|Coordinates: 41°27′23″N 31°47′55″E / 41.45639°N 31.79861°ECoordinates: 41°27′23″N 31°47′55″E / 41.45639°N 31.79861°E|
|• Mayor||Muharrem Akdemir (CHP)|
|• District||632.98 km2 (244.39 sq mi)|
|Elevation||60 m (200 ft)|
|• District density||340/km2 (870/sq mi)|
|Postal code||67 000|
|Area code(s)||(+90) 372|
Zonguldak is a city and the capital of Zonguldak Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It was established in 1849 as a port town for the nearby coal mines in Ereğli and the coal trade remains its main economic activity. According to the 2009 census, Zonguldak has a population of 108,792. The current mayor is Muharrem Akdemir, representing the CHP. Zonguldak is one of the highest income economies among Turkish cities.
There are several different theories concerning the origin of the city's name.
One is that it comes from Zone Geul-Dagh, the name given to the area by French and Belgian mining companies to refer to the zone near "Geul-Dagh" or Göldağı ('Lake Mountain'), the highest mountain in the vicinity of the Devrek district.
Another theory is that the name originates from the Turkish zongalık which means swamp, or zongura.
Another is that the name may derive from the name of the nearby ancient settlement of Sandraka or Sandràke (in Ancient greek Σανδράκη).
According to another theory the name may have come from the compound word Jungle-Dagh, composed of jungle, which the French entrepreneurs called the area due to its uneven and wooded geography, plus Turkish dağ 'mountain'.
The port city of Zonguldak suffered a heavy bombardment by the Russians during World War I, according to the caption of a Lubok popular print.
As of 1920, the port was under the control of the Heraclea Coal Company. The northern part of the bay featured a man made harbor, for steamship use. At that time, they had two cranes which distributed coal to exporting vessels.
Zonguldak has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb); with high and evenly distributed rainfall the year round. Summers are warm and humid, and the average temperature is around 21 °C in July and August. Winters are cool and damp, and the average temperature is around 6 °C in January and February.
Precipitation is heaviest in autumn and early winter and lightest in spring. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two, and it can be heavy once it snows.
The water temperature like in the whole Turkish Black Sea coast is always cool and fluctuates between 8° and 20 °C throughout the year.
|Climate data for Zonguldak|
|Average high °C (°F)|| 9.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)|| 6.2
|Average low °C (°F)|| 3.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)|| 136.9
|Average rainy days||17.9||15.7||14.9||12.5||10.7||8.7||6.8||7.0||8.5||12.2||13.7||17.2||145.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||65.1||78.4||127.1||162||232.5||288||316.2||291.4||225||155||99||68.2||2,107.9|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||2.1||2.4||3.5||5.2||7.6||9.2||10.1||9.2||7.3||5.6||3.3||2.2||5.64|
|Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service|
Twin towns — Sister cities
Zonguldak is twinned with:
- Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
- Maribor, Slovenia
- Celje, Slovenia
- Žilina, Slovakia
- Karachi, Pakistan
- New Orleans, LA, United States
- Asau, Tuvalu
- Lamu, Kenya
- Maracaibo, Venezuela
- "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
- "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- Governorship of Zonguldak - A Brief History Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. (Turkish)
- Financial Manager's Office of Zonguldak - A General Description Archived October 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. (Turkish)
- Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
- “The Russian-Turkish War. Sinking Four Turkish Cargo Ships.” World Digital Library. Accessed May 11, 2015.
- "Zonguldak". Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zonguldak.|
- Zonguldak Municipality official website (Turkish) (English)
- Provincial governor's official website (Turkish)
- History of Zonguldak
- History of Mind
- Zonguldak Documentary