For the Egyptian city, see Ismaïlia. For the administrative subdivision of Iran, see Esmaili District.

Ismāʿīlism (Arabic: الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; Persian: اسماعیلیان; Sindhi: اسماعيلي; Kurdish: Ismaili; Esmāʿiliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.[1] The Ismāʿīlī (/ˌɪsmˈɪli/[2]) get their name from their acceptance of Imam Isma'il ibn Jafar as the appointed spiritual successor (Imām) to Ja'far al-Sadiq, wherein they differ from the Twelvers who accept Musa al-Kadhim, younger brother of Isma'il, as the true Imām.[3]

Tree of Shia Islam.

Tracing its earliest theology to the lifetime of Muhammad, Ismailism rose at one point to become the largest branch of Shī‘ism, climaxing as a political power with the Fatimid Caliphate in the tenth through twelfth centuries.[4] Ismailis believe in the oneness of God, as well as the closing of divine revelation with Muhammad, whom they see as "the final Prophet and Messenger of God to all humanity". The Ismāʿīlī and the Twelvers both accept the same initial Imams from the descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah and therefore share much of their early history. Both groups see the family of Muhammad (the Ahl al-Bayt) as divinely chosen, infallible (ismah), and guided by God to lead the Islamic community (Ummah), a belief that distinguishes them from the majority Sunni branch of Islam.

After the death of Muhammad ibn Isma'il in the 8th century CE, the teachings of Ismailism further transformed into the belief system as it is known today, with an explicit concentration on the deeper, esoteric meaning (batin) of the Islamic religion. With the eventual development of Twelverism into the more literalistic (zahir) oriented Akhbari and later Usuli schools of thought, Shi'i Islam developed into two separate directions: the metaphorical Ismaili group focusing on the mystical path and nature of God, with the "Imām of the Time" representing the manifestation of esoteric truth and intelligible reality, with the more literalistic Twelver group focusing on divine law (sharia) and the deeds and sayings (sunnah) of Muhammad and the Twelve Imams who were guides and a light to God.[5] Ismaili thought is heavily influenced by neoplatonism.[6][7]

Though there are several paths (tariqat) within Ismailism, the term in today's vernacular generally refers to the Nizaris, who recognize the Aga Khan IV[8] as the 49th hereditary Imam and is the largest Ismaili group. In recent centuries Ismāʿīlīs have largely been a Pakistani, Afghan, and Indian community,[9] but Ismailis are also found in Bangladesh, Syria, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Jordan, Kurdistan, East Africa, Angola, Lebanon, and South Africa, and have in recent years emigrated to Europe, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and Trinidad and Tobago.[10] There are also a significant number of Ismāʿīlīs in Central Asia.[11]


Succession crisis

Ismailism shares its beginnings with other early Shi‘i sects that emerged during the succession crisis that spread throughout the early Muslim community. From the beginning, the Shia asserted the right of Ali, cousin of Muhammad, to have both political and spiritual control over the community. This also included his two sons, who were the grandsons of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah.

The conflict remained relatively peaceful between the partisans of ‘Ali and those who asserted a semi-democratic system of electing caliphs, until the third of the Rashidun caliphs, Uthman was killed, and ‘Alī, with popular support, ascended to the caliphate.[12]

Soon after his ascendancy, Aisha, the third of the Prophet's wives, claimed along with Usman's tribe, the Ummayads, that Ali should take Qisas (blood for blood) from the people responsible for Usman's death. ‘Ali voted against it as he believed that situation at that time demanded a peaceful resolution of the matter. Both parties could rightfully defend their claims, but due to escalated misunderstandings, the Battle of the Camel was fought and Aisha was defeated but was respectfully escorted to Medina by Ali.

Following this battle, Muawiya, the Umayyad governor of Syria, also staged a revolt under the same pretences. ‘Ali led his forces against Muawiya until the side of Muawiya held copies of the Quran against their spears and demanded that the issue be decided by Islam's holy book. ‘Ali accepted this, and an arbitration was done which ended in his favor.[13]

A group among Ali's army believed that subjecting his legitimate authority to arbitration was tantamount to apostasy, and abandoned his forces. This group was known as the Khawarij and ‘Ali wished to defeat their forces before they reached the cities where they would be able to blend in with the rest of the population. While he was unable to do this, he nonetheless defeated their forces in subsequent battles.[14]

Regardless of these defeats, the Kharijites survived and became a violently problematic group in Islamic history. After plotting an assassination against ‘Ali, Muawiya, and the arbitrator of their conflict, only ‘Ali was successfully assassinated in 661 CE, and the Imāmate passed on to his son Hasan and then later his son Husayn, or according to the Nizari Ismāʿīlī, the Imamate passed temporarily to Hasan, who was an Entrusted Imam (al-imam al-mustawda), and afterwards to Husayn who was the Permanent Imam (al-imam al-mustaqarr). The Entrusted Imam is an Imam in the full sense except that the lineage of the Imamate must continue through the Permanent Imam.[15] However, the political caliphate was soon taken over by Muawiya, the only leader in the empire at that time with an army large enough to seize control.[16]

Even some of Ali’s early followers regarded him as “an absolute and divinely guided leader who could demand of them the same kind of loyalty that would have been expected for the Prophet.”[17] For example, one of Ali’s supporters who also was devoted to the Prophet said to him: “our opinion is your opinion and we are in the palm of your right hand."[18] The early followers of ‘Ali seem to have taken his guidance as “right guidance” deriving from Divine support. In other words, ‘Ali’s guidance was seen to be the expression of God’s will and the Qur’anic message. This spiritual and absolute authority of ‘Ali was known as walayah and it was inherited by his successors, the Imams. In the first century after the Prophet, the term sunnah was not specifically defined as “Sunnah of the Prophet” but was used in connection to Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, Uthman, and some Umayyad Caliphs. The idea of “Hadith” or traditions ascribed to the Prophet was not mainstream nor was Hadith criticism. Even the earliest legal texts by Malik b. Anas and Abu Hanifa employ many methods including analogical reasoning and opinion and do not rely exclusively on hadith. Only in the 2nd century does the Sunni jurist al-Shafi‘i first argue that only the Sunnah of the Prophet should be a source of law and that this Sunnah is embodied in Hadiths. It would take another one hundred years after al-Shafi‘i for Sunni Muslim jurists to fully base their methodologies on prophetic Hadiths.[19] Reference Online Meanwhile, Imam Shia Muslims followed the Imams’ interpretations of Islam as normative without any need for Hadiths and other sources of Sunni law like analogy and opinion.

Karbala and afterward

The Battle of Karbala

Main article: Battle of Karbala

After the death of Imam Hasan, Imam Husayn and his family were increasingly worried about the religious and political persecution that was becoming commonplace under the reign of Muawiya's son, Yazid. Amidst this turmoil in 680, Husayn along with the women and children of his family, upon receiving invitational letters and gestures of support by Kufis, wished to go to Kufa and confront Yazid as an intercessor on part of the citizens of the empire. However, he was stopped by Yazid's army in Karbala during the month of Muharram. His family was starved and deprived of water and supplies, until eventually the army came in on the tenth day and martyred Husayn and his companions, and enslaved the rest of the women and family, taking them to Kufa.[20]

This battle would become extremely important to the Shi'i psyche. The Twelvers as well as Mustaali Ismāʿīlī still mourn this event during an occasion known as Ashura. The Nizari Ismāʿīlī, however, do not mourn this in the same way because of the belief that the light of the Imām never dies but rather passes on to the succeeding Imām, making mourning arbitrary. However, during commemoration they do not have any celebrations in Jamatkhana during Muharram and may have announcements or sessions regarding the tragic events of Karbala. Also individuals may observe Muharram in a wide variety of ways. This respect for Muharram does not include self-flagellation and beating because they feel that harming one's body is harming a gift from Allah.

Ambigram depicting Muhammad and Ali written in a single word. The 180 degree inverted form shows both words.

The beginnings of Ismāʿīlī Daʿwah

Main article: Zaidiyyah

After being set free by Yazid, Zaynab bint Ali, the daughter of Fatimah and Ali and the sister of Hasan and Husayn, started to spread the word of Karbala to the Muslim world, making speeches regarding the event. This was the first organized daʿwah of the Shia, which would later develop into an extremely spiritual institution for the Ismāʿīlīs.

After the poisoning of Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin by Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik in 713, Shiism's first succession crisis arose with Zayd ibn ‘Alī's companions and the Zaydīs who claimed Zayd ibn ‘Alī as the Imām, whilst the rest of the Shia upheld Muhammad al-Baqir as the Imām. The Zaidis argued that any sayyid or "descendant of Muhammad through Hasan or Husayn" who rebelled against tyranny and the injustice of his age could be the Imām. The Zaidis created the first Shi'i states in Iran, Iraq and Yemen.

In contrast to his predecessors, Muhammad al-Baqir focused on academic Islamic scholarship in Medina, where he promulgated his teachings to many Muslims, both Shia and non-Shia, in an extremely organized form of Daʿwah.[21] In fact, the earliest text of the Ismaili school of thought is said to be the "Umm al-kitab" (The Archetypal Book), a conversation between Muhammad al-Baqir and three of his disciples.[22]

This tradition would pass on to his son, Ja'far al-Sadiq, who inherited the Imāmate on his father's death in 743. Ja'far al-Sadiq excelled in the scholarship of the day and had many pupils, including three of the four founders of the Sunni madhhabs.[23]

However, following al-Sadiq's poisoning in 765, a fundamental split occurred in the community. Isma'il ibn Jafar, who at one point was appointed by his father as the next Imam, appeared to have predeceased his father in 755. While Twelvers argue that either he was never heir apparent or he truly predeceased his father and hence Musa al-Kadhim was the true heir to the Imamate. The Ismāʿīlīs argue that either the death of Isma'il was staged in order to protect him from Abbasid persecution or that the Imamate passed to Muhammad ibn Isma'il in lineal descent Read Online - "Seven Proofs for the Imamat of Ismail b. Jafar".

Ascension of the Dais

Main article: Da'i
A Persian miniature depicting Shams Tabrizi in a circa 1503 copy of his disciple Rumi's poem, the "Diwan-e Shams-e Tabriz-i". Shams Tabrizi is believed to have been an Ismaili Dai and his relationship with Rumi a symbolic manifestation of the sacred relationship between the guide and the guided.

For some partians of Ismāʿīl, the Imāmate ended with Ismāʿīl ibn Ja'far. Most Ismailis recognized Muhammad ibn Isma'il as the next Imam and some saw him as the expected Mahdi that Ja'far al-Sadiq had preached about. However, at this point the Ismāʿīlī Imāms according to the Nizari and Mustaali found areas where they would be able to be safe from the recently founded Abbasid Caliphate, which had defeated and seized control from the Umayyads in 750 CE.[24]

At this point, some of the Ismaili community believed that Muhammad ibn Ismail had gone into the Occultation and that he would one day return. A small group traced the Imamat among Muhammad ibn Ismail's lineal descendants. With the status and location of the Imāms not known to the community, the concealed Ismaili Imams began to propagate the faith through Dāʿiyyūn from its base in Syria. This was the start of the spiritual beginnings of the Daʿwah that would later play important parts in the all Ismaili branches, especially the Nizaris and the Musta'lis.[25]

The Da'i was not a missionary in the typical sense, and he was responsible for both the conversion of his student as well as the mental and spiritual well being. The Da'i was a guide and light to the Imām. The teacher-student relationship of the Da'i and his student was much like the one that would develop in Sufism. The student desired God, and the Da'i could bring him to God by making him recognize the Imām, who possesses the knowledge of the Oneness of God. The Da'i and Imam were respectively the spiritual mother and spiritual father of the Isma'ili believers.[26]

Ja‘far bin Manṣūr al-Yaman's The Book of the Sage and Disciple is a classic of early Fāṭimid literature, documenting important aspects of the development of the Ismāʿīlī da‘wa in tenth-century Yemen. The Kitāb is also of considerable historical value for modern scholars of Arabic prose literature as well as those interested in the relationship of esoteric Shī‘ism with early Islamic mysticism. Likewise is the Kitāb an important source of information regarding the various movements within tenth-century Shī‘ism leading to the spread of the Fāṭimid-Isma‘īlī da‘wa throughout the medieval Islamicate world, and the religious and philosophical history of post-Fāṭimid Musta‘lī branch of Ismāʿīlism in Yemen and India.

Shams Tabrizi and Rumi is a famous example of the importance of the relationship between the guide and the guided, and Rumi dedicated much of his literature to Shams Tabrizi and his discovery of the truth.

The Qarmatians

Main article: Qarmatians

While many of the Ismāʿīlī were content with the Dai teachings, a group that mingled Persian nationalism and Zoroastrianism surfaced known as the Qarmatians. With their headquarters in Bahrain, they accepted a young Persian former prisoner by the name of Abu'l-Fadl al-Isfahani, who claimed to be the descendant of the Persian kings[27][28][29][30][31][32][33] as their Mahdi, and rampaged across the Middle-East in the tenth century, climaxing their violent campaign by stealing the Black Stone from the Kaaba in Mecca in 930 under Abu Tahir al-Jannabi. Following the arrival of the Al-Isfahani, they changed their qibla from the Kaaba in Mecca to the Zoroastrian-influenced fire. After their return of the Black Stone in 951 and a defeat by the Abbasids in 976 the group slowly dwindled off and no longer has any adherents.[34]

The Fatimid Caliphate

Main article: Fatimid Caliphate
Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, Egypt, an Ismāʿīlī Imām and Fatimid Caliph.

Rise of the Fatimid Caliphate

The political asceticism practiced by the Imāms during the period after Muhammad ibn Ismail was to be short lived and finally concluded with the Imāmate of Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah, who was born in 873. After decades of Ismāʿīlīs believing that Muhammad ibn Ismail was in the Occultation and would return to bring an age of justice, al-Mahdi taught that the Imāms had not been literally secluded, but rather had remained hidden to protect themselves and had been organizing the Da'i, and even acted as Da'i themselves.

After raising an army and successfully defeating the Aghlabids in North Africa and a number of other victories, al-Mahdi Billah successfully established a Shi'i political state ruled by the Imāmate in 910.[35] This was the only time in history where the Shi'a Imamate and Caliphate were united after the first Imam, Ali ibn Abi Talib.

In parallel with the dynasty's claim of descent from ‘Alī and Fāṭimah, the empire was named "Fatimid". However, this was not without controversy, and recognizing the extent that Ismāʿīlī doctrine had spread, the Abbasid Caliphate assigned Sunni and Twelver scholars the task to disprove the lineage of the new dynasty. This became known as the Baghdad Manifesto and it traces the lineage of the Fatimids to a Jewish blacksmith.

The Middle East under Fatimid rule

The Fatimid Caliphate at its peak.

The Fatimid Caliphate expanded quickly under the subsequent Imāms. Under the Fatimids, Egypt became the center of an empire that included at its peak North Africa, Sicily, Palestine, Syria, the Red Sea coast of Africa, Yemen, Hejaz and the Tihamah. Under the Fatimids, Egypt flourished and developed an extensive trade network in both the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean, which eventually determined the economic course of Egypt during the High Middle Ages.

The Fatimids promoted ideas that were radical for that time. One was promotion by merit rather than genealogy.

Also during this period the three contemporary branches of Ismailism formed. The first branch (Druze) occurred with the al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Born in 985, he ascended as ruler at the age of eleven. A religious group that began forming in his lifetime broke off from mainstream Ismailism and refused to acknowledge his successor. Later to be known as the Druze, they believe Al-Hakim to be the manifestation of God and the prophesied Mahdi, who would one day return and bring justice to the world.[36] The faith further split from Ismailism as it developed unique doctrines which often class it separately from both Ismailism and Islam.

The second split occurred following the death of al-Mustansir Billah in 1094. His rule was the longest of any caliph in both the Fatimid and other Islamic empires. After he died, his sons Nizar, older, and al-Musta'li, the younger, fought for political and spiritual control of the dynasty. Nizar was defeated and jailed, but according to Nizari sources his son escaped to Alamut, where the Iranian Ismāʿīlī had accepted his claim.[37]

The Mustaali line split again between the Taiyabi and the Hafizi, the former claiming that the 21st Imām and son of al-Amir bi-Ahkami'l-Lah went into occultation and appointed a Dāʿī al-Muṭlaq to guide the community, in a similar manner as the Ismāʿīlī had lived after the death of Muhammad ibn Ismail. The latter claimed that the ruling Fatimid caliph was the Imām.

However, in the Mustaali branch, the Dai came to have a similar but more important task. The term Dāʻī al-Mutlaq (Arabic: الداعي المطلق) literally means "the absolute or unrestricted missionary". This dai was the only source of the Imām's knowledge after the occultation of al-Qasim in Mustaali thought.

According to Taiyabi Ismaili tradition, after the death of Imām al-Amīr, his infant son, at-Tayyib Abu'l-Qasim, about 2 years old, was protected by the most important woman in Musta'li history after the Prophet's daughter, Fatimah. She was Arwa al-Sulayhi, a queen in Yemen. She was promoted to the post of hujjah long before by Imām Mustansir at the death of her husband. She ran the dawat from Yemen in the name of Imaam Tayyib. She was instructed and prepared by Imām Mustansir and ran the dawat from Yemen in the name of Imaam Tayyib, following Imāms for the second period of Satr. It was going to be on her hands, that Imām Tayyib would go into seclusion, and she would institute the office of the Dāʻī al-Mutlaq. Zoeb bin Moosa was first to be instituted to this office, and the line of Tayyib Dais that began in 1132 has passed from one Dai to another and is still continuing under the main sect known as Dawoodi Bohra (see list of Dai of Dawoodi Bohra).

The Mustaali split several times over disputes regarding who was the rightful Dāʿī al-Muṭlaq, the leader of the community within The Occultation.

After the 27th Dai, Syedna Dawood bin Qutub Shah, there was another split; the ones following Syedna Dawood came to be called Dawoodi Bohra, and followers of Suleman were then called Sulaimani. Dawoodi Bohra's present Dai al Mutlaq, the 53rd, is Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin, and he and his devout followers tread the same path, following the same tradition of the Aimmat Fatimiyyeen. The Sulaymani are mostly concentrated in Yemen and Saudi Arabia with some communities in the South Asia. The Dawoodi Bohra and Alavi Bohra are mostly exclusive to South Asia, after the migration of the Da'wah from Yemen to India. Other groups include Atba-i-Malak and Hebtiahs Bohra. Mustaali beliefs and practices, unlike those of the Nizari and Druze, are completely compatible with mainstream Islam, representing a continuation of Fatimid tradition and fiqh.

Decline of the Caliphate

In the 1040s, the Zirid dynasty (governors of the Maghreb under the Fatimids) declared their independence and their conversion to Sunni Islam, which led to the devastating Banu Hilal invasions. After about 1070, the Fatimid hold on the Levant coast and parts of Syria was challenged by first Turkish invasions, then the First Crusade, so that Fatimid territory shrunk until it consisted only of Egypt. Damascus fell to the Seljuk Empire in 1076, leaving the Fatimids only in charge of Egypt and the Levantine coast up to Tyre and Sidon. Because of the vehement opposition to the Fatimids from the Seljuks, the Ismaili movement was only able to operate as a terrorist underground movement, much like the Assassins.[38]

After the decay of the Fatimid political system in the 1160s, the Zengid ruler Nur ad-Din, atabeg of Aleppo had his general, Saladin, seize Egypt in 1169, forming the Sunni Ayyubid dynasty. This signaled the end of the Hafizi Mustaali branch of Ismailism as well as the Fatimid Caliphate.


Main article: Alamut
Artistic rendering of Hassan-i Sabbah.

Hassan-i Sabbah

Main article: Hassan-i Sabbah

Very early in the empire's life, the Fatimids sought to spread the Ismāʿīlī faith, which in turn would spread loyalty to the Imāmate in Egypt. One of their earliest attempts was taken by a missionary by the name of Hassan-i Sabbah.

Hassan-i Sabbah was born into a Twelver family living in the scholarly Persian city of Qom in 1056 CE. His family later relocated to the city of Tehran, which was an area with an extremely active Ismāʿīlī Daʿwah. He immersed himself in Ismāʿīlī thought; however, he did not choose to convert until he was overcome with an almost fatal illness and feared dying without knowing the Imām of his time.

Afterwards, Hassan-i Sabbah became one of the most influential Dais in Ismāʿīlī history; he became important to the survival of the Nizari branch of Ismailism, which today is its largest branch.

Legend holds that he met with Imām al-Mustansir Billah and asked him who his successor would be, to which he responded that it would be his eldest son Nizar.

Hassan-i Sabbah continued his missionary activities, which climaxed with his taking of the famous citadel of Alamut. Over the next two years, he converted most of the surrounding villages to Ismailism. Afterwards, he converted most of the staff to Ismailism, took over the fortress, and presented Alamut's king with payment for his fortress, which he had no choice but to accept. The king reluctantly abdicated his throne, and Hassan-i Sabbah turned Alamut into an outpost of Fatimid rule within Abbasid territory.

The Hashasheen / Assassiyoon

Main article: Assassins

Surrounded by the Abbasids and other hostile powers and low in numbers, Hassan-Al Sabbah devised a way to attack the Ismāʿīlī's enemies with minimal losses. Using the method of assassination, he ordered the murders of Sunni scholars and politicians whom he felt threatened the Ismāʿīlīs. Knives and daggers were used to kill, and sometimes as a warning, a knife would be placed on the pillow of a Sunni, who understood the message to mean that he was marked for death.[39] When an assassination was actually carried out, the Hashasheen would not be allowed to run away; instead, to strike further fear into the enemy, they would stand near the victim without showing any emotion and departed only when the body was discovered. This further increased the ruthless reputation of the Hashasheen throughout Sunni-controlled lands.[39]

The English word, assassination, is said to have been derived from the Arabic word Hashasheen. It means both "those who use hashish," and one of the Shiite Ismaili sects in the Syria of the eleventh century.[40] However, Amin Maalouf, in his novel Samarkand, disputes the origin of the word assassin. According to him, it is not derived from the name of the drug hashish, which Western historians believed that members of the sect took. Instead, he proposed that this story was fabricated by Orientalists to explain how effectively the Ismāʿīlīs carried out these suicide-assassinations without fear. Maalouf suggests that the term is instead derived from the word Assass (foundation), and Assassiyoon, meaning "those faithful to the foundation."[41]

Threshold of the Imāmate

Main article: Nizar (Fatimid Imam)
View of Alamut besieged.

After the imprisonment of Nizar by his younger brother Mustaal, various sources indicate that Nizar's son al-Hādī survived and fled to Alamut. He was offered a safe place in Alamut, where Hassan-Al-Sabbah welcomed him. However, it is believed this was not announced to the public and the lineage was hidden until a few Imāms later.[39]

It was announced with the advent of Imām Hassan II. In a show of his Imāmate and to emphasize the interior meaning (the batin) over the exterior meaning (the zahir), Imam Hasan announced the Qiyamah (spiritual resurrection) - the beginning of a new era in which the spiritual meaning of the religious law was revealed and practiced openly. He prayed with his back to Mecca, as did the rest of the congregation, who prayed behind him, and ordered the community to break their Ramadan fasting with a feast at noon. He made a speech saying that the Imam had brought his murids to the qiyamah from the shariah.

Afterwards his descendants ruled as the Imāms at Alamut until its destruction by the Mongols.

Destruction by the Mongols

Main article: Mongol Empire

Though it had successfully warded off Sunni attempts to take it several times, including one by Saladin, The stronghold at Alamut soon met its destruction. By 1206, Genghis Khan had managed to unite many of the once antagonistic Mongol tribes into a ruthless, but nonetheless unified, force. Using many new and unique military techniques, Genghis Khan led his Mongol hordes across Central Asia into the Middle East, where they won a series of tactical military victories using a scorched earth policy.

A grandson of Genghis Khan, Hulagu Khan, led the devastating attack on Alamut in 1256, only a short time before sacking the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad in 1258. As he would later do to the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, he destroyed Ismāʿīlī as well as Islamic religious texts. The Imāmate that was located in Alamut along with its few followers were forced to flee and take refuge elsewhere.


After the fall of the Fatimid Caliphate and its bases in Iran and Syria, the three currently living branches of Ismāʿīlī generally developed geographically isolated from each other, with the exception of Syria (which has both Druze and Nizari) and Pakistan and the rest of South Asia (which had both Mustaali and Nizari).

The Mustaali progressed mainly in Yemen and then shifted their dawat to India under Dai, working on behalf of their last Imam, Taiyyab, and were known as Bohra. From India, various groups spread mainly to south Asia and eventually to the Middle East, Europe, Africa and America.

The Nizari have maintained large populations in Syria, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and they have smaller populations in China and Iran. This community is the only one with a living Imām, whose title is the Aga Khan. Badakhshan, which spills over northeastern Afghanistan, eastern Tajikistan and North Pakistan, is the only part of the world where Ismailis make up the majority of the population.[42]

The Druze mainly settled in Syria and Lebanon and developed a community based upon the principles of reincarnation through their own descendants. Their leadership is based on community scholars, who are the only individuals allowed to read their holy texts. There is controversy over whether this group falls under the classification of Ismāʿīlīsm or Islam because of its unique beliefs.

The Tajiks of Xinjiang, being Ismaili, were not subjected to being enslaved in China by Sunni Muslim Turkic peoples because the two peoples did not share a common geographical region. .[43] The Burusho people of Pakistan are also Nizaris. However, due to their isolation from the rest of the world, Islam reached the Hunza about 350 years ago. Ismailism has been practiced by the Hunza for the last 300 years. The Hunza have been ruled by the same family of kings for over 900 years. They were called Kanjuts. Sunni Islam never took root in this part of central Asia so even now, there are less than a few dozen sunnis living among the Hunza.[44][45]

Ismaili Historiography

One of the most important texts in Ismaili historiography is the ʿUyun al-akhbar, which is a reference source on the history of Ismailism that was composed in 7 books by the Tayyibi Musta‘lian Ismaili da‘i-scholar, Idris Imad al-Din (born ca. 1392). This text presents the most comprehensive history of the Ismaili imams and da‘wa, from the earliest period of Muslim history until the late Fatimid era. The author, Idris Imad al-Din, descended from the prominent al-Walid family of the Quraysh in Yemen, who led the Tayyibi Musta‘lian Ismaili da‘wa for more than three centuries. This gave him access to the literary heritage of the Ismailis, including the majority of the extant Fatimid manuscripts transferred to Yemen. The ‘Uyun al-akhbar is being published in 7 volumes of annotated Arabic critical editions as part of an institutional collaboration between the Institut Français du Proche Orient (IFPO) in Damascus and The Institute of Ismaili Studies (IIS) in London. This voluminous text has been critically edited based on several old manuscripts from The Institute of Ismaili Studies' vast collection. These academic editions have been prepared by a team of Syrian and Egyptian scholars, including Dr Ayman F­ Sayyid, and this major publication project has been coordinated by Dr Nader El-Bizri (IIS) and Dr Sarab Atassi-Khattab (IFPO).[46][47]


View on the Qur'an

Ismāʿīlīs believe the Qur'an was sent to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel (Jibra'il in Arabic) over the course of 23 years. They believe that the Imam has the authority to interpret the Qur'an in relation to the present time.

The Ginans and Qasidas

Main article: Ginans

The Ginans are Nizari religious texts. They are written in the form of poetry by Pirs to interpret the meanings of Quranic ayat into the languages of South Asia, especially Gujarati and Urdu. In comparison to Ginans, Ismāʿīlīs of other origins, such as Persians, Arabs, and Central Asians, have qasidas (Arabic: قصيدة) written by missionaries such as Pir Sadardin

Reincarnation (Druze)

Belief in reincarnation exists in the Druze faith, an offshoot of Ismailism. The Druze believe that members of their community can only be reincarnated within the community. It is also known that Druze believe in five cosmic principles, represented by the five-colored Druze star: intelligence/reason (green), soul (red), word (yellow), precedent (blue), and immanence (white). These virtues take the shape of five different spirits which, until recently, have been continuously reincarnated on Earth as prophets and philosophers including Adam, the ancient Greek mathematician and astronomer Pythagoras, the ancient Pharaoh of Egypt Akhenaten, and many others. The Druze believe that, in every time period, these five principles were personified in five different people who came down together to Earth to teach humans the true path to God and enlightenment, but that with them came five other individuals who would lead people away from the right path into "darkness."


Ismāʿīlīs believe numbers have religious meanings. The number seven plays a general role in the theology of the Ismā'īliyya, including mystical speculations that there are seven heavens, seven continents, seven orifices in the skull, seven days in a week, and so forth.


Ismāʿīlīs believe the Qur'an has two layers of meaning, the zāhir meaning apparent, and the bātin, meaning hidden.

For this sect, the Imām is the manifestation of truth, and hence he is their path of salvation to God.[48]

Classical Ismāʿīlī doctrine holds that divine revelation had been given in six periods (daur) entrusted to six prophets, who they also call Natiq (Speaker), who were commissioned to preach a religion of law to their respective communities.

Whereas the Natiq was concerned with the rites and outward shape of religion, the inner meaning is entrusted to a Wasi (Representative). The Wasi would know the secret meaning of all rites and rules and would reveal them to a small circles of initiates.

The Natiq and the Wasi are in turn succeeded by a line of seven Imāms, who guard what they received. The seventh and last Imām in any period becomes the Natiq of the next period. The last Imām of the sixth period, however, would not bring about a new religion of law but rather supersede all previous religions, abrogate the law and introduce din Adama al-awwal ("the original religion of Adam") practised by Adam and the angels in paradise before the fall, which would be without ritual or law but consist merely in all creatures praising the creator and recognizing his unity. This final stage was called the Qiyamah.[49]

Pir and Dawah

Main article: Da'i al-Mutlaq

Just as the Imām is seen by Ismailis as the manifestation of the first-created Light, during the period between the Imāmates of Muhammad ibn Ismail and al-Madhi Billah, the relationship between the teacher and the student became a sacred one, and the Dai became a position much beyond a normal missionary. The Dai passed on the sacred and hidden knowledge of the Imām to the student, who could then use that information to ascend to higher levels. First the student loved the Dai, and from the Dai he learned to love the Imām, who was but an interceder on behalf of God. In Nizari Ismailism, the head Dai is called the Pir.[24]


Main article: Zahir (Islam)

In Ismailism, things have an exterior meaning, what is apparent. This is called zāhir.


Main article: Batin (Islam)

In Ismailism, things have an interior meaning that is reserved for a special few who are in tune with the Imām, or are the Imām himself. This is called bātin. Ismaili Esoteric Interpretation of the Qur'an


Main article: 'Aql

As with other Shia, Ismāʿīlīs believe that the understanding of God is derived from the first light in the universe, the light of 'Aql, which in Arabic roughly translates as 'Intellect' or to 'bind' (Latin: Intellectus). It is through this Universal Intellect ('aql al-kull) that all living and non-living entities know God, and all of humanity is dependent and united in this light.[39][50] Contrastingly, in Twelver thought this includes the Prophets as well, especially Muhammad, who is the greatest of all the manifestations of 'Aql.

God, in Isma'ili metaphysics, is seen as above and beyond all conceptions, names, and descriptions. He transcends all positive and negative qualities, and knowledge of God as such is above all human comprehension. Read more at: Ismaili Musim Teachings on Tawhid from Primary Sources

For the Shia, the Light (nur) of the Imamate is the Universal Intellect, and consequently, the Imam on earth is the focus of manifestation (mazhar) of the Intellect.

Dasond (Zakat)

The Ismailis have submitted the Qur'anic zakat (see Qur'an 9:103), which is a purification due and not charitable alms, to the Imams since the death of the Prophet Muhammad. The zakat rates historically differed depending on the asset type - 2.5% of animals, 5% of minerals, and 10% of crops. Among Khoja Ismailis, the zakat is 12.5% of cash income and among other Ismailis of Iran, Syria, Central Asia, and China, the zakat is 10% of cash income and other %s of non-cash assets like crops and livestock.[51] Link to Article on Dasond The entire zakat amount is given to the Ismaili Imam through his representatives in the Jamatkhanas, called Mukhi-Sahibs. The zakat/dasond funds are used exclusively for the benefit of the community — and for the expenses the Office of the Imamat incurs in this work. And even though the Imam has a right to a portion of those funds, personally, in fact the reverse happens and the Imam supplements Imamat funds from his personal resources, sometimes by an additional 150%. This has been documented in several interviews of the present Aga Khan.[52] Read Referenced Article


Main article: Walayah

Walayah is translated from Arabic as “guardianship” and denotes “Love and devotion for God, the Prophets, the Aimmat and Imām uz Zaman, and the Dai.” It also denotes Ta'at (following every order without protest, but with one's soul's happiness, knowing that nothing is more important than a command from God and that the command of His vicegerents is His Word). In Ismāʿīlī doctrine, God is the true desire of every soul, and He manifests himself in the forms of Prophets and Imāms; to be guided to his path, one requires a messenger or a guide: a Dai. For the true mawali of the Imam and Dai, heaven is made obligatory. And only with this crucial walayat, they believe, will all the other pillars and acts ordained by Islam be judged or even looked at by God.

Taharah or Shahada

Main article: Taharah

A pillar which translates from Arabic as “purity.” As well as a pure soul, it includes bodily purity and cleanliness; without Taharat of the body, clothes and ma'salla, Salaat will not be accepted.

Main article: Shahada

In place of Taharah, the Druze have the Shahada, or affirmation of faith.


Main article: Salat


Main article: Zakah

A pillar which translates as “charity.” With the exception of the Druze sect, the Ismāʿīlīs' form of zakat resembles the Zakat of the Muslims. The Twelvers pay khums, which is 1/5 of one's unspent money at the end of the year. Ismāʿīlīs pay a tithe of 12.5%, which is used for development projects in the eastern world, primarily to benefit Ismāʿīlīs and, by extension, other communities living in that area.


Main article: Sawm

A pillar which is translated as “fasting.” Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims fast by abstaining from food, drink from dawn to sunset as well purifying the soul by avoiding sinful acts and doing good deeds, e.g., not lying, being honest in daily life, not backbiting, etc., for 30 days during the holy month of Ramadan (9th month of the Islamic calendar). In contrast, the Nizari and Musta'ali sects believe in a metaphorical as well as a literal meaning of fasting. The literal meaning is that one must fast as an obligation, such as during Ramadan, and the metaphorical meaning is seeking to attain the Divine Truth and striving to avoid worldly activities which may detract from this goal. In particular, Ismāʿīlīs believe that the esoteric meaning of fasting involves a "fasting of the soul," whereby they attempt to purify the soul simply by avoiding sinful acts and doing good deeds. Still, many Nizari Ismailis around the world fast during the month of Ramadan every year. In addition, the Nizari also fast on "Shukravari Beej" which falls on a Friday that coincides with the New Moon.


Main article: Hajj

A pillar which translates from Arabic as “pilgrimage," meaning the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is currently the largest annual pilgrimage in the world and is the fifth pillar of Islam, a religious duty that must be carried out at least once in one's lifetime by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so. Many Ismaili sects do not ascribe to mainstream Islamic beliefs regarding the Hajj, considering it instead to metaphorically mean visiting the Imam himself, that being the greatest and most spiritual of all pilgrimages. However, since the Druze do not follow shariah, they do not believe in a literal pilgrimage to the Kaaba in Mecca as other Muslims do, while the Mustaali (Bohras) as well as the Nizaris still hold on to the literal meaning as well, performing hajj to the Ka'aba and also visiting the Imam (or in a secluded time like today, the Dai, who is the representative or vicegerent of the Imam) to be Hajj-e Haqiqi.[48]


Main article: Jihad

An Islamic term, Jihad is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād is a noun meaning "struggle." Jihad appears frequently in the Qur'an and is sometimes used in the nonmilitary sense. A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid; the plural is mujahideen. When a violent act is intended, the Qur'an used the term "Qattal" meaning to engage in killing/violence.

A minority among the Sunni scholars sometimes refer to this duty as the sixth pillar of Islam, though it occupies no such official status. In Twelver Shi'a Islam, however, Jihad is one of the 10 Practices of the Religion.

For the Isma'ilis, Jihad is the last of the Seven Islamic Pillars, and for them it means a struggle against one's own soul; striving toward rightness, and sometimes as struggle in warfare. However, Isma'ilis will stress that none but their Imam uz Zaman [Imam of the Time] can declare war and call his followers to fight.


Branching of Ismāʿilism within the Shi'a Islam at a glance.


Main article: Nizari

The largest part of the Ismāʿīlī community Nizari today accepts Prince Karim Aga Khan IV as their 49th Imām,[53] who they claim is descended from Muḥammad through his daughter Fāṭimah az-Zahra and 'Ali, Muḥammad's cousin and son-in-law. The 46th Ismāʿīlī Imām, Aga Hassan ‘Alī Shah, fled Iran in the 1840s after being blamed for a failed coup against the Shah of the Qajar dynasty.[54] Aga Hassan ‘Alī Shah settled in Mumbai in 1848.[54]


Main article: Satpanth

Satpanth is a subgroup of Nizari Ismailism and Ismaili Sufism formed by conversions from Hinduism 700 years ago by Pir Sadardin (1290-1367) and 600 years ago in the 15th century by his grandson Pir Imam Shah (1430-1520), they differ slightly from the Nizari Khojas in that they reject the Aga Khan as their leader and are known more commonly as Imam-Shahi. There are villages in Gujarat which are totally 'Satpanthi' such as Pirana near Ahmedabad where Imam Shah is buried. It is also the older form of Nizari Ismaili practice originating from the Kutch community of Gujarat. Pir Sadardin gave the first converts to Ismailism the name 'Satpanth' because they were the followers of the 'True Path.' They were then given the title of Khoja to replace their title of Thakkar.


Main article: Mustaali

In time, the seat for one chain of the Dai was split between India and Yemen as the community split several times, each recognizing a different Dai. Today, the Dawoodi Bohras, which constitute the majority of the Mustaali Ismāʿīlī accept Mohammed Burhanuddin as the 52nd Dāʿī al-Muṭlaq. The Dawoodi Bohras are based in India, along with the Alavi Bohra. Minority groups of the Sulaymani, however, exist in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. In recent years, there has been a rapprochement between the Sulaymani and Dawoodi Mustaali.

The Mustaali sects are the most traditional of the three main groups of Ismāʿīlī, maintaining rituals such as prayer and fasting more consistently with the practices of other Shi'i sects. It is often said that they resemble Sunni Islam even more than Twelvers do, though this would hold true for matters of the exterior rituals (zahir) only, with little bearing on doctrinal or theological differences.

Dawoodi Bohra

Main article: Dawoodi Bohra
The divisions of the Mustaali, sometimes referred to as Bohras.

The Dawoodi Bohras are a very close-knit community who seek advice from the Dai on spiritual and temporal matters.

Dawoodi Bohras is headed by the Dāʻī al-Mutlaq, who is appointed by his predecessor in office. The Dāʻī al-Mutlaq appoints two others to the subsidiary ranks of māzūn (Arabic Maʾḏūn مأذون) "licentiate" and Mukāsir (Arabic: مكاسر). These positions are followed by the rank of ra'sul hudood, bhaisaheb, miya-saheb, shaikh-saheb and mulla-saheb, which are held by several of Bohras. The 'Aamil or Saheb-e Raza who is granted the permission to perform the religious ceremonies of the believers by the Dāʻī al-Mutlaq and also leads the local congregation in religious, social and community affairs, is sent to each town where a sizable population of believers exists. Such towns normally have a masjid (commonly known as mosque) and an adjoining jamaa'at-khaana (assembly hall) where socio-religious functions are held. The local organizations which manage these properties and administer the social and religious activities of the local Bohras report directly to the central administration of the Dāʻī al-Mutlaq.

While the majority of Dawoodi Bohras have traditionally been traders, it is becoming increasingly common for them to become professionals. Some choose to become Doctors, consultants or analysts as well as a large contingent of medical professionals. Dawoodi Bohras are encouraged to educate themselves in both religious and secular knowledge, and as a result, the number of professionals in the community is rapidly increasing. Dawoodi Bohras believe that the education of women is equally important as that of men, and many Dawoodi Bohra women choose to enter the workforce. Al Jamea tus Saifiyah (The Arabic Academy) in Surat, Nairobi and Karachi is a sign to the educational importance in the Dawoodi community. The Academy has an advanced curriculum which encompasses religious and secular education for both men and women.

Today there are approximately one million Dawoodi Bohra. The majority of these reside in India and Pakistan, but there is also a significant diaspora residing in the Middle East, East Africa, Europe, North America and the Far East.

The ordinary Bohra is highly conscious of his identity, and this is especially demonstrated at religious and traditional occasions by the appearance and attire of the participants. Dawoodi Bohra men wear a traditional white three-piece outfit, plus a white and gold cap (called a topi), and women wear the rida, a distinctive form of the commonly known burqa which is distinguished from other forms of the veil due to it often being in color and decorated with patterns and lace. The rida's difference from the burqa, however, is significant beyond just the colour, pattern and lace. The rida does not call for covering of women's faces like the traditional veil. It has a flap called the 'pardi' that usually hangs on the back like the hood of a jacket but it is not used to conceal the face. This is representative of the Dawoodi Bohra community's values of equality and justice for women, which they believe, is a tenet of the Fatimid Imamate's evolved understanding of Islam and the true meaning of women's chastity in Islam. The Dawoodi Bohra community also do not prevent their women from coming to mosques, attending religious gatherings or going to places of pilgrimage. It is often regarded as the most peaceful sect of Islam and an example of true Sufism; it has been critically acclaimed on several occasions even by Western governments such as those of the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden and particularly the United States for its progressive outlook towards gender roles, adoption of technology, promotion of literature, crafts, business and secular values. However, the Dawoodi Bohras are highly single-minded about inter-caste or inter-faith marriage. They do not oppose it but do not encourage it either. If a Dawoodi Bohra member does marry into another caste or religion, he or she is usually advised to ask his or her spouse to convert to Islam and, specifically, into the community.

They believe that straying away from the community implies straying away from Ma'ad – the ultimate objective of this life and the meaning of the teachings of Islam, which is to return to where all souls comes from and re-unite with Allah. Besides, converting someone to Islam has high spiritual and religious significance as doctrines espouse that making someone a Muslim or Mu'min confers the Sawab (reward of good deeds) equivalent to that of 40 Hajjs and 40 Umrahs (visiting Mecca and the Kaaba during days other than that of Hajj).

The position of Da'i al-Mutlaq is currently disputed after the demise of the 52nd Da'i al-Mutlaq of the Dawoodi Bohra community, Mohammed Burhanuddin. Two claimants emerged for the position of 53rd Da'i al-Mutlaq, Mufaddal Saifuddin and Khuzaima Qutbuddin, and a case is pending in the Bombay High Court to resolve the matter. Qutbuddin has since died and appointed his son Taher Fakhruddin as his successor.

Besides speaking the local languages, the Dawoodis have their own language called Lisānu l-Dāʻwat "Tongue of the Dāʻwat". This is written in the Persian alphabet but is derived from Urdu, Gujarati and Arabic and Persian.

Sulaymani Bohra

Main article: Sulaymani

Founded in 1592, the Sulaymani are mostly concentrated in Yemen but are also found in Pakistan and India. The denomination is named after its 27th Daʻī, Sulayman bin Hassan. They are referred and prefer to be referred as Ahle-Haq Isma'ilis and Sulaymanis and not with the Bohras suffix.

The total number of Sulaymanis currently are around 300,000, mainly living in the eastern district of Jabal Haraz in northwest Yemen and in Najran, Saudi Arabia.[55] Beside the Banu Yam of Najran, the Sulaymanis are in Haraz, among the inhabitants of the Jabal Maghariba and in Hawzan, Lahab and Attara, as well as in the district of Hamadan and in the vicinity of Yarim.

In India there are between 3000 and 5000 Sulaymanis living mainly in Vadodara, Hyderabad, Mumbai and Surat. In Punjab, Pakistan, there is a well-established Sulaymani community in Sind. Some ten thousand Sulaymanis live in rural areas of Punjab known to the Sulaymani as Jazeera-e Sind; these Sulaymani communities have been in the Jazeera-e Sind from the time of Fatimid Imam-Caliph al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah when he sent his Daʻīs to Jazeera-e Sind.

There are also some 900–1000 Sulaymanis mainly from South Asia scattered around the world, in the Persian Gulf States, United States, Canada, Thailand, Australia, Japan and the United Kingdom.

Alavi Bohra

Main article: Alavi Bohra

While lesser known and smallest in number, Alavi Bohras accept as the 45th dāʿī al-muṭlaq, Haatim Zakiyuddin. They are mostly concentrated in India.

The Alavi Bohra community has its headquarters at Vadodara in Gujarat, India. The 45th Dāʻī al-Mutlaq, Hatim Zakiyuddin Saheb, is the head of the community. The religious hierarchy of the Alavi Bohras is headed by the Dāʻī al-Mutlaq, who is appointed by his predecessor in office and similar as of Dawoodi Bohra.

Hebtiahs Bohra

Main article: Hebtiahs Bohra

The Hebtiahs Bohra are a branch of Mustaali Ismaili Shi'a Islam that broke off from the mainstream Dawoodi Bohra after the death of the 39th Da'i al-Mutlaq in 1754.


Main article: Atba-i-Malak

The Abta-i Malak jamaat (community) are a branch of Mustaali Ismaili Shi'a Islam that broke off from the mainstream Dawoodi Bohra after the death of the 46th Da'i al-Mutlaq, under the leadership of Abdul Hussain Jivaji. They have further split into two more branches, the Atba-i-Malak Badra and Atba-i-Malak Vakil.[56]


Main article: Druze

While on one view there is a historical nexus between the Druze and Ismāʿīlīs, any such links are purely historical and do not entail any modern similarities, given that one of the Druze's central tenets is trans-migration of the soul (reincarnation) as well as other contrasting beliefs with Ismāʿīlīsm and Islam. Druze is an offshoot of Ismailism. Many historical links do trace back to Syria and particularly Masyaf.

Extinct Branches


Main article: Böszörmény

According to the historian Yaqut al-Hamawi, the Böszörmény (Izmaelita or Ismaili / Nizari) denomination of the Muslims who lived in the Kingdom of Hungary in the 10–13th centuries, were employed as mercenaries by the kings of Hungary. However following the establishment of the Christian Kingdom of Hungary their community was Christianized by the end of the 13th century.


Main article: Hafizi

This branch held that whoever the political ruler of the Fatimid Caliphate was, was also the Imam of the faith. This branch died with the Fatimid Caliphate.


Main article: Sevener

A branch of the Ismāʿīlī known as the Sabaʿiyyīn "Seveners" hold that Ismāʿīl's son, Muhammad, was the seventh and final Ismāʿīlī, who is said to be in the Occultation.[24] However, most scholars believe this group is either extremely small or non-existent today.

Inclusion in Amman Message and Islamic Ummah

The Amman Message, which was issued on 9 November 2004 (27th of Ramadan 1425 AH) by King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein of Jordan, called for tolerance and unity in the Muslim world. Subsequently, the "Amman Message" Conference took place in Amman, Jordan on 4–6 July 2005 and a three-point declaration was issued by 200 Muslim academics from over 50 countries focusing on the three issues of:

  1. Defining who is a Muslim;
  2. Excommunication from Islam (takfir); and
  3. Principles related to delivering religious edicts (fatāwa).

The three-point declaration (later known as The Three Points of the Amman Message)[57] included both the Ja'fari and Zaydi Shia madhāhib (schools of jurisprudence) among the eight schools of jurisprudence that were listed as being in the Muslim fold and whose adherents were therefore to be considered as Muslim by definition and therefore cannot be excluded from the world community of Muslims.

The Aga Khan, the 49th Imam of the Ismailis, was invited to issue a religious edict for and on behalf of the Ismailis, which he did by a letter explicitly stating that the Ismailis adhered to the Ja'fari school as well as other schools of close affinity including the Sufi principles concerned with personal search for God.[58]

The summarization by Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad explicitly delineates on page 11 the place of the Ismailis as being within the Ja'fari school as stated by the Aga Khan.[59]

See also


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  42. Ismaili Muslims in the remote Pamir mountains
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  59. "Introduction by HRH PRINCE GHAZI BIN MUHAMMAD". Retrieved 2012-07-29.


  • The Uyun al-akhbar is the most complete text written by an Ismaili/Tayyibi/Dawoodi 19th Dai Sayyedna Idris bin Hasan on the history of the Ismaili community from its origins up to the 12th century period of the Fatimid caliphs al-Mustansir (d. 487/1094), the time of Musta‘lian rulers including al-Musta‘li (d. 495/1101) and al-Amir (d. 524/1130), and then the Tayyibi Ismaili community in Yemen.
  • Daftary, Farhad (2012) Historical dictionary of the Ismailis. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2012.
  • Steinberg, Jonah (2011) Isma'ili Modern: Globalization and Identity in a Muslim Community. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
  • Spencer C. Tucker; Priscilla Roberts (12 May 2008), The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-18-5109-842-2 
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