika Enstitüsü". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  47. "Being fair to Turkey is in the EU's interest". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  48. "'EU visa policy on Turkey is illegal,' German-based advocacy group says". TodaysZaman. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  49. Güsten, Susanne (28 June 2012). "Turks Seek Freedom to Travel to Europe Without Visas". The New York Times.
  50. Bagis, Egemen (14 July 2012). "Visa restrictions are shutting Turkey out of the EU". The Guardian. London.
  51. Pence, Anne; Utku, Sinan (16 November 2015). "Hosting G20 Leaders is Opportunity for Turkey on Growth and Stability". The National Law Review. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  52. "European Commission - Statement Meeting of heads of state or government with Turkey - EU-Turkey statement, 29/11/2015". Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  53. De Ruyt, Jean (2 December 2015). "The EU – Turkey summit of 29 November 2015 : A "Re-Energised" Relationship". The National Law Review. Covington & Burling LLP. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  54. "Declaring 'new beginning,' EU and Turkey seal migrant deal". Reuters. 30 November 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  55. E.U. strikes deal to return new migrants to Turkey A. Faiola and G. Witte, The Washington Post, 18 March 2016
  56. Timmermans: 'De EU laat zich niet chanteren door Turkije' (Dutch), de Volkskrant
  57. European Commission’s Jean-Claude Juncker Says Criteria For Turkey’s Visa Waiver Will Not Be ‘Watered Down’ S. Shankar, International Business Times, 19 April 2016
  58. "EU commission backs Turkish citizens' visa-free travel". Aljazeera. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  59. "EU backs Turkey visa deal, but says conditions must be met". BBC News. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  60. "EU to DEEPEN ties with Turkey as it seeks true union after Brexit". Express. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  61. EU resumes Turkey accession talks, BBC News, 29 March 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2007.
  62. EU-Turkey to re-start entry talks,, 29 March 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2007.
  63. Turkish Entry Into Europe Slowed by Sarkozy Move, New York Times, 25 June 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2007.
  64. Defying France, EU opens two more chapters for accession, Zaman, 20 December 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
  65. "". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  66. Future enlargements – Policy – Homepage – Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation
  67. "Turkey takes small step forward in EU membership talks". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  68. 1 2 "Cyprus fails to block EU step for Turkey". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  69. "Turkey to freeze EU ties if Cyprus gets EU presidency". Reuters. 18 September 2011.
  70. "Ve Fransa ilk adımı attı". HÜRRİYET – TÜRKİYE'NİN AÇILIŞ SAYFASI. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  71. "Fransa'dan 'Fasıl' sürprizi". ZAMAN. 12 February 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  72. "France to assist Turkey in opening EU chapter – EUROPE". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  73. "Müzakerelerde 2.5 yıllık tıkanma sona eriyor: Fransa, 22. fasıldaki blokajı kaldıracak". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  74. "EU delays Turkey membership talks after German pressure". BBC. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  77. "Turkey expects new talks on its EU bid next month". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  78. including anti-discrimination and equal opportunities for women and men.
  79. "New EU chapter promises regional development in Turkey". Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  80. "EU-Turkey membership talks in Brussels". Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  81. "EU, Turkey restart membership talks". Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  82. "Accession conference with Turkey: Talks opened on Chapter 33 - Financial and budgetary provisions". Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  83. 1 2 Excluding Chapters 34 (Institutions) and 35 (Other Issues) since these are not legislation chapters.
  85. "International" (PDF). Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  86. The future of the European Union, The Economist Magazine, May 26 2012
  87. "Van Rompuy: 'Turkey will never be part of Europe'". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  88. "Turkish Airlines: International Flight Destinations". Turkish Airlines. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  89. Stratfor: "Turkey and Russia on the Rise", by Reva Bhalla, Lauren Goodrich and Peter Zeihan. 17 March 2009.
  90. Stratfor: "The Geopolitics of Turkey", by George Friedman. 31 July 2007.
  91. Öymen, Onur (29 June 1999). "Turkey". My Country & NATO. NATO. Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
  92. "Growing worries in the West over the risk of losing Turkey". Economist: Turkey, America and Europe. 28 September 2006. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
  94. Mango, Andrew (2000). Ataturk. Overlook. ISBN 1-58567-011-1.
  95. Shaw, Stanford Jay; Kural Shaw, Ezel (1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29163-1.
  96. Ekman, Ivar (11 December 2006). "Top Swedish official backs Turkey for EU". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 3 July 2007.
  97. "Polish president 'very optimistic' about Turkey's EU accession bid". TodaysZaman. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  98. "ECONOMY – Turkey's EU bid hurt by turmoil – Polish president". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  99. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  100. "Turkey has no place in EU: Sarkozy". Retrieved 13 April 2007.
  101. Europeans against Turkey in EU: Poll
  102. "Germany's Merkel Opposed to Turkey's Full EU Membership". English Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  103. Islam is the religion of 5% to 10% of French citizens, however the majority of the prisoners are Muslims; see for instance this article from the Washington Post
  104. "French Parliament strikes blow to Turkish EU bid". EurActiv – EU News & policy debates, across languages. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  105. French Senate ends Sarkozy plan to block Turkey « The Turko File
  106. Kubilay Yado Arin: The AKP's Foreign Policy. Turkey's Reorientation from the West to the East? Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Berlin, Berlin 2013, pp. 57–84.
  107. "Turkey". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  108. The World Bank: World Development Indicators Database. Gross Domestic Product 2013. Last revised on 22 September 2014.
  109. Kaminski, Bartolomiej; Ng, Francis (1 May 2006). "Turkey's evolving trade integration into Pan-European markets" (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved 27 December 2006.
  110. 1 2 "The World Factbook". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  111. "2006–2007 Seçilmiş Ülkeler İstatistikleri" (in Turkish). Gümrükler Genel Müdürlüğü. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
  112. "Turkey puts 2008 export target at 125 bln dollars". Xinhua. People's Daily Online. 2 January 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2008.
  113. "Forbes Top 10 Billionaire Cities – Moscow Beats New York Again". Forbes. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  114. "Turkey unhappy at EU talks delay". BBC News. 26 June 2007. Archived from the original on 16 July 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2007.
  115. "Turkey becomes EU's fifth-largest trade partner – World Bulletin". World Bulletin. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  116. "Turkey at a glance" (PDF). World Bank. 13 August 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 December 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2006.
  117. "Data and Statistics for Turkey". World Bank. 2005. Retrieved 10 December 2006.
  118. "Turkey – Population and Demographics". Intute. July 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2006.
  119. 1 2 "The awkward partners". The Economist. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  120. Cook, Chris; Diccon Bewes (1997). What Happened Where: A Guide to Places and Events in Twentieth-century History. Routledge. p. 65. ISBN 1-85728-533-6.
  121. Mallinson, William (30 June 2005). Cyprus: A Modern History. I. B. Tauris. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-85043-580-8.
  122. "Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly". Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  123. 1 2 3
  124. "Greece calls on Turkey to pull out of Cyprus". London: Daily Telegraph. 9 September 2010.
  125. ABHaber
  126. "BBC NEWS – Europe – Analysis: EU views on Turkish bid". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  127. Panagopoulis, A. (18 December 2006). "Karamanlis Hails EU's 'Historic' Decision to Admit Bulgaria, Romania". Greek News. Retrieved 13 April 2007.
  128. 1 2 "Turkey – 2005 Progress Report" (PDF) (Press release). European Commission. 11 August 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 June 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2007.
  129. O'Toole, Pam (29 October 2003). "Headscarf row goes to Turkey's roots". BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
  130. "Turkey". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  131. "Turkey". International Religious Freedom Report. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. U.S. State Dept. 15 September 2006. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
  132. Shankland, David (2003). The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7007-1606-8.
  133. "Kosovo – Towards European integration". 6 October 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  134. "Social values, Science and Technology" (PDF). Eurobarometer. June 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 January 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2006.
  135. Duzel, Nese (10 October 2005). "Alevilik İslamiyet'in içinde değil". Radikal (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 28 June 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
  136. 1 2 O'Toole, Pam (29 October 2003). "Headscarf row goes to Turkey's roots". BBC News. Archived from the original on 18 November 2006. Retrieved 13 December 2006.
  137. "The Islamic veil across Europe". BBC News. 17 November 2006. Retrieved 13 December 2006.
  138. Registrar (10 November 2005). "Leyla Şahin v. Turkey" (Press release). European Court of Human Rights. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
  139. Tausch, Arno and Almas Heshmati (2013). Testing an EU-Candidate's Place on the Maps of Global Economic, Political and Social Values: The Case of Turkey. IZA Discussion Paper 8163,
  140. "Turkey 'must admit Armenia dead'". British Broadcasting Network (BBC). 13 December 2004. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  141. "Genocide Recognition Precondition to Turkey's EU Bid, Says Euro-Parliament President". Asbarez. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  142. "European Parliament critical of slowdown in Turkey's reform process". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  143. "Spain Says No: Genocide bill rejected - Genocide -". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  144. "Criminal conviction for denial that the atrocities perpetrated against the Armenian people in 1915 and years after constituted genocide was unjustified". European Court of Human Rights. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  145. "Turkey police fire rubber bullets at banned Gay Pride parade". Retrieved 2016-08-05.
  146. CNN, Ashley Fantz, Gul Tuysuz and Arwa Damon. "Turkish police fire pepper spray at gay pride parade". CNN. Retrieved 2016-08-05.
  147. "MEPs condemn crackdown on Istanbul Pride | The European Parliament Intergroup on LGBTI Rights". Retrieved 2016-08-05.
  148. Dymond, Jonny (13 September 2005). "EU blasts Turkish author's trial". BBC News. Retrieved 6 July 2007.
  149. "Turkey insult law 'may be dumped'". BBC News. 28 December 2005. Retrieved 6 July 2007.
  150. "New EU warning on Turkey reforms". BBC News. 27 September 2006. Retrieved 8 July 2007.
  151. 1 2 "BBC NEWS – Europe – EU hails Turkey free speech move". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  152. "In Turkey, ultra-nationalist lawyer wins supporters as enthusiasm for the EU falls". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 5 September 2006. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
  153. Akyol, Mustafa (26 January 2008). "The Turkish Leviathan under arrest?". Turkish Daily News. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2008.
  154. Sabrina Tavernise (28 January 2008). 13 Arrested in Push to Stifle Turkish Ultranationalists Suspected in Political Killings. New York Times.
  155. Plot to kill Orhan Pamuk foiled. Times of India. 25 January 2008
  156. Lea, Richard (28 January 2008). "'Plot to kill' Nobel laureate". Guardian: Books. London. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
  157. "Women's rights in Turkey: MEPs say improvements still needed" (Press release). European Parliament. 13 February 2007. Retrieved 13 April 2007.
  158. Popham, Peter (7 June 2006). "Leading Turkish writer faces jail after incurring wrath of military". Independent. London. Retrieved 13 April 2007.
  159. "European Commission: Eurobarometer 66 – Public Opinion in the European Union, Sep–Oct 2006, p.223" (PDF). Retrieved 1 September 2007.
  160. "European Commission: Special Eurobarometer 255 – Attitudes towards EU Enlargement., July 2006, p. 72" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 August 2006. Retrieved 5 September 2006.
  161. "Disagreement over Turkish EU membership". Copenhagen Post. 22 October 2007. Archived from the original on 22 August 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
  162. "The ever lengthening road". Economist. 7 December 2006. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
  163. "New Eurobarometer poll results show a drop in Turkish support for the EU". Hurriyet. Retrieved 13 April 2007.
  164. "Support for EU Accession Increases in Turkey". Retrieved 18 May 2013.
  165. "Türkler AB'ye rağmen AB'yi istiyor". Radikal. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
  166. "Turkey losing appetite for EU bid, says survey". 26 January 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  167. "Transatlantic Trends – Key Findings". Transatlantic Trends. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  168. "Transatlantic Trends – Key Findings". Transatlantic Trends. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  169. "Transatlantic Trends – Key Findings". Transatlantic Trends. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  170. "Bağış: Fransa'nın tutumunda değişimin başladığını görüyoruz". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  171. Sarmadi, Dario. "Juncker and Schulz say 'no' to Turkey in last TV duel". 21/05/2014. Efficacité et Transparence des Acteurs Européens. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  172. MY FOREIGN POLICY OBJECTIVES, Official website of EU President Juncker, "When it comes to enlargement, this has been a historic success. However, Europe now needs to digest the addition of 13 Member States in the past 10 years. Our citizens need a pause from enlargement so we can consolidate what has been achieved among the 28. This is why, under my Presidency of the Commission, ongoing negotiations will of course continue, and notably the Western Balkans will need to keep a European perspective, but no further enlargement will take place over the next five years. As regards Turkey, the country is clearly far away from EU membership. A government that blocks twitter is certainly not ready for accession."
  173. "Erdoğan: 'AB konusunda bir yere kadar sabredeceğiz'". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  174. "Erdoğan: 'AB'nin güçsüz düşmesi geniş bir coğrafyayı olumsuz etkiler'". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  175. FAZ: Kanzlerin in Ankara: Merkel lehnt EU-Beitritt der Türkei weiter ab, 29 March 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2011
  176. 1 2 Die Welt: Vor Treffen mit Gül: Merkel lehnt EU-Mitgliedschaft der Türkei ab, 20 September 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011
  179. "Merkel backs new EU talks for Turkey but has doubts". Reuters. 23 February 2013.
  180. SPIEGEL ONLINE (6 November 2006). "Merkel Worried about Turkey: Situation Is "Very, Very Serious"". SPIEGEL ONLINE. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  181. Erdogan struggles with Merkel's scepticism on Turkish EU bid, Reuters UK (4 February 2014)
  182. "Sarkozy : La France et l'Asie mineure – Turquie Européenne". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  183. France's Hollande cautiously backs Turkey EU membership bid, Reuters (27 January 2014)
  184. TODAY'S BRIEFING: TURKEY, 24 June 2013 Daily Press Briefing. ON YOUTUBE (includes closed captioning)
  185. "World: Europe EU warms towards Turkey". BBC News. 13 September 1999. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  186. "Final Progress Report for Turkey" (PDF). Retrieved 13 April 2007.
  187. "EU urged to freeze Turkey talks". BBC News. 29 November 2006. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
  188. "Barroso says Turkey not ready for EU membership, urges continued negotiations". Zaman,, DPA, Reuters. Southeast European Times. 22 July 2007.
  189. 1 2 EUbusiness: Portugal rejects major EU debate on Turkey this year
  191. 1 2 3 "Italy urges EU to speed up Turkey's application". euronews. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  192. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Sarkozy cancels Sweden visit over Turkey". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  193. ABHaber
  194. 1 2 3 4 La Moncloa – Spanish Government: Spain supports Turkey’s candidature to the EU
  196. David Miliband is visiting Turkey on 4 and 5 November
  197. "Cameron 'anger' at slow pace of Turkish EU negotiations". BBC News. 27 July 2010.
  198. State Department Website: Remarks with Austrian Foreign Minister Michael Spindelegger After Their Meeting, November 16, 2010
  199. "German minister's EU remarks on Turkey 'unacceptable' – EUROPE". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  200. "German finance minister says Turkey is not part of Europe". Reuters. 3 July 2013.
  201. "Turkey's EU process an end in itself, says Turkish diplomat – POLITICS". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  202. "Business between Czech companies and Turkey on the rise". Retrieved 7 June 2015.

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/4/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.