Hindu–Islamic relations

Hinduism and Islam are two of the world's largest religions, whose interaction began after Islam was launched in the 7th century CE.[1]

Hinduism is a diversity-filled socio-religious way of life of the Hindu people of the Indian subcontinent, their diaspora, and some other regions which had Hindu influence in the ancient and medieval times. In Hinduism God can be worshiped in the name one believes or in the form one believes and even allows idol worship, hence Hinduism accepts Allah also. Islam is a monotheistic religion in which the supreme deity is Allah (Arabic: الله "the God": see God in Islam), the last Islamic prophet being Muhammad, whom Muslims believe delivered the Islamic scripture, the Qur'an. Hinduism mostly shares common terms with the dhārmic religions, including Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Islam shares common terms with the Abrahamic religions–those religions claiming descent from Abraham–being, from oldest to youngest, Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Baha'i Faith.

The Qur'an and the Hadiths are the primary Islamic scriptures. The scriptures of Hinduism are the Shrutis (the four Vedas, which comprise the original Vedic Hymns, or Samhitas, and three tiers of commentaries upon the Samhitas, namely the Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads[2]); these are considered authentic, authoritative divine revelation. Furthermore, Hinduism is also based on the Smritis, including the Rāmāyana, the Bhagavad Gītā, and the Purānas, which are also considered to be equally sacred.

Hinduism and Islam share some ritual practices such as fasting and pilgrimage, but differ in their views on apostasy, blasphemy, circumcision, consanguineous marriages, idol making, henotheism, social stratification, vegetarianism, and Ahimsa as a virtue. Their historical interaction since the 7th century has witnessed periods of cooperation and syncretism, as well as periods of religious violence.

Comparison between Islam and Hinduism

Theology and Concept of God

Islam is a system of thought that believes in absolute monotheism, called Tawḥīd.[3] Muslims are required to affirm daily, as one of the five pillars of Islam, in Shahada, that is "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."[4][5]

Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism, agnosticism, humanism and atheism among others. Hindus are free to choose any of these beliefs.[6][7]

Scriptures and Messengers

The scriptures of Islam are the Qurān and the Hadiths.[8] Muslims believe that Muhammad was the last messenger, and Quran was the last revelation from God to the last prophet.[9] The hadiths contain the Sunnah, or the reports of Muhammad's life, sayings, actions and examples he set. The Quran and the Hadiths are considered in Islam as the source of Islamic law, or Sharia.[10]

Hinduism has no traditional ecclesiastical order, no centralized religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book.[6][11] Spiritual knowledge of Hinduism is contained in texts called Shruti ("what is heard") and Smriti ("what is remembered"). These texts discuss diverse theology, mythology, rituals, rites of passage, philosophy, and other topics. Major scriptures in Hinduism include the Vedas, Upanishads (both Śruti), the Epics, Puranas, Dharmasutras and Agamas (all smriti).[12][13]


Pilgrimage is found in both religions, Hajj to Mecca in Islam, while Kumbh Mela and Tirtha Yatra in Hinduism.[14] Muslims performs 7 rounds around Kaaba during Hajj which is called Tawaf.[15] Hindus also perform one or more rounds around the center (Garbhagriya) of a temple (one to twenty-one[16]),[17][18][19] which is called as Parikrama (known in Sanskrit as pradakśiṇā). Both of them are commonly called circumambulation.[20][21]

By some members of the Ahmadiya Muslim Community, Hindu Avatar Kalki is believed to be the Islamic Prophet Muhammad; some of the Muslim scholars and a few of the Hindu scholars[22][23] also argued that kalki is mentioned indicating Muhammad in some Hindu scriptures.[23][24] However, most of the Hindu scholars widely discarded it as a false theory, claiming that Kalki is supposed to arrive at the end of Kali Yuga, not in the beginning.



Main article: Apostasy in Islam

Apostasy, that is a condition of Islam for a Muslim and conversion to another religion or atheism, is a religious crime in Islam and sometimes punishable with death.[25][26]

Hinduism allows freedom of conscience. Any Hindu can be an atheist, or can change his belief when he or she wants.[6][7] Both religions state that there should be no compulsion in religion.[27]


Main article: Islam and blasphemy

Blasphemy against God and its Prophet is a religious crime in Islam.[28] The Quran in verse [Quran 5:33–34] and many Hadiths of Islam discuss blasphemy and its punishment.[28] A variety of actions, speeches or behavior can constitute blasphemy in Islam.[29] Some examples include insulting or cursing Allah or Muhammad, mockery or disagreeable behavior towards beliefs and customs common in Islam, finding faults or expressing doubts about Allah, improper dress, drawing offensive cartoons, tearing or burning holy literature of Islam, creating or using music or painting or video or novels to mock or criticize Muhammad are some examples of blasphemous acts. Punishment can range from imprisonment, flogging to execution.[29][30]

Open discussion and criticism of spiritual thoughts, ideas and deities is allowed in Hinduism.[31] The concept of "divine blasphemy" or "heresy" does not exist in Hinduism, and ancient Hindu texts make no provisions for blasphemy.[32][33]


Main article: Caste system in India

Hindu texts such as the Manusmriti segregate people through social stratification called the caste system. Caste System is cultural to India and not specific to Hinduism.[34] Islamic texts do not segregate Muslims by caste, however in India Muslims also have their own caste system including untouchables.[35][36]

While Hinduism texts do not list thousands of castes, in practice, the Hindu caste system has been described variously as four Varnas or as thousands of endogamous hereditary groups called jātis.[34] Similar to the Hindu caste structure of four Varnas, in practice, Muslims in South Asia developed a caste system that divided the South Asian Muslim society into three: the foreign-descended Ashraf Muslims, the local Ajlaf converts, and the converted Arzal untouchables at the lowest rung.[37][38] The term "Arzal" stands for "degraded" and the Arzal castes are further subdivided, like Hindu jatis, into Bhanar, Halalkhor, Hijra, Kasbi, Lalbegi, Maugta, Mehtar etc.[38][39][40] Scholars[41][42] state that caste-like social stratification is also found in Islam outside South Asia.[43][44]


Khitan (circumcision) of males is required in Islam. The Qur'an itself does not mention circumcision explicitly in any verse, but it is mentioned in the Hadiths of Islam. Muslim commentators consistently interpret Islamic scriptures as making male circumcision obligatory, but female circumcision as merely preferable but not required.[45]

Circumcision is not a religious requirement in Hinduism.[46]

Consanguineous marriage

Consanguineous marriage are those where the bride and groom share a grandparent or near ancestor.[47] Hinduism forbids consanguineous marriage, and strongly recommends seven degrees of biological separation between bride and groom.[48] But in Tamil Nadu and kerala, consanguineous marriages are very common among Hindus. In Tamil Nadu, a Hindu girl can marry her uncle while in Kerala, marriages between first cousins are very common.[49] Arranged endogamous consanguineous marriage are very common in Islam, particularly first cousin marriages, followed by second cousin marriages.[50] About 25 to 40% of all marriages in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and UAE are first cousin marriages; while overall consanguineous arranged marriages exceed 65 to 80% in various regions of the Islamic Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia.[51][52]


Main article: Sati (practice)

Sati was a Hindu religious practice where a widow immolated herself on her husband's pyre, or committed suicide in another fashion shortly after her husband's death.[53][54]

Islam does not allow such customs or rituals.


Islamic scriptures, in its history and unlike Hinduism, compelled the payment of a special tax called Jizya from dhimmi, the non-Muslims who live in a Muslim state.[55][56] Jizya was a tool of social stratification and treasury's revenue from non-Muslims.[56] Jizya was a reminder of subordination of a non-Muslim under Muslims, and created a financial and political incentive to convert to Islam.[56][57]

There is no such a concept in Hinduism.


The Quran and the Hadiths permit the institution of slavery of non-Muslims in Islam, using the words abd (slave) and the phrase ma malakat aymanukum ("that which your right hand owns").[58][59] Under Islamic law, Muslim men can have sexual relations with female captives or concubines and slaves with or without her consent.[60][61] Slaves, in Islamic belief, were master's property and the slaves did not have a right to own property, right to free movement, right to marry without their owner's permission, or right to consent.[62][63][64] Islam, in some cases, encouraged a slave's manumission, but only after a non-Muslim slave first convert to Islam.[65][66] Non-Muslim slave women who bore children to their Muslim masters became legally free upon her master's death, and her children were presumed to be Muslims as their father.[65][67] Aurangzeb, the Mughal Emperor, hired Muslim scholars to study the Quran and the Hadiths and write down the Islamic law for India in late 17th century. The resulting document was called Fatawa-e-Alamgiri, and it dedicated many chapters on the rights of Muslim men to own and buy non-Muslim slaves for work and sex.[68][69]

The practice of slavery in early and late Vedic era of Hinduism is undocumented. Arrian, the Greek historian who chronicled India about the time of Alexander the Great, wrote in his Indika,[70]

The Indians do not even use aliens as slaves, much less a countryman of their own.
The Indika of Arrian[70]

However, some Hindu texts use the term dasa. Some scholars translate this as slave,[71] while other scholars have translated it as servant and religious devotee.[72][73] Arthashastra text of Hinduism dedicates a chapter to dasa where a financially bankrupt individual may apply and become a servant of another. Arthashastra grants a dasa legal rights, and declares abusing, hurting and raping a dasa as a crime.[71][74]

In South India, a devadasi (Sanskrit: servant of deva (god) or devi (goddess) ) is a girl "dedicated" to worship and service of a deity or a temple for the rest of her life. The dedication takes place in a Pottukattu ceremony which is similar in some ways to marriage. Originally, in addition to taking care of the temple and performing rituals, these women learned and practiced Sadir (Bharatanatya), Odissi and other classical Indian artistic traditions and enjoyed a high social status as dance and music were essential part of temple worship.[75][76][77][78]

Food-related conflicts

Islam has restrictions on food, such as how the meat is prepared.[79] Halal meat is prepared by ritual slaughter that involves cutting the jugular veins of the animal with a sharp knife. This leads to slow death, through bleeding, of the animal.[80] Meat from animals that die of natural causes or accident is not allowed. Beef is a sought after meat among Muslims, but they strictly avoid pork and alcohol.[81][82]

Hinduism, with its emphasis on non-violence against all creatures, tends to be vegetarian, and lacto-vegetarian meals are common. However, food habits are left as a choice for Hindus. There are varied opinions regarding the permissibility of eating meat in Hinduism, depending upon the interpretation of the Hindu scriptures. Vegetarianism is a choice for most Hindus, although some sects emphasize vegetarianism. Some Hindus consider violence against animals, that is used to produce any meat, so unacceptable that they avoid eating with non-vegetarians. Most observant Hindus strictly avoid cow-based beef, but some may eat water buffalo-based beef.[81]

The manner in which an animal is slaughtered in Islamic rituals is considered cruel and barbaric by Hindus, as Hindus consume Jhatka meat. Jhatka is meat from an animal that has been killed instantly, such as by a single strike of a sword or axe to sever the head, as opposed to ritualistically slow slaughter (kutha) in the halal method (dhabihah). Jhatka is the method of meat production demanded by most Hindus who eat meat, as this provides a quick and painless death to the animal. Both methods use sharp knives. In the Jhatka method, a swift uninterrupted cut severs the trachea, esophagus, carotid arteries, jugular veins, vagus nerves and the spine. In the Halal method, the slaughter is done with a swift deep incision with a sharp knife on the throat, cutting the jugular veins and carotid arteries of both sides but leaving the spinal cord and nervous tissue intact, followed by a period where the blood of the animal is drained out. A prayer to God is not required in the Jhatka method with each animal commercially slaughtered, but a prayer to God (Allah) is required at the start or if there is any interruption during Halal meat production.

Slaughter of a cow is considered heinous in Hinduism and has been a cause of Hindu-Muslim riots in India.[83][84]

Politics and historical interaction

H.G. Rawlinson, in his book: Ancient and Medieval History of India[85] claims the first Arab Muslims settled on the Indian coast in the last part of the 7th century. It was however the subsequent expansion of the Turkish and Persian led Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent over the next millennium that significantly expanded the interaction of Islam with Hinduism.[1]

Peaceful cooperation

Translation of scriptures

The Mughal Emperor Akbar commissioned many Hindu masterpieces to be translated into Persian.[86]

Girish Chandra Sen, a Brahmo Samaj missionary, was the first person to produce the complete translation of the Qur'an into Bengali in 1886.[87]


Further information: Kazi Nazrul Islam

There have been instances of syncretic cooperation on music on Islamic and Hindu theme. The national poet of Bangladesh Kazi Nazrul Islam, for example, wrote a lot of Islamic devotional songs for the mainstream of Bengali folk music.[88] He also explored Hindu devotional music by composing Shama Sangeet, bhajans and kirtans, often merging Islamic and Hindu values. Nazrul's poetry and songs explored the philosophy of Islam and Hinduism.[89]

Religious violence

Further information: Religious violence in India

Historical records of religious violence are extensive for medieval India, in the form of corpus written by numerous Muslim historians. Will Durant states that Hindus were historically persecuted during Islamic rule of the Indian subcontinent.[90]

Religious violence in medieval India began in centuries before the start of Delhi Sultanate, with the raids by Turko-Mongol, Persian and Afghan armies. It intensified during Delhi Sultanate, continued through Mughal Empire, and then in the British colonial period.[91][92]

During the British period, religious affiliations became an issue. Religious communities tended to become political constituencies. This was particularly true of the Muslim League created in 1905, which catered exclusively for the interests of the Muslims. Purely Hindu organizations also appeared such as the Hindu Sabha (later Mahasabha) founded in 1915. In the meantime Hindu-Muslim riots became more frequent; but they were not a novelty, they are attested since the Delhi Sultanate and were already a regular feature of the Mughal Empire. When in 1947, Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the first Governor General of Pakistan and the new border was demarcated, gigantic riots broke out between Hindus and Muslims.
– Marc Gaborieau, Anthropology Today[91]

There have been periodic instances of violence against Muslims in India from before its partition from Pakistan in 1947,[93][94][95][96] frequently in the form of mob attacks on Muslims by Hindus that form a pattern of sporadic sectarian violence between the Hindu and Muslim communities. Over 10,000 people have been killed in Hindu-Muslim communal violence since 1950 in 6,933 instances of communal violence between 1954[97][98][99][100] and 1982.[101]

The roots of violence against Muslims lie in India's history, stemming from lingering resentment toward the Islamic domination of India during the Middle Ages, policies established by the country's British colonizers, the violent partition of India into a Muslim Pakistan, and a secular India with a large but minority Muslim population.[102] Some scholars have described incidents of anti-Muslim violence as politically motivated and organized anti-Muslim violence are politically motivated and a part of the electoral strategy of mainstream political parties they called them pogroms[103] or acts of genocide,[104][105] or a form of state terrorism with "organized political massacres"[106] rather than mere "riots".[107] Others argue that, although their community faces discrimination and violence, some Muslims have been highly successful,[108] that the violence is not as widespread as it appears, but is restricted to certain urban areas because of local socio-political conditions, and there are many cities where Muslims and Hindus live peacefully together with almost no incidences of sectarian violence.

Contemporary interaction


India helped Bangladesh gain independence from Pakistan in 1971 AD. Various agencies, such as BBC, Associated Press and Reuters have reported periodic violence against Hindus by some Muslims in Bangladesh, and attempts by the Muslim government to punish such violence.[109][110] For example, in early 2013, Hindu families were attacked and killed, as well as dozens of temples burnt/destroyed after the International Crimes Tribunal sentenced Delwar Hossain Sayeedi of the Jamaat-e-Islami to death for the war crimes committed during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War.[111][112][113]


In the last 50 years after the Indian independence and partition, the Muslims in India have preferential treatment with their own Muslim Personal Law. Communal tensions between the Hindus and the Muslims have erupted many a times during this period. Notable incidents of this phenomenon include the demolition of the Babri Masjid (believed to have been built on the sacred site of a demolished temple marking the birthplace of Lord Rāma) and the Gujarat Riots of 2002. The Gujarat violence of 2002 is significant for recording the highest annual death toll in any event of Hindu-Muslim violence in a single state in the history of independent India: 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed[114] following the murder of 59 innocent Hindu passengers mostly women and children allegedly by Muslim youths on a train near Godhra on 27 February. The incident that spurred the violence was when the Sabarmati Express train was attacked at Godhra allegedly by a Muslim mob and the coach carrying Hindu pilgrims was locked from outside and set on fire[115][116] as per a preplanned conspiracy.[117] 58 Hindu pilgrims, including 25 women and 15 children, returning from Ayodhya, were killed in the attack. This incident is not an isolated incident in the Gujarat state, in other states in India, especially in rural area violence between Muslims and Hindus is a common occurrence, that can result in fatalities.[118]

See also


  1. 1 2 Wink, André (1990). Al-Hind, the making of the Indo-Islamic world. Leiden New York: E.J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-09249-8.
  2. Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2007). A Survey of Hinduism. (3. ed.). Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press. pp. 46–49. ISBN 0-7914-7082-2.
  3. "From the article on Tawhid in Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Oxfordislamicstudies.com. 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
  4. N Mohammad sahab (1985), The doctrine of jihad: An introduction, Journal of Law and Religion, 3(2): 381–397
  5. Malise Ruthven (January 2004). Historical Atlas of Islam. Harvard University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-674-01385-8.
  6. 1 2 3 Julius J. Lipner (2010). Hindus : their religious beliefs and practices. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7., Quote: "one need not be religious in the minimal sense described to be accepted as a Hindu by Hindus, or describe oneself perfectly validly as Hindu. One may be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu."
  7. 1 2 MK Gandhi, The Essence of Hinduism, Editor: VB Kher, Quote: "According to Gandhi, a man may not believe in God and still call himself a Hindu."
  8. Neal Robinson (2013), Islam: A Concise Introduction, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-87840-224-3, Chapter 7
  9. Gülen, Fethullah (2005). The Messenger of God Muhammad : an analysis of the Prophet's life. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-932099-83-6.
  10. Gibb, H. A. R. (1970). Mohammedanism : an historical survey. London New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 67–68. ISBN 0-19-500245-8.
  11. Larson, Bob (2004). Larson's book of world religions and alternative spirituality. Tyndale House Publishers. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-8423-6417-1.
  12. Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism: Past and present. Princeton University Press.
  13. Bhattacharyya, Ashim (2006). Hindu Dharma : introduction to scriptures and theology. New York Lincoln: IUniverse. pp. 8–14. ISBN 978-0-595-38455-6.
  14. Baksh, Kaiyume (2007). Islam and other major world religions. Trafford. pp. 47–49. ISBN 978-1-4251-1303-2.
  15. World Faiths, teach yourself - Islam by Ruqaiyyah Maqsood. ISBN 0-340-60901-X page 76
  16. "Pradkshna". ISCKON. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  17. "Why we do rounds". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  18. Vinayak Bharne and Krupali Krusche (2012). Rediscovering the Hindu temple : the sacred architecture and urbanism of India. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars. pp. 101, 79–105. ISBN 978-1-4438-4137-5.
  19. S.S. Subramuniyaswami (1998). Loving Ganeśa: Hinduism's endearing elephant-faced God. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 221. ISBN 978-81-208-1506-3.
  20. "Circum-". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2014-03-07.
  21. "Ambulate". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2014-03-07.
  22. "OUR DIALOGUE * Kaliki Avtar". Islamic Voice. November 1997. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  23. 1 2 "Muhammad in Hindu scriptures". Milli Gazette. Retrieved 2014-11-06.
  24. Juergensmeyer, Mark (2006). Oxford Handbook of Global Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 520. ISBN 978-0-19-513798-9.
  25. Ali, Kecia (2008). Islam : the key concepts. Routledge. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-415-39638-7.
  26. Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-19-512559-7.
  27. "Quran Tafsir Ibn Kathir". www.qtafsir.com. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  28. 1 2 Fitzpatrick, Coeli (2014). Muhammad in history, thought, and culture : an encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (Chapter: Blasphemy against the Prophet). pp. 59–67. ISBN 978-1-61069-177-2.
  29. 1 2 Lawton, David (1993). Blasphemy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-1503-8.
  30. Marshall, Paul (2011). Silenced : how apostasy and blasphemy codes are choking freedom worldwide. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-981228-8.
  31. Chitkara, Madan (2002). Buddha's: myths & legends. APH Publ. pp. 227–228. ISBN 978-81-7648-189-2.
  32. Naidoo, Thillayvel (2010). Long walk to enlightenment. Pittsburgh, PA. pp. 141–142. ISBN 978-1-4349-9808-8.
  33. Pullat, Sury (2014). Destined Encounters. Partridge Pub. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-4828-3639-4.
  34. 1 2 Gerald D. Berreman (1972). "Race, Caste, and Other Invidious Distinctions in Social Stratification" (PDF). University of California, Berkeley. doi:10.1177/030639687201300401.
  35. Glenn, H (2014). Legal traditions of the world: sustainable diversity in law. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-966983-7.
  36. Emon, Anver (2012). Religious pluralism and Islamic law : Dhimmis and Others in the Empire of Law. Oxford University Press. pp. 234–236. ISBN 978-0-19-966163-3.
  37. Aggarwal, Patrap (1978). Caste and Social Stratification Among Muslims in India. Manohar.
  38. 1 2 Ambedkar, Bhimrao. Pakistan or the Partition of India. Thackers Publishers.
  39. Dereserve these myths by Tanweer Fazal,Indian express
  40. Barth, Fredrik (1962). Leach, E. R., ed. Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon, and North-West Pakistan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-09664-5.
  41. Gabriele Vombruck (June 1996), "Being worthy of protection. The dialectics of gender attributes in Yemen", Social Anthropology, 4 (2): 145–162
  42. Lehmann, Hermann (1954). "Distribution of the sickle cell trait" (PDF). Eugenics Review. 46 (2): 113. PMC 2973326Freely accessible. PMID 21260667. The Arabic Muslims do not intermarry with Akhdam Muslims in Yemen, shunning them as untouchables.
  43. Malik, Jamal (2008). Islam in South Asia: A Short History. Brill Academic. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-90-04-16859-6.
  44. Worth, Robert F. (2008-02-27). "Languishing at the Bottom of Yemen's Ladder". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
  45. Gruenbaum, Ellen (2001). The female circumcision controversy : an anthropological perspective. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8122-1746-9.
  46. Springgay, Stephanie (2012). Mothering a bodied curriculum: emplacement, desire, affect. University of Toronto Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-1-4426-1227-3.
  47. Joseph, S. E. (2007), Kissing Cousins, Current Anthropology, 48(5), pages 756–764
  48. Bittles, A. H. (2012). Consanguinity in context. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-78186-2.
  49. "Consanguineous marriages are common here". The Hindu. 31 July 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  50. Shaw, A. (2001), Kinship, cultural preference and immigration: consanguineous marriage among British Pakistanis, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 7(2): 315–334
  51. R. Hussain (1999), Community perceptions of reasons for preference for consanguineous marriages in Pakistan, Journal of Biosocial Science, 31, pages 449–461
  52. Consanguineous marriages Brecia Young (2006), University of New Mexico, Santa Fe
  53. Sophie Gilmartin (1997), The Sati, the Bride, and the Widow: Sacrificial Woman in the Nineteenth Century, Victorian Literature and Culture, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 25, No. 1, page 141, Quote: Suttee, or sati, is the obsolete Hindu practice in which a widow burns herself upon her husband's funeral pyre ...
  54. Arvind Sharma (2001), Sati: Historical and Phenomenological Essays, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0464-7, pages 19–21
  55. John Louis Esposito, Islam the Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 33–34
  56. 1 2 3 Anver M. Emon, Religious Pluralism and Islamic Law: Dhimmis and Others in the Empire of Law, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-966163-3, pp. 99–109
  57. Majid Khadduri (2010), War and Peace in the Law of Islam, Johns Hopkins University Press; pp. 162–224; ISBN 978-1-58477-695-6
  58. Lewis, Bernard (2002). What went wrong?: Western impact and Middle Eastern response. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 82–83. ISBN 0-19-514420-1.
  59. Brunschvig, 'Abd, in Encyclopedia of Islam, Brill, 2nd Edition, Vol 1, pp. 13–40; Quran 23:6, Quran 70:30
  60. Ali, Kecia (2010). Marriage and slavery in early Islam. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. pp. 161–171. ISBN 978-0-674-05059-4.
  61. Haeri, Shahla (1989). Law of desire : temporary marriage in Shi'i Iran. Syracuse, N.Y: Syracuse University Press. pp. 24–32. ISBN 978-0-8156-2483-7. Sexual intercourse with one's own slave girl continued to be legitimate until recently in most Islamic societies. Slave ownership should not be confused with slave marriage. Slave marriage involves marriage of a slave with another person, with the permission of the slave master. Marriage is not necessary between a male slave owner and his female slaves. His ownership entitles him to a right of intercourse.
  62. Levy, Reuben (1957). The social structure of Islam. Cambridge University Press. pp. 70–79, 84–114, 244–258. ISBN 978-0-521-09182-4.
  63. Abbott, N. (1942). "Women and the state in early Islam". Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 1(3), pp. 341–368
  64. Ahmad Sikainga (1996), Slaves Into Workers: Emancipation and Labor in Colonial Sudan, University of Texas Press, ISBN 978-0-292-76395-1
  65. 1 2 Lovejoy, Paul (2000). Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa. Cambridge University Press. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-0-521-78430-6. Quote: The religious requirement that new slaves be pagans and need for continued imports to maintain slave population made Africa an important source of slaves for the Islamic world. (... ) In Islamic tradition, slavery was perceived as a means of converting non-Muslims. One task of the master was religious instruction and theoretically Muslims could not be enslaved. Conversion (of a non-Muslim to Islam) did not automatically lead to emancipation, but assimilation into Muslim society was deemed a prerequisite for emancipation.
  66. Jean Pierre Angenot; et al. (2008). Uncovering the History of Africans in Asia. Brill Academic. p. 60. ISBN 978-90-04-16291-4. Islam imposed upon the Muslim master an obligation to convert non-Muslim slaves and become members of the greater Muslim society. Indeed, the daily observation of well defined Islamic religious rituals was the outward manifestation of conversion without which emancipation was impossible.
  67. Kecia Ali; (Editor: Bernadette J. Brooten). Slavery and Sexual Ethics in Islam, in Beyond Slavery: Overcoming Its Religious and Sexual Legacies. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 107–119. ISBN 978-0-230-10016-9. The slave who bore her master's child became known in Arabic as an "umm walad"; she could not be sold, and she was automatically freed upon her master's death.
  68. Pirbhai, M (2009). Reconsidering Islam in a South Asian context. Leiden Boston: Brill. pp. 132–150. ISBN 978-90-04-17758-1.
  69. A digest of the Moohummudan law - Slavery Neil Ballie, Smith Elder, Oxford & London, pp. 363–389
  70. 1 2 J.W. McCrindle (Translator), Ancient India Trubner & Co. London
  71. 1 2 Shamasastry, Arthashastra of Chanakya, pp. 260–264
  72. A Sharma (September 2005), Journal American Acad Religion, 73(3): 843–870
  73. Kangle R.P. (1960), The Kautiliya Arthasastra - a critical edition, Part 3, University of Bombay Studies, ISBN 978-81-208-0042-7, p. 186
  74. B. Breloer (1934), Kautiliya Studien, Bd. III, Leipzig, pages 10–16, 30–71
  75. Crooke, W., Prostitution?, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. X, Eds., James Hastings and Clark Edinburg, Second Impression, 1930.
  76. Iyer, L.A.K, Devadasis in South India: Their Traditional Origin And Development, Man in India, Vol.7, No. 47, 1927.
  77. V.Jayaram. "Hinduism and prostitution". Hinduwebsite.com. Retrieved 2013-04-28.
  78. Donors, Devotees, and Daughters of God: Temple Women in Medieval Tamil Nadu Leslie C. Orre
  79. Quran 2:173
  80. Riaz, Mian (2004). Halal food production. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-58716-029-5.
  81. 1 2 Jones, Constance (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York. p. 283. ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9.
  82. Esposito, John (2011). What everyone needs to know about Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-19-979413-3.
  83. "Intolerance of food habits". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 16 September 2001.
  84. "Beef eating: strangulating history". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 14 August 2001.
  85. Rawlinson, H. G. (2001). Ancient and medieval history of India. Delhi: Bharatiya Kala Prakashan. ISBN 81-86050-79-5.
  86. India: A Laboratory of Inter-religious Experiment. Siraj Maqbool Ahmed, 2008, Religion and the Arts, Volume 12, No. 1 Pages 319–328
  87. Islam in Bangladesh, by UAB Razia Akter Banu, retrieved: 27 May, 2013
  88. Kamrunnessa Azad. 2001. Dharmiya Chetonay Nazrul. Nazrul Institute, Dhaka. 1999. pp. 173–174
  89. Kamrunnessa Azad. 2001. Dharmiya Chetonay Nazrul. Nazrul Institute, Dhaka. 1999. pp. 19–20
  90. Durant, Will. The Story of Civilization: Our Oriental Heritage. p. 459. The Mohammedan Conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. It is a discouraging tale, for its evident moral is that civilization is a precarious thing, whose delicate complex of order and liberty, culture and peace may at any time be overthrown by barbarians invading from without or multiplying within. The Hindus had allowed their strength to be wasted in internal division and war; they had adopted religions like Buddhism and Jainism, which unnerved them for the tasks of life; they had failed to organize their forces for the protection of their frontiers and their capitals, their wealth and their freedom, from the hordes of Scythians, Huns, Afghans and Turks hovering about India's boundaries and waiting for national weakness to let them in. For four hundred years (600–1000 A.D.) India invited conquest; and at last it came.
  91. 1 2 Gaborieau, Marc (June 1985). "From Al-Beruni to Jinnah: Idiom, Ritual and Ideology of the Hindu-Muslim Confrontation in South Asia". Anthropology Today. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 1 (3): 7–14. doi:10.2307/3033123. JSTOR 3033123.
  92. Hardy, Peter (1972). The Muslims of British India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-09783-3.
  93. Wilkinson 2006, p. 10.
  94. Bihar.
  95. Markovits.
  96. D'Costa 2010, p. 213.
  97. "1964: Riots in Calcutta leave more than 100 dead". BBC News. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  98. Ghosh 2004, p. 312.
  99. Hussain 2009, p. 261.
  100. Berglund 2011, p. 105.
  101. Khalidi 2009, p. 180.
  102. Smith 2005, pp. 11–12.
  103. Metcalf 2009, p. 117.
  104. Holt 1977, p. 117.
  105. Sikand 2004, p. 126.
  106. Pandey 2005, p. 188.
  107. Ghassem-Fachandi 2012, p. 2.
  108. Metcalf 2013, p. 109.
  109. Ethirajan, Anbarasan (9 March 2013). "Bangladesh minorities 'terrorised' after mob violence". BBC News.
  110. Ahmed, Anis (28 February 2013). "Bangladesh Islamist's death sentence sparks deadly riots". Reuters.
  111. "Hindus Under Attack in Bangladesh". News Bharati. March 3, 2013. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
  112. "Bagerhat Hindu Temple Set on Fire". bdnews24.com. March 2, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
  113. "Jamaat Men Attack Hindus in Noakhali". bdnews24.com. February 28, 2013.
  114. These figures were reported to the Rajya Sabha by the Union Minister of State for Home Affairs Sriprakash Jaiswal in May 2005. "Gujarat riot death toll revealed". BBC News. 11 May 2005. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. PTI (12 May 2005). "BJP cites govt statistics to defend Modi". ExpressIndia. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. PTI (11 May 2005). "254 Hindus, 790 Muslims killed in post-Godhra riots". Indiainfo.com. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009.
  115. India Godhra train blaze verdict: 31 convicted BBC News, 22 February 2011.
  116. The Godhra conspiracy as Justice Nanavati saw it The Times of India, 28 September 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2012. Archived 21 February 2012.
  117. Godhra case: 31 guilty; court confirms conspiracy rediff.com, 22 February 2011 19:26 IST. Sheela Bhatt, Ahmedabad.
  118. Dhattiwala, Raheel and Micheal Briggs. "The political Logic of Ethnic Violence: The Anti-Muslim pogrom in Gujarat, 2002." Politics and Society. 40.4. (2012): 483–516. Web. 10 December 2012.

External links

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/24/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.