1900s (decade)

"Aughts" redirects here. For other uses, see 2000s (decade).
From left, clockwise: The Wright brothers achieve the first manned flight by airplane, in Kitty Hawk in 1903; U.S. President William McKinley is assassinated in 1901 by Leon Czolgosz at the Pan-American Exposition; An earthquake on the San Andreas Fault destroys much of San Francisco, killing at least 3,000 in 1906; America gains control over the Philippines in 1902, after the Philippine–American War; Rock being moved to construct the Panama Canal; Admiral Togo before the Battle of Tsushima in 1905, part of the Russo-Japanese War, leading to Japanese victory and their establishment as a great power.
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 19th century20th century21st century
Decades: 1870s 1880s 1890s1900s1910s 1920s 1930s
Years: 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909
Births – Deaths – By country
Establishments – Disestablishments

The 1900s (pronounced "nineteen-hundreds") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1900, and ended on December 31, 1909. The term "nineteen-hundreds" can also equally be used for the years 1900–1999 (see 1900s). The Edwardian era (1901–1910) covers a similar span of time.

Pronunciation varieties

There are several main varieties of how individual years of the decade are pronounced in English. Using 1906 as an example, they are "nineteen-oh-six", "nineteen-six", and "nineteen-ought-six". Which variety is most prominent depends somewhat on global region and generation. In American English, "nineteen-oh-six" is the most common; "nineteen-six" is less common; "nineteen-ought-six" is recognized but not much used. In the post–World War II era through the 1990s, mentions of "nineteen-ought-six" or "ought-six" often distinctly connoted old-fashioned speech; for example, it was once used to add to the geriatric-humor effect in the dialogue of the Grampa Simpson character. The strength of the comedic effect diminished during the aughts of the next century, as the public grew used to questioning how to refer to an "ohs" or "aughts" decade.

War, peace and politics

A shocked mandarin in Manchu robe in the back, with Queen Victoria (British Empire), Wilhelm II (German Empire), Nicholas II (Imperial Russia), Marianne (French Third Republic), and a samurai (Empire of Japan) stabbing into a king cake with Chine ("China" in French) written on it. A portrayal of New Imperialism and its effects on China.


Internal conflicts



Major political changes


Ruins from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, remembered as one of the worst natural disasters in United States history

Natural disasters

Non-natural disasters


A sketch of Leon Czolgosz shooting U.S. President William McKinley.

The 1900s were marked by several notable assassinations and assassination attempts:


The cost of an American postage stamp was 1 cent.[1] The cost of a Swedish postage stamp was 100SEK.


[5] [6]


The first ascent of LZ1 over Lake Constance (the Bodensee) in 1900.
A diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906
Gilmore's second, larger plane
Ford Model A was the first car produced by Ford Motor Company beginning production in 1903.
A replica of Pearse's monoplane
The first flight by Orville Wright made on December 17, 1903.
Construction work on the Gaillard Cut is shown in this photograph from 1907
Alberto Santos-Dumont realizes the first official flight, 23 October 1906, Bagatelle field.
The Autochrome Lumière becomes the first commercial color photography process.
Ford Model T set 1908 as the historic year that the automobile came into popular usage as it is generally regarded as the first affordable automobile.


Popular culture

Literature and art


See also: 1900s in film





World leaders

Emperor Menelik II (Ethiopia)


Modern artists


Other notable people


The Tour de France starts for the first time in 1903.[84]

Sports figures




See also


The following articles contain brief timelines which list the most prominent events of the decade:


Further reading


  1. http://www.theseniorlist.com/2013/09/postcards-from-the-edge-september-30-1909/
  2. "How did science and technology change in the 1900s?". eNotes.
  3. http://blog.modernmachanix.com/2008/06/16/invented-earlier-than-youd-think-pt-2-answering-machines
  4. http://library.thinkquest.rg/J0111064/00invetnions.html
  5. Abhay Burande. "History of Radio - Who Invented the Radio?". Buzzle.
  6. http://gardenofpraise/ibdbell.htm
  7. Martin Leduc, "Biography of Rudolph Diesel"
  8. The history behind the Mercedes-Benz brand and the three-pointed star. eMercedesBenz.com. April 17, 2008.
  9. "The most thorough account of the history of the phonograph is still Oliver Read and Walter L. Welch, Tin Foil to Stereo: Evolution of the Phonograph, 2nd ed. (Indianapolis, IN: Howard W. Sams & Co., 1976). For a recent version of the story see Leonard DeGraaf, "Thomas Edison and the Origins of the Entertainment Phonograph" NARAS Journal 8 (Winter/Spring 1997/8) 43–69, as well as William Howland Kenney's recent and welcome Recorded Music in American Life: The Phonograph and Popular Memory, 1890–1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999). Much of the technocentric focus of literature on the phonograph (a focus Kenney's cultural history finally shifts) may derive from the interests of collectors, for whom I have the utmost respect. In the interest of simplicity I am going to use the eventual American generic, "phonograph," for the graphophone and gramophone as well as the phonograph. Of course in Britain and much of the postcolonial world the generic is "gramophone.""
  10. "How Users Define New Media: A History of the Amusement Phonograph". mit.edu.
  11. Linehan, Andrew. "Soundcarrier". Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 359–366."
  12. "Location Text and List of Documents - The Edison Papers". rutgers.edu.
  13. Mary Bellis. "Biography of Thomas Edison". About.com Money.
  14. "George Eastman House The GEH Brownie Collection Series". geh.org.
  15. "Inventors". typewritermuseum.org.
  16. "The Stamford Historical Society, Blickensderfer Manufacturing Co., The First Electric Typewriter". stamfordhistory.org.
  17. "The Stamford Historical Society, Blickensderfer Typewriters". stamfordhistory.org.
  18. Nicolaou, Stephane (1998). Flying Boats & Seaplanes: A History from 1905. Osceola: Zenith. , p. 10
  19. "MFN - Metal Finishing News". mfn.li.
  20. "Fessenden and Marconi: Their Differing Technologies and Transatlantic Experiments During the First Decade of this Century". Ieee.ca. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-29.
  21. "Marconi and the History of Radio".
  22. John S. Belrose, "Fessenden and Marconi: Their Differing Technologies and Transatlantic Experiments During the First Decade of this Century". International Conference on 100 Years of Radio -- 5–7 September 1995.
  23. "Willis Carrier air conditioning". air-conditioners-and-heaters.com.
  24. Kati Singel, "The Polygraph:The Modern Lie Detector"
  25. "Brief History of the Polygraph". total.net.
  26. Mary Bellis. "History of the Lie Detector or Polygraph Machine". About.com Money.
  27. "10. Neon - Elementymology & Elements Multidict". vanderkrogt.net.
  28. Mangum, Aja (December 8, 2007). "Neon: A Brief History". New York Magazine.
  29. "teawaker.com". teawaker.com.
  30. "FLYING MACHINES - Lyman Wiswell Gilmore, Jr.". flyingmachines.org.
  31. Stephen Barber, "Lyman Gilmore Jr. - Aeronautical Pioneer"
  32. "The Wright Brothers - The 1902 Glider". si.edu.
  33. John David Anderson, "Introduction to flight" (2004), page 30. ISBN 0-07-123818-2
  34. Rodliffe, C. Geoffrey. Richard Pearse: Pioneer Aviator. Auckland, New Zealand: Museum of Transport and Technology. Inc., 1983. ISBN 0-473-09686-2.
  35. Rodliffe, C. Geoffrey. Flight over Waitohi. Auckland, New Zealand: Acme Printing Works, 1997. ISBN 0-473-05048-X.
  36. Ogilvie, Gordon. The Riddle of Richard Pearse. Auckland, New Zealand: Reed Publishing, Revised edition, 1994. ISBN 0-589-00794-7.
  37. "The Pioneers : An Anthology : Karl Jatho (1873 - 1933)". monash.edu.au.
  38. "FLYING MACHINES - Karl Jatho". flyingmachines.org.
  39. United States Patent 743,801, Issue Date: November 10, 1903
  40. Women Hold Patents on Important Inventions; USPTO recognizes inventive women during Women's History Month, United States Patent and Trademark Office press release #02–16, March 1, 2002, accessed March 3, 2009
  41. Many Anderson: Windshield Wipers, September 2001, Inventor of the Week Archive, Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Engineering website, accessed March 3, 2009
  42.  "1903 - Who Made the First Flight?" TheWrightBrothers.org.
  43. Slattery, Peter. "Reporting the Russo-Japanese War,1904–5", 2004.
  44. The Times, "First messages from the Yellow Sea", March 11, 2004.
  45. The De Forest Wireless Telegraphy Tower: Bulletin No. 1, Summer 1904.
  46. Scott, William R. (1913). The Americans in Panama. New York: Statler Publishing Company. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
  47. "May 4, 1904". czbrats.com.
  48. "Panama Canal History - End of the Construction". pancanal.com.
  49. "Woodrow Wilson: Address to a Joint Session of Congress on Panama Canal Tolls". ucsb.edu.
  50. "John F. Stevens". free.fr.
  51. "George Washington Goethals". pancanal.com.
  52. "Welte-Mignon Reproducing Piano". The Pianola Institute.
  53. "Agricultural Machinery, Business History of Machinery Manufacturers" Archived October 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  54. "FLYING MACHINES - John J. Montgomery". flyingmachines.org.
  55. "Flying Wings : An Anthology : John Joseph Montgomery (1858-1911)". monash.edu.au.
  56. Sharpe, Michael (2000). Biplanes, Triplanes and Seaplanes. Friedman/Fairfax. p. 311. ISBN 1-58663-300-7.
  57. Dayton Metro Library Note: Dayton Metro Library has a document showing durations, distances and a list of witnesses to the long flights in late September-early October 1905. Retrieved: May 23, 2007.
  58. The life of John Gabel (1872–1955) and the history of his company is described in detail in an article well written by Rick Crandall. The article entitled "Diary Disclosures of John Gabel: A Pioneer in Automatic Music", based on an unpublished diary, was published in the autumn, 1984, newsletter of The Musical Box Society International (Vol. XXX, No. 2), and contains a lot of interesting historic information. Another story about John Gabel and his Automatic Entertainer appeared in the newsletter "Antique Phonograph Monthly" (Vol. VII, No. 8) published by Allen Koenigsberg in the summer, 1984.
  59. Gert J. Almind, "Jukebox History 1888–1913".
  60. Millard, Andre. "Gramophone". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. p. 512.
  61. Horn, David; David Sanjek. "Victor". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 768–769.
  62. Laing, Dave. "Advertising of Popular Music". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 530–532.
  63. Ralph S. Cooper, D.V.M. "Traian Vuia". earlyaviators.com.
  64. The Early Years (Aviation Century), 2003, Ron Dick, Amanda Wright Lane, Dan Patterson, Boston Mills Press, ISBN 1-55046-407-8
  65. Wings: A History of Aviation from Kites to the Space Age, 2004, Tom D. Crouch, W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-32620-9
  66. 100 Years of Flight: A Chronology of Aerospace History, 1903–2003 (Library of Flight Series), 2003, Frank H. Winter, F. Robert Van Der Linden, AIAA, ISBN 1-56347-562-6
  67. Hansen, James R. First Man: The Life of Neil Armstrong. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7432-5631-5., p. 299.
  68. Les vols du 14bis relatés au fil des éditions du journal l'illustration de 1906. The wording is: "cette prouesse est le premier vol au monde homologué par l'Aéro-Club de France et la toute jeune Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI)."
  69. Santos-Dumont: Pionnier de l'aviation, dandy de la Belle Epoque.
  70. JInes. Ernest. "Santos Dumont in France 1906–1916: The Very Earliest Early Birds." earlyaviators.com, December 25, 2006. Retrieved: August 17, 2009.
  71. Experiments and Results in Wireless Telephony The American Telephone Journal
  72. "Old Site - Lee de Forest Invented the Radio Tube". leedeforest.org.
  73. National Inventors Hall of Fame: "Lee Deforest"
  74. Helen Fessenden, "Builder of Tomorrows" (1940), p. 153–154.
  75. Barnard, Stephen; Donna Halper and Dave Laing. "Radio". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 451–461.
  76. "THOMAS EDISON'S INVENTIONS". thomasedison.com.
  77. "Copying Machines". officemuseum.com.
  78. "A History of the Rochester, NY Camera and Lens Companies". nwmangum.com.
  79. "Henry Ford Changes the World, 1908". eyewitnesstohistory.com.
  80. American Institute of Chemical Engineers Staff (1977). Twenty-Five Years of Chemical Engineering Progress. Ayer Publishing. p. 216. ISBN 0-8369-0149-5.
  81. "Leo Hendrik Baekeland". Chemical Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  82. Bowden, Mary Ellen (1997). "Leo Hendrik Baekeland". Chemical achievers : the human face of the chemical sciences. Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation. pp. 127–129. ISBN 9780941901123.
  83. Amato, Ivan (1999-03-29). "Time 100: Leo Baekeland". Archived from the original on 6 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
  84. "Home". Tour de France 2015.

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