Citrus subg. Papeda

Ichang papeda
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Subgenus: Papeda

15, see text.

Papeda is a subgenus of the genus Citrus native to tropical Asia. It includes the Ichang Lemon, yuzu, kaffir lime, kabosu, and sudachi, and a number of wild and uncultivated species and hybrids.

Papeda is the most primitive group of citruses. Because of generally slow growth and bitter, less palatable fruits than in other citruses, its species had only limited commercial cultivation. Some species, like Ichang papeda, are used in landscaping, while others are important for rootstocking and as genome source for breeding disease-resistant and frost-hardy citrus hybrids.[1]

It is believed, based on molecular studies, that the citron, pomelo, mandarin and papeda were the ancestors of all other citrus species and their varieties, which resulted from breeding or natural hybridization among the parental species.[2]



Citrus fruits clustered by genetic similarity (PCA of SNP diversity). Citrus micrantha (top right) is a papeda.
Hybrids are expected to plot between their parents. ML: ‘Mexican’ lime; A: ‘Alemow’; V: ‘Volkamer’ lemon; M: ‘Meyer’ lemon; L: Regular and ‘Sweet’ lemons; B: Bergamot orange; H: Haploid clementine; C: Clementines; S: Sour oranges; O: Sweet oranges; G: Grapefruits.

The subgenus includes cultivated plants such as (believed hybrid parentage in parentheses):

and a number of wild and uncultivated species and hybrids, including:


  1. Dr. Daniel Jacob (30 June 2014). Citrus Fruits. Oxford Book Company. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-93-5030-190-6.
  2. "International Citrus Genomics Consortium". University of California.
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