Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 18th century19th century20th century
Decades: 1860s 1870s 1880s1890s1900s 1910s 1920s
Years: 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899
Births – Deaths – By country
Establishments – Disestablishments

The 1890s, which began on 1 January 1890 and ended on 31 December 1899, were sometimes referred to as the "Mauve Decade"[1] – because William Henry Perkin's aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion – and also as the "Gay Nineties", referring to the fact that it was full of merriment and optimism. The phrase, "The Gay Nineties," was not coined until the 1920s. This decade was also part of the Gilded Age, a phrase coined by Mark Twain, alluding to the seemingly profitable era that was riddled with crime and poverty. In the United States, the 1890s were marked by a severe economic depression sparked by the Panic of 1893, as well as several strikes in the industrial workforce. As of May 12, 2016, there is only 1 verified living person who was born in the 1890s.

Politics and wars


Internal conflicts

Prominent political events

Dreyfus affair – Alfred Dreyfus being dishonorably discharged, 5 January 1895.


1895 Benz Velo. Along with its contemporary Duryea Motor Wagon, those vehicles were considered the earliest standardized cars. The 1890s also saw further developments in the history of the automobile.
Panhard-Levassor (1890–1895). This model was the first automobile to circulate in Portugal
Charles Kayser of the Edison lab seated behind the Kinetograph. Portability was not among the camera's virtues.



A typical gold mining operation, on Bonanza Creek.

Popular culture

Literature and arts

First edition cover of The Time Machine (1895)




1896 saw the first edition of the modern Olympic Games.



World leaders

  1. Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, 1848–1896
  2. Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, 1896–1907



Sports figures

See also


  1. Thomas Beer (1926). The Mauve Decade: American Life At The End Of The Nineteenth Century. A. A. Knopf. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
  2. Liggett, Lorie (1998). "Wounded Knee Massacre – An Introduction". Bowling Green State University. Archived from the original on 26 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-02.
  3. Bold Tongue's Native American Links: "Wounded Knee, Lakota, December 29, 1890"
  4. Strom, Karen (1995). "The Massacre at Wounded Knee". Karen Strom. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
  5. Republic of Lakotah: "158 Year Struggle for Legal Justice"
  6. Armed Conflict Events Database (ACED):"Chilean Civil War 1891"
  7. Keddie, Nikki. Religion and Rebellion in Iran: The Tobacco Protest of 1891–92 (1966), p. 38
  8. 1 2 Mottahedeh, Roy. The Mantle of the Prophet: Religion and Politics in Iran. Oneworld, 2000, p. 215.
  9. Moaddel, Mansoor. "Shi'i Political Discourse and Class Mobilization in the Tobacco Movement of 1890–1892." Sociological Forum, Vol. 7, No. 3 (Sep., 1992): p. 455
  10. 1 2 Poulson, Stephen. Social Movements in Twentieth-Century Iran. Lexington, 2005, p. 86.
  11. Poulson, Stephen. Social Movements in Twentieth-Century Iran. Lexington, 2005, p. 87.
  12. Burt, Nathaniel 1991 Wyoming Compass American Guides, Inc p.157
  13. Burt, Nathaniel 1991 Wyoming Compass American Guides, Inc p.159
  14. 1 2 Inventory of the Johnson County War Collection Texas A&M UniversityCushing Memorial Library"
  15. The New York Times Troops Came Just In Time April 15, 1892
  16. Wyoming Tails and Trails Johnson County War January 6, 2004
  17. Outcast Earth: Kaua'i, Hawaii"
  18. " Frances N. Frazier, "The True Story of Kaluaikoolau"
  19. Stagner, Lloyd (editor). "Historian Recalls Enid, OK. Railroad Wars". Great Plains Dispatcher 4:11 November 2005 3.
  20. Chapman, Berlin B. "The Enid 'Railroad War': An Archival Study". Chronicles of Oklahoma 43:2 Summer 1965 126.
  21. Zélia Roelofse-Campbell, "The Canudos Massacre: reinterpreting history after 100 years"
  22. Kim Hyungyoon, "Jangheung, Where Korean Literature Is Deeply Rooted"
  23. Sarah Paine, "The Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895"
  24. Élisabeth Campos. Les Doukhobors, «Lutteurs de l'esprit». 2005.
  25. 1 2 Hedwig Lohm, "Dukhobors in Georgia: A Study of the Issue of Land Ownership and Inter-Ethnic Relations in Ninotsminda rayon (Samtskhe-Javakheti)". November 2006.
  26. John Ashworth, Doukhobortsy and Religious Persecution in Russia, 1900 (Doukhobor Genealogy Website)
  27. Guererro, Milagros; Encarnacion, Emmanuel; Villegas, Ramon (1996). "Andres Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution". Sulyap Kultura. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. 1 (2): 3–12. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
  28. 1 2
    • Guererro, Milagros (1998). Reform and Revolution. Kasaysayan: The History of the Filipino People. 5. Asia Publishing Company Limited. ISBN 978-962-258-228-6. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
  29. Anderson, John W. Transitions: From Eastern Europe to Anthracite Community to College Classroom. Bloomington, Ind.: iUniverse, 2005. ISBN 978-0-595-33732-3
  30. Miller, Randall M. and Pencak, William. Pennsylvania: A History of the Commonwealth. State College, Penn.: Penn State Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-271-02214-7
  31. Estimates of the number of wounded are inexact. They range from a low of 17 wounded (Duwe, Grant. Mass Murder in the United States: A History. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7864-3150-2) to a high of 49 (DeLeon, Clark. Pennsylvania Curiosities: Quirky Characters, Roadside Oddities & Other Offbeat Stuff. 3rd rev. ed. Guilford, Conn.: Globe Pequot, 2008. ISBN 978-0-7627-4588-3). Other estimates include 30 wounded (Lewis, Ronald L. Welsh Americans: A History of Assimilation in the Coalfields. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8078-3220-2), 32 wounded (Anderson, Transitions: From Eastern Europe to Anthracite Community to College Classroom, 2005; Berger, Stefan; Croll, Andy; and Laporte, Norman. Towards A Comparative History of Coalfield Societies. Aldershot, Hampshire, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2005. ISBN 978-0-7546-3777-6; Campion, Joan. Smokestacks and Black Diamonds: A History of Carbon County, Pennsylvania. Easton, Penn.: Canal History and Technology Press, 1997. ISBN 978-0-930973-19-3), 35 wounded (Foner, Philip S. First Facts of American Labor: A Comprehensive Collection of Labor Firsts in the United States. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1984. ISBN 978-0-8419-0742-3; Miller and Pencak, Pennsylvania: A History of the Commonwealth, 2003; Derks, Scott. Working Americans, 1880–2006: Volume VII: Social Movements. Amenia, N.Y.: Grey House Publishing, 2006. ISBN 978-1-59237-101-3), 38 wounded (Weir, Robert E. and Hanlan, James P. Historical Encyclopedia of American Labor, Vol. 1. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-313-32863-3), 39 wounded (Long, Priscilla. Where the Sun Never Shines: A History of America's Bloody Coal Industry. Minneapolis: Paragon House, 1989. ISBN 978-1-55778-224-3; Novak, Michael. The Guns of Lattimer. Reprint ed. New York: Transaction Publishers, 1996. ISBN 978-1-56000-764-7), and 40 wounded (Beers, Paul B. The Pennsylvania Sampler: A Biography of the Keystone State and Its People. Mechanicsburg, Penn.: Stackpole Books, 1970).
  32. Blatz, Perry K. Democratic Miners: Work and Labor Relations in the Anthracite Coal Industry, 1875–1925. Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press, 1994. ISBN 978-0-7914-1819-2
  33. Alex Aspden, "Bresci, Gaetano, 1869–1901"
  34. "Bresci comes from America to avenge his countrymen" Chapter of Living My Life (1931) by Emma Goldman, page 272
  35. Leech Lake Tourism Bureau:History of the Leech Lake Area
  36. Trond Knudegaard, "The Battle of Sugar Point"
  37. "Battle Point (Sugar Point" A chapter of "Minnesota treasures: stories behind the state's historic places" (2004) by Denis Gardner, pages 16–20
  38. "Eternal Sorrow over Ying'Tai"
  39. Propaganda by Deed – the Greenwich Observatory Bomb of 1894
  40. Carroll Gray, "Clement Ader 1841–1925"
  41. European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N.V.: Eole/Clément Ader"
  42. G.N. Georgano (1985). Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930, p. 22. London: Grange-Universal.
  43. G.N. Georgano Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1990), p.16.
  44. 1 2 G.N. Georgano, p.17.
  45. G.N. Georgano, p.49.
  46. The prize would go to Koechlin's Peugeot, instead, since the Panhard-Levassor had only two seats, while the rules required four. G.N. Georgano, p.20.
  47. Caroll Gray:"Otto Lilienthal 1848–1896"
  48. Otto Lilienthal Museum:"The aeroplane models of Lilienthal"
  49. "Rudolp Diesel and Diesel oil"
  50. The Biodiesel Handbook, Chapter 2 – The History of Vegetable Oil Based Diesel Fuels, by Gerhard Knothe, ISBN 978-1-893997-79-0
  51. Berkbile, Don. The 1893 Duryea Automobile, (1964).
  52. G.N. Georgano, G. N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
  53. "Movies". Edison National Historic Site. Retrieved 2007-03-14.
  54. Hendricks (1966), pp. 28–33. Given the dates of Dickson's departure and return that Hendricks provides, Dickson was gone for at least 80 days. Hendricks describes him as taking a "ten weeks' rest" (p. 28) or spending "about ten and a half weeks in the south" (p. 33), a plausible interpretation given travel time from New Jersey to Florida, where Dickson headed. There were also apparently problems—allegedly alcohol-fueled—with the lab employee, James Egan, who had been contracted to build the Kinetoscopes. See Hendricks, Gordon (1966). The Kinetoscope: America's First Commercially Successful Motion Picture Exhibitor, pp. 34–35, 49–50.
  55. The machines were modified so that they did not operate by nickel slot. According to Hendricks (1966), in each row "attendants switched the instruments on and off for customers who had paid their twenty-five cents" (p. 13). For more on the Hollands, see Peter Morris, Embattled Shadows: A History of Canadian Cinema, 1895–1939 (Montreal and Kingston, Canada; London; and Buffalo, New York: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1978), pp. 6–7. Morris states that Edison wholesaled the Kinetoscope at $200 per machine; in fact, as described below, $250 seems to have been the most common figure at first.
  56. Hendricks (1966), pp. 56, 60; Musser, Charles (1994 [1990]). The Emergence of Cinema: The American Screen to 1907 (1994), p. 81; Ena Bertoldi (Beatrice Mary Claxton) biographical essay by Barry Anthony/Luke McKernan, part of the Who's Who of Victorian Cinema website; Eugen Sandow (Frederick Muller) biographical essay by Richard Brown, part of the Who's Who of Victorian Cinema website. Both retrieved 10/24/06.
  57. Musser, Charles (2002). "Introducing Cinema to the American Public: The Vitascope in the United States, 1896–7," in Moviegoing in America: A Sourcebook in the History of Film Exhibition, p. 21.
  58. "Death Of Sir Hiram Maxim. A Famous Inventor, Automatic Guns And Aeronautics". The Times. 25 November 1916.
  59. Beril, Becker (1967). Dreams and Realities of the Conquest of the Skies. New York: Atheneum. pp. 124–125.
  60. Carroll Gray, "Hiram Stevens Maxim 1840–1916"
  61. Hudson Shaw, W. and Ruhen, O. (1977) Lawrence Hargrave: Explorer, Inventor and Aviation Experimenter Sydney : Cassell Australia.
  62. "La première séance publique payante", Institut Lumière
  63. Carroll Gray, "Samuel Pierpont Langley 1834–1906"
  64. Stephen Garber, "Octave Chanute—A Champion of Aviation"
  65. Carroll Gray, "Octave Alexandre Chanute & Augustus Moore Herring"
  66. Sundbybergs Museum
  67. Arlanda Flygsamlingar
  68. Donald Clarke, The Rise and Fall of Popular Music. Chapter 10: "Aeolian's Aeriola player piano had been introduced in 1895; in 1898 Wurlitzer built the first coin-operated player piano. By 1910 these had overtaken nickel-in-the-slot record players."
  69. Randolph, Stella (1937). Lost flights of Gustave Whitehead. pp. 28–29.
  70. Trimble, William F. (1982). High frontier: a history of aeronautics in Pennsylvania. University of Pittsburgh. p. 58. ISBN 0-8229-5340-4.
  71. "Percy Sinclair Pilcher". The Gazetteer for Scotland. The Institute of Geography, University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
  72. 'Mr Leicester'. 2008. The Rise and fall of Percy Pilcher. Leicester Mercury Saturday 2 Feb. pp 16–17.)
  73. Burkeman, Oliver (2003-12-01). "Soaring ambition". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
  74. "Percy Pilcher's Flying Machine – programme summary". Horizon. BBC. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
  75. Southwest Michigan Business & Tourism Directory: "America's First Airplane Flight"
  76. Caroll Gray, "The Herring Powered Biplane Glider 1898"
  77. Brody, David. Steelworkers in America: The Nonunion Era, p. 50 New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1969. ISBN 978-0-252-06713-6
  78. Letter from Carnegie to Frick dated April 4, 1892, quoted in Foner, Philip. History of the Labor Movement in the United States. Vol. 2: From the Founding of the A.F. of L. to the Emergence of American Imperialism., p. 207. New York: International Publishers, 1955. ISBN 978-0-7178-0092-6
  79. Foner, Philip. History of the Labor Movement in the United States. Vol. 2: From the Founding of the A.F. of L. to the Emergence of American Imperialism., p. 207–208.
  80. Krause, Paul. The Battle for Homestead, 1890–1892: Politics, Culture, and Steel, p. 302, 310. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992. ISBN 978-0-8229-5466-8
  81. 1 2 Foner, Philip S. History of the Labor Movement in the United States: From the Founding of the A.F. of L. to the Emergence of American Imperialism, p. 253. 2nd ed. New York: International Publishers, Co., 1975. ISBN 978-0-7178-0388-0
  82. Voorhees, Theodore. 'The Buffalo strike.' North American Review. 155(431): October 1892, pp. 407–418. Cornell University Library
  83. 1 2 Rosenberg, New Orleans Dockworkers: Race, Labor, and Unionism, 1892–1923, 1988.
  84. Brown and Allen, Strong In the Struggle: My Life As a Black Labor Activist, 2001.
  85. Quoted in Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States, Vol. 2: From the Founding of the American Federation of Labor to the Emergence of American Imperialism, 1955, p. 202.
  86. Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States, Vol. 2: From the Founding of the American Federation of Labor to the Emergence of American Imperialism, 1955.
  87. "New Orleans' Big Strike," Washington Post, November 8, 1892.
  88. James L. Holton, The Reading Railroad: History of a Coal Age Empire, Vol. I: The Nineteenth Century, pp. 323–325, citing Vincent Corasso, The Morgans.
  89. The History Box, The Panic of 1893 – Financial World. Retrieved 2009.04.08.
  90. The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, "The Panic of 1893". Retrieved 2009.04.08.
  91. 1 2 Whitten, David O. "EH.Net Encyclopedia: Depression of 1893". eh.net. Archived from the original on 27 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-20.
  92. Hoffman, Charles. The Depression of the Nineties: An Economic History. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing, 1970. Page 109.
  93. Rebecca Edwards, "The Currency Question"
  94. Rebecca Edwards, "Republican Party Platform. Adopted at St. Louis, June 16, 1896." Reproducing primary text with minor editing
  95. Michael Streich, "Election of 1896 Candidates and Issues: The Gold Standard, Protective Tariffs, and Law and Order"
  96. Muncy, Robin. "Women in the Progressive Era". National Park Service. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
  97. Julie Cruikshank. Reading Voices. Oral and Written Interpretations of the Yukon's Past. Vancouver & Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre, 1991, p. 124.
  98. Burnham, Frederick Russell (1926). Scouting on Two Continents. Doubleday, Page & company. ISBN 978-0-86920-126-8. OCLC 407686.
  99. Micí Mac GabhannHard Road to Klodike ISBN 1-903464-35-8 and other editions.
  100. Percival, C Gilbert (July 1912). "North of 62 Degrees by Automobile :A Story of a Trip in Alaska, British Columbia, Yukon Territory and the Klondike ALASKA HAS A GREAT AREA AND RESOURCES. AGRICULTURE IN ALASKA". Health. 62 (7): 150.
  101. Pierre BertonKlondike: The Last Great Gold Rush, 1896–1899 Espn 0-385-65844-3 and other editions.
  102. HistoryNet.com:Klondike Gold Rush.
  103. 1 2 3 Holbrook, Stewart. The Rocky Mountain Revolution. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1956. p.73–74
  104. Philpott, William. The Lessons of Leadville, Or, Why the Western Federation of Miners Turned Left, p. 73. Monograph 10. Denver: Colorado Historical Society, 1994. ISSN 1046-3100
  105. Suggs, Jr., George G. Colorado's War on Militant Unionism: James H. Peabody and the Western Federation of Miners, p. 17. 2nd ed. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991. ISBN 978-0-8061-2396-7
  106. "In Dreams He Sees An Army" (PDF). New York Times (March 25). 1894. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
  107. "Coxey has a new commissary" (PDF). New York Times (April 6). 1894. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
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  109. The Coal Miners Strike -- 1894, Coal in Illinois, 13th Annual Report of the State Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1894, Springfield, 1895; Appendix pages 5–26, see particularly Table III.
  110. W. T. Stead, "Incidents of Labor War in America", The Contemporary Review, Vol. LXVI, No. 1, July 1894; pages 65–74.
  111. Cleveland: A Concise History, 1796–1996 by Carol Poh Miller and Robert Anthony Wheeler ISBN 978-0-253-21147-7
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  116. Anthony Lukas, Big Trouble, 1997, page 211.
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  118. William Philpott, The Lessons of Leadville, Colorado Historical Society, 1995, page 105 (quoting Blair, Leadville: Colorado's Magic City, 189).
  119. William Philpott, The Lessons of Leadville, Colorado Historical Society, 1995, pages 6–7, 75–79.
  120. All That Glitters—Class, Conflict, and Community in Cripple Creek, Elizabeth Jameson, 1998, page 7.
  121. 1 2 Davies, John; Jenkins, Nigel (2008). The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6.
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  123. (nd) Child labor in America 1908–1912: Photographs of Lewis W. Hine. Retrieved 6/17/07. – See "Newsies".
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  125. Haw, R. (2005) The Brooklyn Bridge: A Cultural History. Rutgers University Press. p. 151.
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  127. Brown, D. (nd) Kid Blink Beats the World. Retrieved 6/17/07.

Further reading

  • The Mauve Decade, by Thomas Beer (1926)
  • The Alienist, By Caleb Carr

External links

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