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In Islamic eschatology, the Mahdi (Arabic: مهدي, ISO 233: mahdī "guided one") is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will rule for five, seven, nine, or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations) before the Day of Judgment (yawm al-qiyamah / literally, the Day of Resurrection) and will rid the world of evil.
There is no explicit reference to the Mahdi in the Qur'an, but references to him are found in hadith (the reports and traditions of Muhammad's teachings collected after his death). According to Islamic tradition, the Mahdi's tenure will coincide with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ (Isa), who is to assist the Mahdi against the Masih ad-Dajjal (literally, the "false Messiah" or Antichrist). Differences exist in the concept of the Mahdi between Shia Muslims and adherents of the Sunni tradition. For Sunnis, the Mahdi is the Muslims future leader who is yet to come. For most Shia Muslims, the Mahdi was born but disappeared and will remain hidden from humanity until he reappears to bring justice to the world, a doctrine known as the Occultation. For Twelver Shia, this "hidden Imam" is Muhammad al-Mahdi, the Twelfth Imam.
Throughout history, various individuals have claimed to be the Mahdi. These have included Muhammad Jaunpuri, founder of the Mahdavia sect; the Báb (Siyyid Ali Muhammad), founder of Bábism; Muhammad Ahmad, who established the Mahdist state in Sudan in the late 19th century; and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya sect.
The term mahdi does not occur in the Quran, but it is derived from the Arabic root h-d-y, commonly used to mean "divine guidance". The term al-Mahdi was employed from the beginning of Islam, but only as an honorific epithet and without any messianic significance. As an honorific it has been used in some instances to describe Muhammad (by Hassan ibn Thabit), as well as Abraham, al-Hussain, and various Umayyad rulers (hudāt mahdiyyūn). During the second civil war (680-692), after the death of Muʾawiya, the term acquired a new meaning of a ruler who would restore Islam to its perfect form and restore justice after oppression. In Kufa during the rebellion in 680s, Al-Mukhtar proclaimed Muhammad al-Hanafiyyah as the Mahdi in this heightened sense. Among the Umayyads, Sulayman encouraged the belief that he was the Mahdi, and other Umayyad rulers, like Umar II, have been addressed as such in the panegyrics of Jarir and al-Farazdaq.
Early discussions about the identity of al-Mahdi by religious scholars can be traced back to the time after the Second Fitna. These discussions developed in different directions and were influenced by traditions (hadiths) attributed to Muhammad. In Umayyad times, scholars and traditionists not only differed on which caliph or rebel leader should be designated as Mahdi, but also on whether Mahdi is a messianic figure and if signs and predictions of his time have been satisfied. By the time of the Abbasid Revolution in the year 750, Mahdi was already a known concept. Evidence shows that the first Abbasid caliph As-Saffah assumed the title of "the Mahdi" for himself.
In Shia Islam, it seems likely that the attribution of messianic qualities to the Mahdi originated from two of the groups supporting al-Hanafiyyah: southern Arabian settlers and local recent converts in Iraq. They became known as Kaysanites, and introduced what later became two key aspects of the Shia's concept of the Mahdi. The first was the notion of return of the dead, particularly of the Imams. The second was that after al-Hanafiyyah's death they believed he was, in fact, in hiding in the Razwa mountains near Medina. This later developed into the doctrine known as the Occultation. The Mahdi appeared in early Shi’ite narratives, spread widely among Shi’ite groups and became dissociated from its historical figure, Muhammad al-Hanafiyyah. During the 10th century, based on these earlier beliefs, the doctrine of Mahdism was extensively expanded by Al-Kulayni, Ibrahim al-Qummi and Ibn Babawayh. In particular, in the early 10th century, the doctrine of the Occultation, which declares that the Twelfth Imam did not die but was concealed by God from the eyes of men, was expounded. The Mahdi became synonymous with the "Hidden Imam" who was thought to be in occultation awaiting the time that God has ordered for his return. This return is envisaged as occurring shortly before the final Day of judgment. In fact, the concept of the "hidden Imam" was attributed to several Imams in turn.
Some historians suggest that the term itself was probably introduced into Islam by southern Arabian tribes who had settled in Syria in the mid-7th century. They believed that the Mahdi would lead them back to their homeland and reestablish the Himyarite kingdom. They also believed that he would eventually conquer Constantinople. It has also been suggested that the concept of the Mahdi may have been derived from messianic Judeo-Christian beliefs. Accordingly, traditions were introduced to support certain political interests, especially Anti-Abbassid sentiments. These traditions about the Mahdi appeared only at later times in hadith collections such as Jami' at-Tirmidhi and Sunan Abi Dawud, but are absent from the early works of Bukhari and Muslim.
The Sunnis view the Mahdi as the successor of Muhammad, but, unlike most Shia Muslims, do not believe the Mahdi has already been born. The Mahdi is expected to arrive to rule the world and to reestablish righteousness.
Sunnis in general do not consider expansive genealogies for canonical traces of the Mahdi, do not believe he has yet been born, and reject the Twelver Shi'ite principle of the Mahdi's occultation. Sunnis do, however, rely heavily on traditionally canonical collections of narrations for derivations of the Mahdi's attributes and lineage. According to Sunan Abi Dawud, one of the six canonical books of Hadith in Sunni Islam, narrated by Umm Salamah, "The Prophet said: The Mahdi will be of my family, of the descendants of Fatimah."
In heavy contrast with Shi'ite Islam, Sunnis have a much more human view of the Mahdi, who they believe will be nothing less than the most rightly guided Muslim of his time. He will be rectified in a single night (which is taken to mean that the provisions for his leadership and rule will be made in a single night). According to Sunan Ibn Majah, one of the six canonical collections of Hadith, narrated by 'Ali, "Mahdi is one of us, the people of the Household. Allah will rectify him in a single night." Whereas much of the Shi'ite belief ascribes (heretical) divine faculties—in some circles of Shi'ite Islam it is even believed that the Mahdi can mentally control the wind and vegetation by God's permission—and transcendent status to the Mahdi, Sunnis believe he will be altogether human but will have sagacity, especially as it pertains to leading other people and ruling a nation. Sunnis believe he will rise and be recognized by his continued philanthropy, charity, piety, facial features, name, and sense of justice, not through direct divine intervention. It is not unreasonable to suspect, based on these narrations, that the Mahdi may not be known to the people immediately, even after being born and living for quite some time without the title of Mahdi (hence, being rectified by God). According to Sunan Abi Dawud, "The Prophet said: The Mahdi will be of my stock, and will have a broad forehead [and] a prominent nose. He will fill the earth with equity and justice as it was filled with oppression and tyranny, and he will rule for seven years."
Other canonical narrations describe the state of the Muslims during the Mahdi's reign, and a few of his other characteristics, including a hint of his name, which is presumed to be Muhammad. According to Jami al-Tirmidhi, one of the six canonical collections of Hadith, the Prophet is reported to have said, "The world shall not pass away until a man from the people of my family rules the Arabs whose name agrees with my name." According to Sunan Ibn Majah, the Prophet is reported to have said, "Even if there was only one day left of this world, Allah would make it last until a man from my household took possession of (the mountain of) Dailam and Constantinople." According to Sunan Ibn Majah, the Prophet is reported to have said, "We, the sons of 'Abdul-Muttalib, will be leaders of the people of Paradise: Myself, Hamzah. 'Ali, Ja'far, Hasan, Husain and Mahdi." According to Sunan Ibn Majah, the Prophet is reported to have said, "The Mahdi will be among my nation. If he lives for a short period, it will be seven, and if he lives for a long period, it will be nine, during which my nation will enjoy a time of ease such as it has never enjoyed. The land will bring forth its yield and will not hold back anything, and wealth at that time will be piled up. A man will stand up and say: 'O Mahdi, give me!' He will say: 'Take.'" According to Sunan Ibn Majah, the Prophet is reported to have said, "Three will fight one another for your treasure, each one of them the son of a caliph, but none of them will gain it. Then the black banners will come from the east, and they will kill you in an unprecedented manner." Then he mentioned something that I do not remember, then he said: "When you see them, then pledge your allegiance to them even if you have to crawl over the snow, for that is the caliph of Allah, Mahdi."
Both Shi'ite and Sunni schools of thought concur that there is to be a Mahdi in Islamic eschatology, and that he will rule over the Muslims and establish justice; however, they differ extensively on his attributes and status.
References interpreted in hadith
The Mahdi is frequently mentioned in Sunni hadith as establishing the caliphate. Among Sunnis, some believe the Mahdi will be an ordinary man. The following Sunni hadith make references to the Mahdi:
- Muhammad is quoted as saying about the Mahdi:
Even if the entire duration of the world's existence has already been exhausted and only one day is left before Doomsday, Allah will expand that day to such length of time as to accommodate the kingdom of a person from my Ahlul-Bayt who will be called by my name. He will fill out the earth with peace and justice as it will have been full of injustice and tyranny (by then).
- Umm Salama, a wife of Muhammad, is quoted as saying that;
His [the Mahdi's] aim is to establish a moral system from which all superstitious faiths have been eliminated. In the same way that students enter Islam, so unbelievers will come to believe.
When the Mahdi appears, Allah will cause such power of vision and hearing to be manifested in believers that the Mahdi will call to the whole world from where he is, with no postman involved, and they will hear and even see him.
- Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri is quoted as saying:
The Messenger of Allah said: "The Mahdi is of my lineage, with a high forehead and a long, thin, curved nose. He will fill the earth with fairness and justice as it was filled with oppression and injustice, and he will rule for seven years.
The Messenger of Allah said: "At the end of the time of my ummah, the Mahdi will appear. Allah will grant him rain, the earth will bring forth its fruits, he will give a lot of money, cattle will increase and the ummah will become great. He will rule for seven or eight years.
- At-Tirmidhi reported that Muhammad said:
The Mahdi is from my Ummah; he will be born and live to rule five or seven or nine years. (If) one goes to him and says, "Give me (a charity)", he will fill one's garment with what one needs.
- At-Tirmidhi reported that Muhammad said:
The face of the Mahdi shall shine upon the surface of the Moon.
- At-Tarabani reported that:
- Amr bin Shuaib reported from his grandfather that the Messenger of Allah said:
In Dhu al-Qi'dah (Islamic month), there will be fight among the tribes, Muslim pilgrims will be looted and there will be a battle in Mina in which many people will be slain and blood will flow until it runs over the Jamaratul Aqba (one of the three stone pillars at Mina). The man they seek will flee and will be found between the Rukn (a corner of the Kaaba containing the Black Stone) and the Maqam of Prophet Abraham (near Ka'ba). He will be forced to accept people's Bay'ah (being chosen as a Leader/Caliph). The number of those offering Bay'ah will be the same as the number of the people of Badr (Muslim fighters who participated in the Battle of Badr at time of Prophet Mohammad). Then, the dweller of Heaven and the dweller of the Earth will be pleased with him.
A typical modernist in his views on the Mahdi, Abul Ala Maududi (1903–1979), the Pakistani Islamic revivalist, stated that the Mahdi will be a modern Islamic reformer/statesman, who will unite the Ummah and revolutionise the world according to the ideology of Islam, but will never claim to be the Mahdi, instead receiving posthumous recognition as such.
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi writes in his Mizan:
Besides these, the coming of the Mahdi and that of Jesus from the heavens are also regarded as signs of the Day of Judgment. I have not mentioned them. The reason is that the narratives of the coming of the Mahdi do not conform to the standards of hadith criticism set forth by the muhaddithun. Some of them are weak and some fabricated; no doubt, some narratives, which are acceptable with regard to their chain of narration, inform us of the coming of a generous caliph; (Muslim, No: 7318) however, if they are deeply deliberated upon, it becomes evident that the caliph they refer to is Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz who was the last caliph from a Sunni standpoint. This prediction of the Prophet has thus materialized in his personality, word for word. One need not wait for any other Mahdi now.
Shia claim that their twelfth Imam, Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Askari, who went into occultation around 256/873-874, is the promised Mahdi, who will appear before the day of Judgement, to restore justice and equity on earth. In Shia Islam, the Mahdi is associated with the belief in the Occultation, that the Mahdi is a "hidden Imam" who has already been born and who will one day return alongside Jesus to fill the world with justice. The promised Mahdi, who is usually mentioned in Shia Islam by his title of Imam-i ’Asr (the Imam of the "Period") and Sahib al-Zaman (the Lord of the Age), is the son of the eleventh Imam. His name is the same as that of the Prophet of Islam. According to Shia Islam, Mahdi was born in Samarra in 868 and until 872 when his father was martyred, lived under his father's care and tutelage. He was hidden from public view and only a few of the elite among the Shi’ah were able to meet him.
By Shi'ism, belief in the messianic Imam is not a part of their creed but it is the foundation of their creed. Shias believe that after the martyrdom of his father he became Imam and by Divine Command went into occultation (ghaybat). Thereafter he appeared only to his deputies (na’ib) and even then only in exceptional circumstances.
In Shias' perspective, Mahdi chose as a special deputy for a time Uthman ibn Sa’id ’Umari,one of the companions of his father and grandfather who was his conﬁdant and trusted friend. Through his deputy Mahdi would answer the demands and questions of the Shias. After Uthman ibn Sa’id, his son Muhammad ibn Uthman Umari was appointed the deputy of him. After the death of Muhammad ibn Uthman, Abu’l Qasim Husayn ibn Ruh Nawbakhti was the special deputy, and after his death Ali ibn Muhammad Simmari was chosen for this task.
A few days before the death of Ali ibn Muhammad Simmari in 939 an order was issued by Mahdi stating that in six days Ali ibn Muhammad Simmari would die. Henceforth the special deputation of the Imam would come to an end and the major occultation (ghaybat-i kubra) would begin and would continue until the day God grants permission to the Imam to manifest himself.
In Shia view, the occultation of Mahdi is, therefore, divided into two parts: the ﬁrst, the minor occultation (ghaybat-i sughra) which began in 872 and ended in 939, lasting about seventy years; the second, the major occultation which commenced in 939 and will continue as long as God wills it. In a hadith upon whose authenticity Shia and Sunni agree, Muhammad has said, "If there were to remain in the life of the world but one day, God would prolong that day until He sends in it a man from my community and my household. His name will be the same as my name. He will ﬁll the earth with equity and justice as it was ﬁlled with oppression and tyranny."
- The vast majority of people who profess to be Muslim will be so only in name despite their practice of Islamic rites, and it will be they who make war with the Mahdi.
- Before his coming will come the red death and the white death, killing two thirds of the world's population. The red death signifies violence and the white death is plague. One third of the world's population will die from the red death and the other third from the white death.
- Several figures will appear: the Al-Harth, Al-Mansur, Shuaib bin Saleh and the Sufyani.
- There will be a great conflict in the land of Syria, until it is destroyed.
- Death and fear will afflict the people of Baghdad and Iraq. A fire will appear in the sky and a redness will cover them.
Shia traditions also state that the Mahdi be "a young man of medium stature with a handsome face" and black hair and beard. "He will not come in an odd year [...] will appear in Mecca between the corner of the Kaaba and the station of Abraham and people will witness him there.
References interpreted in hadith
- Muhammad is reported in hadith to have said:
The Mahdi is the protector of the knowledge, the heir to the knowledge of all the prophets, and is aware of all things.
The dominion (authority) of the Mahdi is one of the proofs that God has created all things; these are so numerous that his [the Mahdi's] proofs will overcome (will be influential, will be dominant) everyone and nobody will have any counter-proposition against him.
People will flee from him [the Mahdi] as sheep flee from the shepherd. Later, people will begin to look for a purifier. But since they can find none to help them but him, they will begin to run to him.
When matters are entrusted to competent [the Mahdi], Almighty God will raise the lowest part of the world for him, and lower the highest places. So much that he will see the whole world as if in the palm of his hand. Which of you cannot see even a single hair in the palm of his hand?
In the time of the Mahdi, a Muslim in the East will be able to see his Muslim brother in the West, and he in the West will see him in the East.
The Master of the Command was named as the Mahdi because he will dig out the Torah and other heavenly books from the cave in Antioch. He will judge among the people of the Torah according to the Torah; among the people of the Gospel according to the Gospel; among the people of the Psalms in accordance with the Psalms; among the people of the Qur'an in accordance with the Qur'an.
- Ja'far al-Sadiq, the Sixth Imam, made the following prophecies:
Abu Bashir says: When I asked Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, "O son of the Messenger of God! Who is the Mahdi (qa'im) of your clan (ahl al-bayt)?", he replied: "The Mahdi will conquer the world; at that time the world will be illuminated by the light of God, and everywhere in which those other than God are worshipped will become places where God is worshiped; and even if the polytheists do not wish it, the only faith on that day will be the religion of God.
Sadir al-Sayrafi says: I heard from Imam Abu Abdullah Ja'far al-Sadiq that: Our modest Imam, to whom this occultation belongs [the Mahdi], who is deprived of and denied his rights, will move among them and wander through their markets and walk where they walk, but they will not recognize him ().
Abu Bashir says: I heard Imam Muhammad al-Baqr say: "He said: When the Mahdi appears he will follow in the path of the Messenger of God. Only he [the Mahdi] can explain the works of the Messenger of God.
According to the Twelver Shia, the main goal of the Mahdi will be to establish an Islamic state and to apply Islamic laws that were revealed to Muhammad. The Mahdi is believed to be the Twelfth Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi. they believe that the Twelfth Imam will return from the Occultation as the Mahdi with "a company of his chosen ones," and his enemies will be led by Antichrist and the Sufyani. The two armies will fight "one final apocalyptic battle" where the Mahdi and his forces will prevail over evil. After the Mahdi has ruled Earth for a number of years, Isa will return.
Sunni and Sufi authors sharing Twelvers' view on Mahdi
In 648/1250-1 the Syrian Shafi'i author Muḥammad b. Yusuf al-Gandji al-Kurashi wrote K. al-Bayan fi akhbar sahib al-zaman in proving the Mahdiship of the Twelfth Imam using Sunni traditions. In 650/1252 Kamalal-Din Muḥammad b. Talha al-ʿAdawi al-Nisibini, a Shafi'i scholar composed his Maṭalib al-suʾul fi manaḳib al al-rasul answering Sunni objections to the belief that the Twelfth Imām was the Mahdi. The Sibt ibn al-Jawzi wrote Tadhkirat khawass al-umma bi-dhikr khasaʾis al-aʾimma collecting hadiths from Sunni sources about the virtues of ʿAli and his descendants, and at the end affirmed that the Twelfth Imam was the Expected Qaʾim and Mahdi. Among Sufi circles Abu Bakr al-Bayhaḳī (d. 458/1066) had noted that some Sufi gnostics (djamaʿa min ahl al-kashf) agreed with the Imami doctrine about the identity of the Mahdi and his ghayba (occultation). The Persian Sufi Sadr al-Din Ibrahim al-Hammuyi (late 7th/13th century) supported Imami doctrine on the Mahdi in his Faraʾid al-simtayn. The Egyptian Sufi al-Shaʿrani, while generally showing no sympathy for Shiʿism affirmed in his al-Yawaḳit wa ’l-dj̲awahir (written in 958/1551) that the Mahdi was a son of Imam al-Hasan al-ʿAskari born in the year 255/869 and would remain alive until his meeting with Jesus.
For the Sevener Ismāʿīlī, the Imāmate ended with Isma'il ibn Ja'far, whose son Muhammad ibn Ismail was the expected Mahdi that Ja'far al-Sadiq had preached about. However, at this point the Ismāʿīlī Imāms according to the Nizari and Mustaali found areas where they would be able to be safe from the recently founded Abbasid Caliphate, which had defeated and seized control from the Umayyads in 750 AD.
In Ahmadiyya belief the terms "Messiah" and "Mahdi" are synonymous terms for one and the same person. Like the term Messiah which, among other meanings, in essence means being anointed by God or appointed by God the term "Mahdi" means guided by God, thus both imply a direct ordination or commissioning and a spiritual nurturing by God of a divinely chosen individual. According to Ahmadiyya thought the prophesied eschatological figures of Christianity and Islam, the Messiah and Mahdi, were in fact to be fulfilled in one person who was to represent all previous prophets. The prophecies concerning the Mahdi or the Second Coming of Jesus are seen by Ahmadis as metaphorical and subject to interpretation. It is argued that one was to be born and rise within the dispensation of Muhammad, who by virtue of his similarity and affinity with Jesus, and the similarity in nature, temperament and disposition of the people of Jesus' time and the people of the time of the promised one (the Mahdi) is called by the same name.
These prophecies according to Ahmadi Muslims have been fulfilled in the person of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908), the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement, who claimed to be divinely apponited as the second coming of Jesus and the Mahdi in 1891 around the same point in time after Muhammad as Jesus had appeared after Moses (thirteen centuries). Contrary to mainstream Islam, the Ahmadis do not believe that Jesus is alive in heaven, but claim that he survived the crucifixion and migrated towards the east where he died a natural death and that Ghulam Ahmad was only the promised spiritual second coming and likeness of Jesus, the promised Messiah and Mahdi.
The Mahdavia sect, founded by Muhammad Jaunpuri commonly known as Nur Pak claimed to be the Mahdi in Mecca, in front of Kaaba (between rukn and maqam) in the Hijri year 901(10th Hijri), and is revered as such by Mahdavia. He was born in Jaunpur, traveled throughout India, Arabia and Khorasan, where he died at the town of Farah, Afghanistan at the age of 63. The Mahdavi regard Jaunpuri as the Imam Mahdi, the Caliph of Allah and the second most important figure after the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths
Alí Muḥammad Shírází (20 October 1819 – 9 July 1850), claimed to be the Mahdi on 24 May 1844, taking the name Báb (Arabic: باب / English: Gate) and thereby founding the religion of Bábism. He was later executed by firing squad in the town of Tabriz. His remains are buried in a tomb at the Bahá'í World Centre in Haifa, Israel.
The Báb is considered the forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh (Arabic: بهاء الله / English: Glory of God), and both are considered prophets of the Bahá'í Faith. The declaration by the Báb to be the Mahdi is considered by Baha'is to be the beginning of the Bahá'í calendar.
In Dasam Granth, the Sikh scripture attributed to the tenth Sikh guru Guru Gobind Singh prophesizes the Mahdi (referred to as "Mahdi Meer") to be born for a purpose of defeating Kalki. As Kalki becomes egoistic and begins referring to himself as the Almighty, the powerful Mahdi will slay him and rule the world and when Mahdi Meer walks the same line as the Kalki Avtaar, i.e., equating himself with God, then he also will die from an insect created by God, which will enter into his body and will disease him.
Persons claiming to be the Mahdi
The following individuals (or their adherents on their behalf) have claimed to be the Mahdi:
- The first historical reference to a movement using the name of Mahdi is al-Mukhtar's rebellion against the Umayyad caliphate in 686 CE, almost 50 years after Muhammad's death. Al-Mukhtar claimed that Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, a son of the fourth caliph, Ali, was the Mahdi and would save the Muslim people from the rule of the Umayyads. Ibn al-Hanifiyyah himself was not actively involved in the rebellion, and when the Umayyads successfully quashed it, they left him undisturbed.
- Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (985 – 13 February 1021), founder of the Druze sect.
- Ibn Tumart (1080-1130) founder and religious leader of the Almohad Caliphate in Morocco and Al-andalus
- Muhammad Jaunpuri (1443–1505), founder of the Mahdavi sect. (See above.)
- Ahmed ibn Abi Mahalli (1559–1613), from the south of Morocco, was a Qādī and religious scholar who proclaimed himself mahdi and led a revolution (1610–13) against the reigning Saadi dynasty.
- The Báb, (Siyyid `Alí Muḥammad Shírází) claimed to be the Mahdi in 1844 A.D (in the year 1260 A.H), thereby founding the religion of Bábism. He was later executed by firing squad in the town of Tabriz. His remains are currently kept in a tomb at the Bahá'í World Centre in Haifa, Israel. The Báb is considered the forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh, and both are considered prophets of the Bahá'í Faith. The declaration by the Báb to be the Mahdi is considered by Baha'is to be the beginning of the Bahá'í calendar.
- Muhammad Ahmad (1845–1885), a Sudanese Sufi sheikh of the Samaniyya order, declared himself Mahdi in June 1881 and went on to lead a successful military campaign against the Turko-Egyptian government of Sudan. Although he died shortly after capturing the Sudanese capital, Khartoum, in 1885, the Mahdist state continued under his successor, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, until 1898, when it fell to the British army following the Battle of Omdurman.
- Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908) claimed to be both the Mahdi and the second coming of Jesus in the late nineteenth century in British India and founded the Ahmadiyya religious movement in 1889. (See above.)
- Muhammad bin abd Allah al-Qahtani was proclaimed the Mahdi by his brother-in-law, Juhayman al-Otaibi, who led over 200 militants to seize the Grand Mosque in Mecca in November 1979. The uprising was defeated after a two-week siege in which at least 300 people were killed.
- Muhammad ibn Abdallah An-Nafs Az-Zakiyya
- Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq
- Musa al-Kadhim (according to the Waqifite Shia)
- Muhammad ibn Qasim (al-Alawi)
- Yahya ibn Umar
- Muhammad ibn Ali al-Hadi
- Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi (according to Messiah Foundation International)
- Diponegoro, Javanese prince during the Java War
- Wallace Fard Muhammad, founder of the Nation of Islam
- Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2232, In-book reference: Book 33, Hadith 75, English translation: Vol. 4, Book 7, Hadith 2232
- Martin 2004: 421
- Glassé, Cyril, ed. (2001). "Mahdi". The new encyclopedia of Islam. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira (Rowman & Littlefield). p. 280. ISBN 0-7591-0190-6.
- Momen, Moojan (1985). An introduction to Shiʻi Islam : the history and doctrines of Twelver Shiʻism. G. Ronald. pp. 75,166–168. ISBN 9780853982005.
- Sonn (2004) p. 209
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- "Comparison of Shias and Sunnis". Religionfacts.com. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v2, p86, v9, pp 74-75
- Sunan Abu Dawood, v2, p7
- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal v1, pp 84,376; V3, p63
- Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihainby al-Hakim, v4, p557
- Al-Jaami' al-Saghîr, by Al-Suyuti, pp 2,160
- al-Urful Wardi, by Al-Suyuti, p2
- Kanz al-Ummal, v7 P186
- Sharh al-Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah, by al-Zurqani, v5, p348
- Fat’h al-Mugheeth, by Al-Sakhawi, v3, p41
- (Vizier Mustafa, Emergence of Islam, p. 171
- Muntakab al Adhhar, p. 483
- Reported by bi Na’eem in Akhbaar al-Mahdi, see al-Jaami’ al-Sagheer, 5: 219, hadith 5796.
- Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitaab al-Mahdi, 11: 375, hadith 4265; Mustadrak al-Haakim, 4: 557; "he said: this is a saheeh hadeeth according to the conditions of Muslim, although it was not reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim". See also Sahih al-Jaami, 6736.
- Mustadrak al-Hakim, 4: 557-558; "he said: this is a hadith whose isnaad is sahih, although it was not reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim. Al-Dhahabi agreed with him, and al-Albaani said: this is a saheeh sanad, and its men are thiqaat (trustworthy), Silsilat al-ahaadeeth al-saheehah," 2: 336, hadeeth 771.
- Naeem Bin Hammad's book Kitab Al-Fitan (8584\503\4) أخرج ( ك ) نعيم بن حماد (986), والحاكم
- Syed Maududi, ‘’Tajdeed-o-Ahyaa-e-Deen’’, Islamic Publications Limited, Lahore, Pakistan, Chapeter: Imam Mehdi
- Allama Tamanna Imadi, ‘’Intizar-e-Mehdi-o-Maseeh’’, Al-Rahman Publishing Trust, Karachi, Pakistan
- Allama Habib-ur-Rahman Kandhlwi, Mehdaviyyat nay Islam ko Kiya Diya’’, Anjuman Uswa-e-Hasna, Karachi, Pakistan
- "Al-Mawrid". Al-Mawrid. 2009-09-25. Retrieved 2012-04-29.
- Allama Iqbal, ‘’Iqbal Nama, Volume 2’’, Bazm-e-Iqbal, Lahore, Pakistan, Letter No. 87
- Sachedina, Abdulaziz (1978). "A Treatise on the Occultation of the Twelfth Imāmite Imam". Studia Islamica (48): 109–124. JSTOR 4099480. – via JSTOR (subscription required)
- Tabatabai, Sayyid Muhammad Hossein (1975). Shi'ite Islam (PDF) (First ed.). State University of New York Press. pp. 210–211 (185–186 in the ebook). ISBN 0-87395-272-3.
- Ibn Masud, Abdallah. al Fusul al Muhimmah. p. 271.
- Bihar al-Anwar: 95: 378; 102: 67, 117
- Mikyaal al-Makaarem: 1: 49
- Baqr al-Majlisi 2003: 70
- Bihar al-Anwar: 52: 326
- Bihar al-Anwar: 5: 328
- Bihar al-Anwar: 52: 391
- Bihar al-Anwar: 51: 146
- Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Nomani: 189 (Sheikh Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Nomani, al-Ghaybah al-Nomani,p. 189
- Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Nomani: 191
- Ja'far al-Sadiq
- Nasr, Sayyed Hossein. "Expectation of the Millennium : Shiìsm in History,", State University of New York Press, 1989, p. 19, ISBN 978-0-88706-843-0
- "mahdī." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008.
- Madelung, Wilferd. "al-Mahdī". In Encyclopaedia of Islam. vol. 5, Khe-Mahi. 2nd ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1986. 1231–8. ISBN 90-04-07819-3.
- Daftary, Farhad (1990). The Ismāʿīlīs: Their history and doctrines. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 104. ISBN 0-521-42974-9.
- "The Holy Quran". Alislam.org. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- Yohanan Friedmann. "Prophecy Continuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and its Medieval Background" Oxford University Press, 2003 p 121 "The affinity between the two can also be shown in the framework of Ghulām Aḥmad's prophetology. Muḥammad and Moses were similar to each other because they initiated the two prophetic chains; Jesus and Ghulām Aḥmad complete the divine scheme of things by terminating them. They must therefore also be similar. They resemble each other both in the circumstances of their appearance and in the nature of their prophetic mission. Both appeared when their respective communities were subject to foreign rule: the Jews under the Romans, and the Indian Muslims under the British. The religious conditions prevailing in their communities were also similar. The Jews were described in the Qur'ān (1:7) as "those who earned [divine] wrath" (al-maghḍūb 'alayhim) by their lack of religiosity and by rejecting the message of Jesus. Most Muslims of Ghulām Aḥmad's time can be described in similar terms: their spirituality is lost, and only rituals remain of their religion. Furthermore, they rejected Ghulām Aḥmad in the same way that the Jews had rejected Jesus. In addition to these similar circumstances, Ghulām Aḥmad's message resembles that of Jesus in two important characteristics: he does not advocate jihād, and does not bring a new law, but strives rather to implement the sharī'a promulgated by his predecessor in the prophetic office. And to make the affinity between the two chains total, Ghulām Aḥmad is spiritually greater than Jesus in the same way that Muḥammad was greater than Moses"
- "Jesus: A humble prophet of God". Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- Robinson, Francis. "Prophets without honour? Ahmad and the Ahmadiyya". History Today 40 (June): 46.
- Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. pp. 55–59 & 229–230. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- Clinton Bennett (10 June 2008). Understanding Christian-Muslim Relations: Past and Present. A&C Black. pp. 104–. ISBN 978-0-8264-8782-7.
- Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. pp. 55–59 & 229–230. ISBN 1851681841.
- Warburg, Gabriel. Islam, Sectarianism and Politics in Sudan since the Mahdiyya. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2003. pp. 30-42.
- Holt, P.M. The Mahdist State in Sudan, 1881-1898. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970. pp 53 cf.
- "Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah", Sahih al-Bukhari, Dar al-Ma’aarif, pp. 160–169
- Ja'far al-Sadiq, Al-Ghaybah (The occultation): narrations from the prophecies of al-Mahdi by Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, Mihrab Publishers
- Bihar al-Anwar
- Baqr al-Majlisi, Muhammad, ed. (2003), Kitab al-Ghaybat, Qom: Ansariyan Publications
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- Martin, Richard C., ed. (2004), "Mahdi", Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world, Thompson Gale
- Momen, Moojan (1985), An introduction to Shi'i Islam, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-03531-4
- Shauhat Ali, Millenarian and Messianic Tendencies in Islamic Thought (Lahore: Publishers United, 1993)
- Timothy Furnish, Holiest Wars: Islamic Mahdis, Jihad and Osama Bin Laden (Westport: Praeger, 2005) ISBN 0-275-98383-8
- Abdulaziz Abdulhussein Sachedina, Islamic Messianism: The Idea of the Mahdi in Twelver Shi'ism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1981) ISBN 0-87395-458-0
- Syaikh Hisyam Kabbani, The Approach of Armageddon (Islamic Supreme Council of America, 2002) ISBN 1-930409-20-6
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- The Golden Era of Reappearance, Association of Imam Mahdi
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- Al-Muntazar.com Biography of Imam Mehdi (atfs)