|Chancellor of Germany|
Assumed office |
22 November 2005
|Preceded by||Gerhard Schröder|
|Leader of the Christian Democratic Union|
Assumed office |
10 April 2000
|Preceded by||Wolfgang Schäuble|
|General Secretary of the Christian Democratic Union|
7 November 1998 – 10 April 2000
|Preceded by||Peter Hintze|
|Succeeded by||Ruprecht Polenz|
|Minister for the Environment|
17 November 1994 – 26 October 1998
|Preceded by||Klaus Töpfer|
|Succeeded by||Jürgen Trittin|
|Minister for Women and Youth|
18 January 1991 – 17 November 1994
|Preceded by||Ursula Lehr|
|Succeeded by||Claudia Nolte|
|Member of the Bundestag|
Assumed office |
18 January 1991
|Preceded by||Constiuency established|
Angela Dorothea Kasner|
17 July 1954
Christian Democratic Union
Ulrich Merkel (1977–1982)|
Joachim Sauer (1998–present)
|Alma mater||Leipzig University|
Revolution of 1989
Leader of the Christian Democratic Union
Chancellor of Germany
A former research scientist with a doctorate in physical chemistry, Merkel entered politics in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989, and briefly served as a deputy spokesperson for the first democratically-elected East German Government headed by Lothar de Maizière in 1990. Following German reunification in 1990, Merkel was elected to the Bundestag for the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and has been reelected ever since. Merkel was appointed as the Minister for Women and Youth in the federal government under Chancellor Helmut Kohl in 1991, and became the Minister for the Environment in 1994. After her party lost the federal election in 1998, Merkel was elected Secretary-General of the CDU before becoming the party's first woman leader two years later in the aftermath of a donations scandal that toppled Wolfgang Schäuble.
Following the 2005 federal election, Merkel was appointed Germany's first woman Chancellor at the head of a grand coalition consisting of the CDU, its Bavarian sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU), and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). In the 2009 federal election, the CDU obtained the largest share of the vote and Merkel was able to form a coalition government with the support of the Free Democratic Party (FDP). At the 2013 federal election, Merkel won a landslide victory with 41.5% of the vote, falling just short of an overall majority, and formed a second grand coalition with the SPD, after the FDP lost all of its representation in the Bundestag.
In 2007, Merkel was President of the European Council and chaired the G8, the second woman to do so. Merkel played a central role in the negotiation of the Treaty of Lisbon and the Berlin Declaration. One of Merkel's consistent priorities has been to strengthen transatlantic economic relations. Merkel played a crucial role in managing the financial crisis at the European and international level, and she has been referred to as "the decider." In domestic policy, health care reform, problems concerning future energy development and more recently her government's approach to the ongoing migrant crisis have been major issues during her Chancellorship.
Merkel has been widely described as the de facto leader of the European Union throughout her tenure as Chancellor. Merkel has twice been named the world's second most powerful person by Forbes magazine, the highest ranking ever achieved by a woman. In December 2015, Merkel was named as Time magazine's Person of the Year, with the magazine's cover declaring her to be the "Chancellor of the Free World." On 26 March 2014, Merkel became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union and she is currently the senior G7 leader. In May 2016, Merkel was named the most powerful woman in the world for a record tenth time by Forbes. On 20 November 2016, Merkel announced she would seek re-election to a fourth term.
Early life and education
Merkel was born Angela Dorothea Kasner in 1954, in Hamburg, Germany, the daughter of Horst Kasner (1926–2011; né Kaźmierczak), a Lutheran pastor and a native of Berlin, and his wife Herlind (née Jentzsch), born in 1928 in Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland), a teacher of English and Latin. She has two younger siblings, her brother Marcus Kasner, a physicist, and her sister Irene Kasner, an occupational therapist. In her childhood and youth, Merkel was known among her peers by the nickname "Kasi," derived from her last name Kasner.
Angela Merkel is of Polish and German descent. Her paternal grandfather Ludwik Marian Kaźmierczak was a German policeman of Polish ethnicity, who had taken part in Poland's struggle for independence. He married Merkel's grandmother Margarethe, a German girl from Berlin, and relocated to her hometown where he worked in the police. In 1930 they germanized the Polish name Kaźmierczak to Kasner. Merkel's maternal grandparents were the Danzig politician Willi Jentzsch and Gertrud Alma née Drange, a daughter of the city clerk of Elbing (now Elbląg, Poland) Emil Drange. Merkel has mentioned her Polish heritage on several occasions, but her Polish roots became better known as a result of a 2013 biography.
Religion played a key role in the Kasner family's migration to East Germany. Her father was born a Catholic, but the Kasner family eventually converted to Lutheranism, and he studied Lutheran theology in Heidelberg and afterwards in Hamburg. In 1954, Angela's father received a pastorate at the church in Quitzow (a quarter of Perleberg in Brandenburg), which was then in East Germany, and so the family moved to Templin. Merkel thus grew up in the countryside 80 km (50 mi) north of East Berlin.
Like most young people in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), Merkel was a member of the Free German Youth (FDJ), the official youth movement sponsored by the ruling Socialist Unity Party. Membership was nominally voluntary, but those who did not join found it all but impossible to gain admission to higher education. She did not participate in the secular coming of age ceremony Jugendweihe, however, which was common in East Germany. Instead, she was confirmed. Later, at the Academy of Sciences, she became a member of the FDJ district board and secretary for "Agitprop" (Agitation and Propaganda). Merkel claimed that she was secretary for culture. When Merkel's one-time FDJ district chairman contradicted her, she insisted that: "According to my memory, I was secretary for culture. But what do I know? I believe I won't know anything when I'm 80." Merkel's progress in the compulsory Marxism–Leninism course was graded only genügend (sufficient, passing grade) in 1983 and 1986.
At school, she learned to speak Russian fluently, and was awarded prizes for her proficiency in Russian and Mathematics. Merkel was educated in Templin and at the University of Leipzig, where she studied physics from 1973 to 1978. While a student, she participated in the reconstruction of the ruin of the Moritzbastei, a project students initiated to create their own club and recreation facility on campus. Such an initiative was unprecedented in the GDR of that period, and initially resisted by the University of Leipzig; however, with backing of the local leadership of the SED party, the project was allowed to proceed. Merkel worked and studied at the Central Institute for Physical chemistry of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin-Adlershof from 1978 to 1990. After being awarded a doctorate (Dr. rer. nat.) for her thesis on quantum chemistry, she worked as a researcher and published several papers.
In 1989, Merkel got involved in the growing democracy movement after the fall of the Berlin Wall, joining the new party Democratic Awakening. Following the first (and only) multi-party election of the East German state, she became the deputy spokesperson of the new pre-unification caretaker government under Lothar de Maizière. In April 1990, the Democratic Awakening merged with the East German CDU, which in turn merged with its western counterpart after reunification.
Early political career
Merkel stood for election at the 1990 federal election, the first since reunification, and was elected to the Bundestag for the constituency of Stralsund – Nordvorpommern – Rügen, which is in the district of Vorpommern-Rügen. She has won re-election for this constituency at the six federal elections since. After her first election, she was almost immediately appointed to the Cabinet, serving as Minister for Women and Youth under Chancellor Helmut Kohl. In 1994, she was promoted to becoming Minister for the Environment and Nuclear Safety, which gave her greater political visibility and a platform from which to build her political career. As one of Kohl's protégées and his youngest Cabinet Minister, she was frequently referred to by Kohl as "mein Mädchen" ("my girl").
Leader of the opposition
After the Kohl Government was defeated at the 1998 election, Merkel was appointed Secretary-General of the CDU, a key position as the party was no longer part of the federal government. Merkel oversaw a string of CDU election victories in six out of seven state elections in 1999, breaking the long-standing SPD-Green hold on the Bundesrat. Following a party funding scandal that compromised many leading figures of the CDU—including Kohl himself and his successor as CDU Leader, Wolfgang Schäuble, Merkel criticised her former mentor publicly and advocated a fresh start for the party without him. She was subsequently elected to replace Schäuble, becoming the first female leader of a German party on 10 April 2000. Her election surprised many observers, as her personality offered a contrast to the party she had been elected to lead; Merkel is a centrist Protestant originating from predominantly Protestant northern Germany, while the CDU is a male-dominated, socially conservative party with strongholds in western and southern Germany, and its Bavarian sister party, the CSU, has deep Catholic roots.
Following Merkel's election as CDU Leader, she enjoyed considerable popularity among the German population and polls indicated that many Germans would like to see her become Chancellor Gerhard Schröder's main challenger in the 2002 election. However, she was subsequently outmaneuvered politically by CSU Leader Edmund Stoiber, to whom she eventually ceded the privilege of challenging Schröder. He went on to squander a large lead in opinion polls to lose the election by a razor-thin margin. After Stoiber's defeat in 2002, in addition to her role as CDU Leader, Merkel became Leader of the Opposition in the Bundestag; Friedrich Merz, who had held the post prior to the 2002 election, was eased out to make way for Merkel.
Merkel supported a substantial reform agenda concerning Germany's economic and social system, and was considered more pro-market than her own party (the CDU). She advocated German labour law changes, specifically removing barriers to laying off employees and increasing the allowed number of work hours in a week. She argued that existing laws made the country less competitive, because companies cannot easily control labour costs when business is slow.
Merkel argued that Germany should phase out nuclear power less quickly than the Schröder administration had planned.
Merkel advocated a strong transatlantic partnership and German-American friendship. In the spring of 2003, defying strong public opposition, Merkel came out in favour of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, describing it as "unavoidable" and accusing Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of anti-Americanism. She criticised the government's support for the accession of Turkey to the European Union and favoured a "privileged partnership" instead. In doing so, she reflected public opinion that grew more hostile toward Turkish membership of the European Union.
On 30 May 2005, Merkel won the CDU/CSU nomination as challenger to Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of the SPD in the 2005 national elections. Her party began the campaign with a 21-point lead over the SPD in national opinion polls, although her personal popularity lagged behind that of the incumbent. However, the CDU/CSU campaign suffered when Merkel, having made economic competence central to the CDU's platform, confused gross and net income twice during a televised debate. She regained some momentum after she announced that she would appoint Paul Kirchhof, a former judge at the German Constitutional Court and leading fiscal policy expert, as Minister of Finance.
Merkel and the CDU lost ground after Kirchhof proposed the introduction of a flat tax in Germany, again undermining the party's broad appeal on economic affairs and convincing many voters that the CDU's platform of deregulation was designed to benefit only the rich. This was compounded by Merkel's proposing to increase VAT to reduce Germany's deficit and fill the gap in revenue from a flat tax. The SPD were able to increase their support simply by pledging not to introduce flat taxes or increase VAT. Although Merkel's standing recovered after she distanced herself from Kirchhof's proposals, she remained considerably less popular than Schröder, and the CDU's lead was down to 9% on the eve of the election.
On 18 September 2005, Merkel's CDU/CSU and Schröder's SPD went head-to-head in the national elections, with the CDU/CSU winning 35.3% (CDU 27.8%/CSU 7.5%) of the second votes to the SPD's 34.2%. Neither the SPD-Green coalition nor the CDU/CSU and its preferred coalition partners, the Free Democratic Party, held enough seats to form a majority in the Bundestag, and both Schröder and Merkel claimed victory. A grand coalition between the CDU/CSU and SPD faced the challenge that both parties demanded the chancellorship. However, after three weeks of negotiations, the two parties reached a deal whereby Merkel would become Chancellor and the SPD would hold 8 of the 16 seats in the cabinet. The coalition deal was approved by both parties at party conferences on 14 November 2005. Merkel was elected Chancellor by the majority of delegates (397 to 217) in the newly assembled Bundestag on 22 November 2005, but 51 members of the governing coalition voted against her.
Reports had indicated that the grand coalition would pursue a mix of policies, some of which differ from Merkel's political platform as leader of the opposition and candidate for Chancellor. The coalition's intent was to cut public spending whilst increasing VAT (from 16 to 19%), social insurance contributions and the top rate of income tax.
Chancellor of Germany
On 22 November 2005, Merkel assumed the office of Chancellor of Germany following a stalemate election that resulted in a grand coalition with the SPD. Her party was re-elected in 2009 with an increased number of seats, and could form a governing coalition with the FDP. In the election of September 2013 the CDU/CSU parties emerged as winners, but formed another grand coalition with the SPD due to the FDP's failure to obtain the minimum of 5% of votes required to enter parliament.
In October 2010, Merkel told a meeting of younger members of her conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU) party at Potsdam that attempts to build a multicultural society in Germany had "utterly failed", stating that: "The concept that we are now living side by side and are happy about it" does not work and "we feel attached to the Christian concept of mankind, that is what defines us. Anyone who doesn't accept that is in the wrong place here." She continued to say that immigrants should integrate and adopt Germany's culture and values. This has added to a growing debate within Germany on the levels of immigration, its effect on Germany and the degree to which Muslim immigrants have integrated into German society.
On 25 September 2007, Merkel met the 14th Dalai Lama for "private and informal talks" in the Chancellery in Berlin amid protest from China. China afterwards cancelled separate talks with German officials, including talks with Justice Minister Brigitte Zypries.
One of Merkel's priorities was strengthening transatlantic economic relations – she signed the agreement for the Transatlantic Economic Council on 30 April 2007 at the White House. The Council, co-chaired by an EU and a US official, aims at removing barriers to trade in a further integrated transatlantic free-trade area. This project has been described as ultra-liberal by the French left-wing politician Jean-Luc Mélenchon, fearing a transfer of sovereignty from citizens to multinationals and an alignment of the European Union on the American foreign policy and institutions.
Der Spiegel reported that tensions between Chancellor Merkel and President Barack Obama eased during a meeting between the two leaders in June 2009. Commenting on a White House press conference held after the meeting, Der Spiegel stated, "Of course the rather more reserved chancellor couldn't really keep up with [Obama's]... charm offensive," but to reciprocate for Obama's "good natured" diplomacy, "she gave it a go... by mentioning the experiences of Obama's sister in Heidelberg, making it clear that she had read his autobiography".
In 2006 Merkel expressed concern about overreliance on Russian energy, but she received little support from others in Berlin.
Merkel has visited Israel four times. On 16 March 2008, Merkel arrived in Israel to mark the 60th anniversary of the Jewish state. She was greeted at the airport by Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, an honor guard and many of the country's political and religious leaders, including most of the Israeli Cabinet. Until then, US President George W. Bush had been the only world leader Olmert had honored by greeting at the airport. Merkel spoke before Israel's parliament, the only foreigner who was not a head of state to have done so, but this provoked rumbles of opposition from Israeli MPs on the far right. At the time, Merkel was also both the President of the European Council and the chair of the G8. Merkel has supported Israeli diplomatic initiatives, opposing the Palestinian bid for membership at the UN. However, Merkel requested that continued building of settlements beyond the Green Line should stop, and disagreed with the Israeli government's behavior. Merkel's latest visit to Israel was on 25–27 February 2014. During her visit, Merkel was awarded Israel's highest civilian award by President Shimon Peres, for her "unwavering commitment to Israel's security and the fight against anti-Semitism and racism."
Merkel and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh made a "Joint Declaration" emphasising the Indo-German strategic partnership in 2006. It turned the focus of future cooperation onto the fields of energy, science and technology, and defence. A similar Declaration, signed during Merkel's visit to India in 2007, noted the substantial progress made in Indo-German relations and set ambitious goals for their development in the future. The relationship with India on the basis of cooperation and partnership was further strengthened with Merkel's visit to India in 2011. At the invitation of the Indian government, the two countries held their first intergovernmental consultations in New Delhi. These consultations set a new standard in the implementation of the strategic partnership, as India became only the third non-European country with which Germany has had this nature of comprehensive consultations. India became the first Asian country to hold a joint cabinet meeting with Germany during Merkel's state visit.
The Indian government presented the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding for the year 2009 to Merkel. A statement issued by the Government of India stated that the award "recognises her personal devotion and enormous efforts for sustainable and equitable development, for good governance and understanding and for the creation of a world better positioned to handle the emerging challenges of the 21st century."
In recognition of the importance of China to the German economy, by 2014 Merkel had led seven trade delegations to China since assuming office in 2005. The same year, in March, China's President Xi visited Germany.
In 2015, with the absence of Stephen Harper, Merkel became the only leader to have attended every G20 meeting since the very first in 2008, having been present at a record eleven summits as of 2016. She is expected to host the 2017 G20 Hamburg summit. In 2016, following the election of Donald Trump to the U.S. presidency, Merkel was described by The New York Times as "the Liberal West's Last Defender" and by Timothy Garton Ash as "the leader of the free world." U.S. President Barack Obama described her in 2016 as his "closest international partner" throughout his tenure as President.
Following major falls in worldwide stock markets in September 2008, the German government stepped in to assist the mortgage company Hypo Real Estate with a bailout, which was agreed on 6 October, with German banks to contribute €30 billion and the Bundesbank €20 billion to a credit line.
On 4 October 2008, a Saturday, following the Irish Government's decision to guarantee all deposits in private savings accounts, a move she strongly criticised, Merkel said there were no plans for the German Government to do the same. The following day, Merkel stated that the government would guarantee private savings account deposits, after all. However, two days later, on 6 October 2008, it emerged that the pledge was simply a political move that would not be backed by legislation. Other European governments eventually either raised the limits or promised to guarantee savings in full.
At the World Economic Forum in Davos, 2013, she started to say that Europe nowadays has only 7% of the global population and produces only 25% of the global GDP, but that it spends almost 50% of the global social expenditure. The solution to the economic ills of the continent only can consist in raising its competitiveness. Since then, this comparison has become a central element in major speeches. The international financial press has widely commented on her thesis, with The Economist saying that:
If Mrs Merkel's vision is pragmatic, so too is her plan for implementing it. It can be boiled down to three statistics, a few charts and some facts on an A4 sheet of paper. The three figures are 7%, 25% and 50%. Mrs Merkel never tires of saying that Europe has 7% of the world's population, 25% of its GDP and 50% of its social spending. If the region is to prosper in competition with emerging countries, it cannot continue to be so generous.
She produces graphs of unit labour costs ... at EU meetings in much the same way that the late Margaret Thatcher used to pull passages from Friedrich Hayek's Road to Serfdom from her handbag.
The Financial Times commented:
Although Ms Merkel stopped short of suggesting that a ceiling on social spending might be one yardstick for measuring competitiveness, she hinted as much in the light of soaring social spending in the face of an ageing population.
Midway through her second term, Merkel's approval plummeted in Germany, resulting in heavy losses in state elections for her party. An August 2011 poll found her coalition had only 36% support compared to a rival potential coalition's 51%. However, she scored well on her handling of the recent euro crisis (69% rated her performance as good rather than poor), and her approval rating reached an all-time high of 77% in February 2012 and again in July 2014. Merkel's approval rating dropped to 54% in October 2015, during the European migrant crisis, the lowest since 2011. According to a poll conducted after terror attacks in Germany Merkel's approval rating dropped to 47% (August 2016). Half of Germans did not want her to serve a fourth term in office compared to 42% in favor. However, according to a poll taken in October 2016, her approval rating had been found to have risen again, 54% of Germans were found to be satifsfied with work of Merkel as Chancelor. According to another poll taken in November 2016, 59% were to found to be in favour of a renewed Chancelor candidature of Merkel in 2017.
The first Cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in at 16:00 CET on 22 November 2005. On 31 October 2005, after the defeat of his favoured candidate for the position of Secretary General of the SPD, Franz Müntefering indicated that he would resign as party chairman, which he did in November. Ostensibly responding to this, Edmund Stoiber (CSU), who was originally nominated as Minister for Economics and Technology, announced his withdrawal on 1 November 2005. While this was initially seen as a blow to Merkel's attempt at forming a viable coalition, the manner in which Stoiber withdrew earned him much ridicule and severely undermined his position as a Merkel rival. Separate conferences of the CDU, CSU, and SPD approved the proposed Cabinet on 14 November 2005. The second Cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in on 28 October 2009.
In 2013, Merkel won one of the most decisive victories in German history, achieving the best result for the CDU/CSU since reunification and coming within five seats of the first absolute majority in the Bundestag since 1957. However, with their preferred coalition partner, the FDP, failing to enter parliament for the first time since 1949, the CDU/CSU turned to the SPD to form the third grand coalition in postwar German history and the second under Merkel's leadership. The third Cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in on 17 December 2013.
In 1977 at the age of 23, Angela Kasner married physics student Ulrich Merkel and took his surname. The marriage ended in divorce in 1982. Her second and current husband is quantum chemist and professor Joachim Sauer, who has largely remained out of the media spotlight. They first met in 1981, became a couple later and married privately on 30 December 1998. She has no children, but Sauer has two adult sons from a previous marriage. She is a fervent football fan and has been known to listen to games while in the Bundestag and to attend games of the national team in her official capacity.
Merkel has a fear of dogs after being attacked by one in 1995. Vladimir Putin brought in his pet Labrador during a press conference in 2007. Putin claims he did not mean to scare her, though Merkel later observed, "I understand why he has to do this -- to prove he's a man. ... He's afraid of his own weakness."
Angela Merkel is a Lutheran member of the Evangelical Church in Berlin, Brandenburg and Silesian Upper Lusatia (German: Evangelische Kirche Berlin-Brandenburg-schlesische Oberlausitz – EKBO), a United Protestant (i.e. both Reformed and Lutheran) church body under the umbrella of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD). The EKBO is a church of the Prussian Union.
Before the 2004 merger of the Evangelical Church in Berlin-Brandenburg and the Evangelical Church in Silesian Upper Lusatia (both also being a part of the EKD), she belonged to the former.
|Ancestors of Angela Merkel|
Honours and awards
- Germany: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, Special Class
- India: Recipient of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding
- Israel: Recipient of the President's Medal
- Italy: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
- Norway: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit
- Peru: Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun of Peru
- Portugal: Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Henry
- Saudi Arabia: Knight Grand Officer of the Order of Abdulaziz al Saud
- United States: Recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom
- In 2007, Merkel was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
- In June 2008, she was awarded the honorary doctorate from Leipzig University.
- University of Technology in Wrocław (Poland) in September 2008 and Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Romania on 12 October 2010 for her historical contribution to the European unification and for her global role in renewing international cooperation.
- On 23 May 2013, she was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Radboud University Nijmegen.
- In November 2013, she was awarded the Honorary Doctorate (Honoris Causa) title by the University of Szeged.
- In November 2014, she was awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa by Comenius University in Bratislava.
- In September 2015, she was awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Bern.
- In 2006, Angela Merkel was awarded the Vision for Europe Award for her contribution toward greater European integration.
- She received the Karlspreis (Charlemagne Prize) in 2008 for distinguished services to European unity.
- In March 2008, she received the B'nai B'rith Europe Award of Merit.
- Merkel topped Forbes magazine's list of "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women" in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
- New Statesman named Angela Merkel in "The World's 50 Most Influential Figures" 2010.
- On 16 June 2010, the American Institute for Contemporary German Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Washington D.C. awarded Chancellor Merkel its Global Leadership Award (AICGS) in recognition of her outstanding dedication to strengthening German-American relations.
- On 21 September 2010, the Leo Baeck Institute, a research institution in New York City devoted to the history of German-speaking Jewry, awarded Angela Merkel the Leo Baeck Medal. The medal was presented by former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury and current Director of the Jewish Museum Berlin, W. Michael Blumenthal, who cited Merkel's support of Jewish cultural life and the integration of minorities in Germany.
- On 31 May 2011, she received the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for the year 2009 from the Indian government. She received the award for International understanding.
- Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People ranked Merkel as the world's second most powerful person in 2012, the highest ranking achieved by a woman since the list began in 2009; she was ranked fifth in 2013 and 2014
- On 28 November 2012, she received the Heinz Galinski Award in Berlin, Germany.
- India: Indira Gandhi Peace Prize (2013)
- In December 2015, she was named Time magazine's Person of the Year.
As a female politician from a centre right party who is also a scientist, Merkel has been compared by many in the English-language press to former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Some have referred to her as "Iron Lady", "Iron Girl", and even "The Iron Frau" (all alluding to Thatcher, whose nickname was "The Iron Lady"—Thatcher also had a science degree from Oxford University in chemistry). Political commentators have debated the precise extent to which their agendas are similar. Later in her tenure, Merkel acquired the nickname "Mutti" (a German familiar form of "mother"), said by Der Spiegel to refer to an idealised mother figure from the 1950s and 1960s. She has also been called the "Iron Chancellor", in reference to Otto von Bismarck.
In addition to being the first female German chancellor, the first to have grown up in the former East Germany (though she was born in the West), and the youngest German chancellor since the Second World War, Merkel is also the first born after World War II, and the first chancellor of the Federal Republic with a background in natural sciences. She studied physics; her predecessors studied law, business or history or were military officers, among others.
Merkel has been criticised for being personally present and involved at the M100 Media Award handover to Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard, who had triggered the Muhammad cartoons controversy. This happened at a time of fierce emotional debate in Germany over a book by the former Deutsche Bundesbank executive and finance senator of Berlin Thilo Sarrazin, which was critical of the Muslim immigration. At the same time she condemned a planned burning of Korans by a fundamental pastor in Florida. The Central Council of Muslims in Germany and the Left Party (Die Linke) as well as the German Green Party criticised the action by the centre-right chancellor. The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung newspaper wrote: "This will probably be the most explosive moment of her chancellorship so far." Others have praised Merkel and called it a brave and bold move for the cause of freedom of speech.
Merkel's position towards the negative statements by Thilo Sarrazin with regard to the integration problems with Arab and Turkish people in Germany has been critical throughout. According to her personal statements, Sarrazin's approach is "totally unacceptable" and counterproductive to the ongoing problems of integration.
Members of her cabinet and Merkel herself also support state schools enabling Islamic religious instruction (similar to the provision of denominational Christian religious instruction).
The term alternativlos (German for "without an alternative"), which was frequently used by Angela Merkel to describe her measures addressing the European sovereign-debt crisis, was named the Un-word of the Year 2010 by a jury of linguistic scholars. The wording was criticised as undemocratic, as any discussion on Merkel's politics would thus be deemed unnecessary or undesirable. The expression is credited for the name of the political party Alternative for Germany, which was founded in 2013.
Her trademark Merkel-Raute has been described as "probably one of the most recognisable hand gestures in the world". Its political symbolism received mixed reviews, ranging from being prominently used by the CDU during the 2013 election campaign, to accusations of a cult of personality that were brought forth by her opponents.
In July 2013, Merkel defended the surveillance practices of the NSA, and described the United States as "our truest ally throughout the decades". During a visit of U.S. President Barack Obama in Berlin, Merkel said on 19 June 2013 in the context of the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures: "The Internet is uncharted territory for us all". (German: Das Internet ist Neuland für uns alle.) Her sentence led to various internet memes and online mockery of Merkel.
Merkel has compared the NSA to the Stasi when it became known that her mobile phone was tapped by that agency. In response Susan Rice pledged that the USA will desist from spying on her personally, but said there would not be a no-espionage agreement between the two countries.
On 18 July 2014 Merkel said trust between Germany and the United States could only be restored by talks between the two, and she would seek to have talks. She reiterated the U.S. remained Germany's most important ally.
In August 2014, Merkel visited Ukraine to show her support for Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko. Human Rights Watch said that "Merkel's visit is an opportunity for her to denounce violations of international humanitarian law by the Ukrainian military."
Her statement "Islam is part of Germany" during a state visit of the Turkish prime minister Ahmet Davutoğlu in January 2015 induced criticism within her party. The parliamentary group leader Volker Kauder said that Islam is not part of Germany and that Muslims should deliberate on the question why so many violent people refer to the Quran.
In October 2015, Horst Seehofer, Bavarian State Premier and leader of CSU, the sister party of Merkel's CDU, criticised Merkel's policy of allowing in hundreds of thousands of migrants from the Middle East: "We're now in a state of mind without rules, without system and without order because of a German decision." Seehofer attacked Merkel policies in sharp language, threatened to sue the government in the high court, and hinted that the CSU might topple Merkel. Many MPs of Merkel's CDU party also voices dissatisfaction with Merkel. Chancellor Merkel insisted that Germany has the economic strength to cope with the influx of migrants and reiterated that there is no legal maximum limit on the number of migrants Germany can take.
In 2015, an open letter the ONE Campaign had collected signatures for was addressed to her and Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, urging them to focus on women as they serve as the head of the G7 in Germany and the AU in South Africa respectively, which will start to set the priorities in development funding before a main UN summit in September 2015 that will establish new development goals for the generation.
In the arts and media
Merkel features as a main character in two of the three plays that make up the Europeans Trilogy ("Bruges", "Antwerp", "Tervuren") by Paris-based UK playwright Nick Awde: "Bruges" (Edinburgh Festival, 2014) and "Tervuren" (2016). A character named Merkel, accompanied by a sidekick called Schäuble, also appears as the sinister female henchman in Michael Paraskos's novel In Search of Sixpence.
- The English pronunciation of her first name is //, and that of her last name is //, or alternatively //. In German, her last name is pronounced [ˈmɛɐ̯kl̩]. There are several different ways to pronounce the name Angela in German. The Duden Pronunciation Dictionary lists [ˈaŋɡela] and [aŋˈɡeːla]. According to her biographer, Merkel prefers the pronunciation with stress on the second syllable ([aŋˈɡeːla] with a long /eː/). This pronunciation is more common in Austria. Other pronunciations, such as [ˈaŋɡəla] and [ˈaŋəla] are also heard from native German speaking people.
- J C Wells (2008) Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Pearson Education Limited.
- "Angela Merkel pronunciation: How to pronounce Angela Merkel in German, English".
- Mangold, Max, ed. (1995). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. p. 548. ISBN 978-3-411-20916-3.
- Krech, Eva-Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz Christian; et al., eds. (2009). Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch (1st ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 739. ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6.
- Mangold, Max, ed. (1995). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. p. 156. ISBN 978-3-411-20916-3.
Angela ˈaŋɡela auch: aŋˈɡeːla.
- Langguth, Gerd (2005). Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: dtv. p. 50. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
Merkel wollte immer mit der Betonung auf dem 'e' Angela genannt werden. (Merkel always wanted her first name pronounced with the stress on the 'e'.)
- Duden, ed. (1996). Duden, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung (in German) (21st ed.). Dudenverlag. p. 112. ISBN 978-3-411-04011-7.
ˈAn|ge|la (österr: aŋˈɡeːla)
- "Angela". Duden Online. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "Germany's Merkel begins new term". BBC. 28 October 2009. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- "German Chancellor Angela Merkel makes a hat-trick win in 2013 Elections". Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "Angela Merkel faces outright rebellion within her own party over refugee crisis". The Telegraph. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- Balasubramanyam, Ranjitha (16 September 2013). "All Eyes on Berlin". Foreign Policy Journal. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- Gayle, Damien (18 July 2012). "50 Shades of Angela Merkel: German Chancellor's outfits recreated as Pantone colour chart (but none of them are very sexy)". Daily Mail. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- Francis, David (22 September 2013). ""Mama" Merkel May Win Germany, But Not the Euro Zone". The Fiscal Times. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
- Wagele, Elizabeth (16 July 2012). "What Personality Type is Angela Merkel?". Psychology Today. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "Angela Merkel 'world's most powerful woman'". The Daily Telegraph. London. 24 August 2011.
- "Profile Angela Merkel". Forbes. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Gibbs, Nancy (9 December 2015). "Why Angela Merkel is TIME's Person of the Year". Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- "Angela Merkel". Forbes. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- "Angela Merkel' German Chancellor' to seek fourth term". BBC.
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel. DTV (in German). p. 10. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- "Merkels Vater gestorben – Termine abgesagt" (in German). newsecho. 3 September 2011. Archived from the original on 14 December 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- Qvortrup, Matthew (2016). "In the Shadow of the Berlin Wall". Angela Merkel: Europe's Most Influential Leader. The Overlook Press. ISBN 9781468314083.
- Kornelius, Stefan (March 2013). Angela Merkel: Die Kanzlerin und ihre Welt (in German). Hoffmann und Campe. p. 7. ISBN 978-3455502916.
- Stefan Kornelius (10 September 2013). "Six things you didn't know about Angela Merkel". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- "The German chancellor's Polish roots". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013.
- "Merkel hat polnische Wurzeln" [Merkel has Polish roots]. Süddeutsche Zeitung. 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013.
- "Ahnenforschung: Kanzlerin Angela Merkel ist zu einem Viertel Polin". Die Welt.
- "Die Schläferin". Der Spiegel (in German). 9 November 2009. Archived from the original on 24 May 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- "Glänzend in Physik, mäßig in der Ideologie". Der Spiegel (in German). 31 January 2010. Archived from the original on 3 February 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
"Nach meiner Erinnerung war ich Kultursekretärin. Aber was weiß ich denn? Ich glaube, wenn ich 80 bin, weiß ich gar nichts mehr", sagt sie
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel (in German). DTV. p. 50. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- "Drogenwahn auf der Dauerbaustelle". Der Spiegel (in German). 27 March 2009. Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Merkel, Angela (1986). Untersuchung des Mechanismus von Zerfallsreaktionen mit einfachem Bindungsbruch und Berechnung ihrer Geschwindigkeitskonstanten auf der Grundlage quantenchemischer und statistischer Methoden (Investigation of the mechanism of decay reactions with single bond breaking and calculation of their velocity constants on the basis of quantum chemical and statistical methods) (in German). Berlin: Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic (dissertation). cited in Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: DTV. p. 109. ISBN 3-423-24485-2. and listed in the Catalogue of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek under subject code 30 (Chemistry)
- "Scopus preview - Scopus - Author details (Merkel, Angela)". www.scopus.com. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005) . Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: DTV. pp. 112–137. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- "Kohls unterschätztes Mädchen". Der Spiegel (in German). 30 May 2005. Archived from the original on 18 July 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- "Opposition meltdown: The great disintegration act". Der Spiegel. 22 October 2004. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "Merkel fordert längere Arbeitszeit". Der Spiegel (in German). 18 May 2003. Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- "Merkel: Nuclear phase-out is wrong". World Nuclear News. 10 June 2008. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- Marlies Casier and Joost Jongerden, eds. Nationalisms and Politics in Turkey (2010) p 110
- Saunders, Doug (14 September 2005). "Popular flat-tax movement hits brick wall in Germany". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "Merkel named as German chancellor". BBC News. 10 October 2005. Archived from the original on 23 September 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- "German parties back new coalition". BBC News. 14 November 2005. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009.
- "Merkel becomes German chancellor". BBC News. 22 November 2005. Archived from the original on 9 December 2005.
- "German coalition poised for power". BBC News. 11 November 2005. Archived from the original on 25 November 2005.
- "Merkel defends German reform plan". BBC News. 12 November 2005. Archived from the original on 15 March 2006.
- "Merkel says German multicultural society has failed". BBC News. 17 October 2010. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010.
- "Merkel Says German Multi-Cultural Society Has Failed". Yahoo! News. 17 October 2007. Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Zentralrat der Juden kritisiert Seehofer: Debatte ist scheinheilig und hysterisch". Südwestrundfunk (in German). Retrieved 21 October 2010.
Wir fühlen uns dem christlichen Menschenbild verbunden, das ist das, was uns ausmacht. Wer das nicht akzeptiert, der ist bei uns fehl am Platz
- "Germany's charged immigration debate". BBC News. 17 October 2010. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010.
- "Merkel meets with the Dalai Lama". Euronews. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Enterprise policies" (PDF). European Council. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Jean-Luc Mélenchon: "Le futur grand marché transatlantique"" (in French). Dailymotion. 21 April 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Intervention de Jean-Luc Mélenchon sur la Défense". Dailymotion. 4 April 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "'They're Not Getting any Warmer': Merkel Faces Difficult Talks in Washington". Der Spiegel. 23 June 2009. Archived from the original on 21 September 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- Gregor Peter Schmitz. "A Trans-Atlantic Show of Friendship: Obama Praises His 'Friend Chancellor Merkel'". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Dependence on Russian gas worries some – but not all – European countries". The Christian Science Monitor. 6 March 2008. Archived from the original on 8 November 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "Klitschko, Merkel discuss prospects for signing EU-Ukraine association agreement". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 5 December 2012. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012.
- "Chancellor of Germany goes to Israel". The New York Times. 16 March 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Roger Boyes (18 March 2008). "German Chancellor Angela Merkel tightens ties for Israel's 60th". The Australian. Berlin. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Friends in high places". The Economist. 19 March 2008. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "Photo Gallery: Merkel Wishes Israel Happy 60th". Der Spiegel. 17 March 2008. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- MacIntyre, Donald (13 March 2008). "Israeli hardliners 'will walk out' when Merkel addresses Knesset in German". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "Merkel: Israel Must Stop Settlement Building". Jewish Federations of North America. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- Keinon, Herb (31 January 2011). "PM, Merkel disagree openly on settlements". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- "Merkel arrives in Israel to talk peace". Haaretz. 24 February 2014. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014.
- "Germany and India – Celebrating 60 Years of Diplomatic relations". India. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- Audrey Kauffmann (31 May 2011). "Angela Merkel in India for joint cabinet meet". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- "Angela Merkel sets off for China to forge new economic ties". Herald Globe. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- "G20-Gipfel in Hamburg: Merkel nennt erstmals Themen". Hamburger Abendblatt. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- "Donald Trump's Election Leaves Angela Merkel as the Liberal West's Last Defender". The New York Times. 12 November 2016.
- Ash, Timothy Garton (11 November 2016). "Populists are out to divide us". The Guardian.
- "Obama: Merkel was my closest ally". The Local. 15 November 2016.
- Parkin, Brian; Suess, Oliver (6 October 2008). "Hypo Real Gets EU50 Billion Government-Led Bailout". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- Carter Dougherty. "Germany guarantees all private bank accounts". Forbes. Archived from the original on 23 April 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- Whitlock, Craig (6 October 2008). "Germany to guarantee Private Bank Accounts". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- "Bank uncertainty hits UK shares". BBC News. 6 October 2008. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- "Bundesregierung | Rede von Bundeskanzlerin Merkel beim Jahrestreffen 2013 des World Economic Forum" (in German). Bundesregierung.de. 24 January 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Among others, in her speech on the occasion of her honorary doctoral degree at the University of Szeged in Hungary, see http://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Rede/2015/02/2015-02-02-merkel-budapest.html.
- "The Merkel plan". The Economist. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Peel, Quentin (16 December 2012). "Merkel warns on cost of welfare". Financial Times. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- The economist Arno Tausch from Corvinus University in Budapest, in a paper published by the Social Science Research Network in New York has contended that a re-analysis of the Merkel hypothesis about the distribution of global social expenditure based on 169 countries for which we have recent ILO Social Protection data and World Bank GNI data in real purchasing power reveals that the 27 EU countries with complete data spend only 33% of global world social protection expenditures, while the 13 non-EU-OECD members, among them the major other Western democracies, spend 40% of global social protection expenditures, the BRICS 18% and the Rest of the World 9% of global social protection expenditures. Most probably, the author claims, Merkel's 50% ratio is the product of a mere, simple projection of data for the OECD-member countries onto the world level <http://www.oecd.org/social/expenditure.htm>. Tausch also claims that the data reveal the successful social Keynesianism of the Anglo-Saxon overseas democracies, which are in stark contrast to the savings agenda in the framework of the European "fiscal pact", see Tausch, Arno, Wo Frau Kanzlerin Angela Merkel Irrt: Der Sozialschutz in Der Welt, Der Anteil Europas Und Die Beurteilung Seiner Effizienz (Where Chancellor Angela Merkel Got it Wrong: Social Protection in the World, Europe's Share in it and the Assessment of its Efficiency) (4 September 2015). doi:10.2139/ssrn.2656113
- Pidd, Helen (21 February 2011). "Angela Merkel's party crushed in Hamburg poll". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "German opposition hits 11-year high in polls". France 24. 5 August 2011. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "Union dank Merkel im Umfrage-Aufwind". Stern (in German). 10 February 2012. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Merkel Approval Rating Drops to Four-Year Low on Refugee Crisis". Bloomberg. 2 October 2015,
- tagesschau.de. "ARD-Deutschlandtrend: Mehrheit gegen EU-Beitritt der Türkei". tagesschau.de (in German). Retrieved 2016-11-09.
- Turner, Zeke; Fairless, Tom (28 August 2016). "Half of Germans Oppose Fourth Term for Angela Merkel, Survey Finds". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- "ARD-DeutschlandTrend: Merkel überwindet ihr Tief" [ARD-DeutschlandTrend: Merkel overcomes her low point.] (in German). ARD-tagesschau. 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2016-11-09.
- "Forsa-Umfrage: Mehrheit für erneute Kanzlerkandidatur Merkels" [Forsa Poll: Majority for renewed chancellor candidature of Merkel]. N24.de (in German). Retrieved 2016-11-09.
- Penfold, Chuck (30 October 2009). "Merkel's new cabinet sworn in". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- Kirschbaum, Erik (1 August 2015). "Merkel to run for fourth term in 2017: Der Spiegel". Reuters. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "Biographie: Angela Merkel, geb. 1954". DHM. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Joachim Sauer, das Phantom an Merkels Seite". Die Zeit (in German). 14 August 2009. Archived from the original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
- "Das diskrete Gluck". Bild (in German). 28 December 2008. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
- James M Klatell (9 August 2006). "Germany's First Fella, Angela Merkel Is Germany's Chancellor; But Her Husband Stays Out of the Spotlight". CBS News. Archived from the original on 10 August 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Angela Merkel im Fußballfieber". Focus (in German). 15 March 2013. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- "Kanzlerin Merkel kommt erst wieder zum Finale". Handelsblatt (in German). 23 June 2012. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- "Angela Merkel fractures pelvis in ski fall". BBC News. 6 January 2014. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- CNN, Tim Hume. "Putin: I didn't mean to scare Angela Merkel with dog". CNN. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- "Bundeskanzlerin Merkel ohne fertige Antworten in Templin".
- "Bundesverdienstkreuz für Merkel". Tagesschau (in German). Archived from the original on 21 September 2010. Retrieved 21 September 2010.
- "List of the Recipients of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award". Indian Council for Cultural Relations. 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- Cashman, Greer Fay (25 February 2014). "President Peres awards Germany's Merkel Medal of Distinction". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014.
- "Merkel Dott.ssa Angela". Quirinale (in Italian). Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- "Tildelinger av ordener og medaljer". Kongehuset (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 4 November 2013.
- "Russell among 15 Presidential Medal of Freedom honorees". National Basketball Association. 18 November 2010. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- The medal is presented to people who have made an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, or cultural or other significant public or private endeavors
- "Executive Order 11085". Wikisource. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
The Medal may be awarded by the President as provided in this order to any person who has made an especially meritorious contribution to (1), the security or national interests of the United States, or (2) world peace, or (3) cultural or other significant public or private endeavors.
- "Honorary Doctorates". The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 16 October 2008.
- "Pressemitteilung 2008/106 der Universität Leipzig" (in German). Universität Leipzig. 20 May 2008. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Doktorat honoris causa dla Merkel". RP (in Polish). 24 September 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Universitatea Babes-Bolyai". Web.ubbcluj.ro. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Angela Merkel a primit titlul de Doctor Honoris Causa al Universităţii Babeş-Bolyai". Realitatea TV. 12 October 2010. Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Cancelarul Germaniei, Angela Merkel, a primit titlul de Doctor Honoris Causa al UBB Cluj". România Liberă (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Mark Latham (5 January 2008). "Angela Merkel awarded the Charlemagne Prize". Aachen. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Andrea Riccardi. "Der Karlspreisträger 2009" (in German). Karlspreis.de. Archived from the original on 18 December 2008.
- John P. Reeves. "B'nai B'rith Europe grants Award of Merit to Dr. Angela Merkel". B'nai B'rith Europe. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011.
. . . Dr Angela Merkel Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany was the recipient of a Gold Medal for outstanding services, the B'nai B'rith Europe Award of Merit, being the highest accolade of BBEurope
- Serafin, Tatiana (31 August 2006). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2009.
Serafin, Tatiana (30 August 2007). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
Serafin, Tatiana (27 August 2008). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
"Merkel most powerful woman in world: Forbes". Euronews. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2011.http://www.forbes.com/profile/angela-merkel/?list=power-women
- "Angela Merkel – 50 People Who Matter 2010". Archived from the original on 2 October 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "Chancellor Angela Merkel Receives Global Leadership Award". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Baeck, Leo (22 August 2010). "LBI Presents Leo Baeck Medal to Chancellor Angela Merkel". New York: Leo Baeck Institute. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Angela Merkel Receives Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding". ABC News. 1 June 2011. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
- "TIME Person of the Year 2015: Angela Merkel". Time. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Risen, Clay (5 July 2005). "Is Angela Merkel the next Maggie Thatcher?". Slate. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009.
- Kurbjuweit, Dirk (11 March 2009). "Merkel's Dream of a Place in the History Books". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 4 November 2009.
- "The new iron chancellor". The Economist. 26 November 2009. Archived from the original on 24 November 2011.
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: DTV. p. 10. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- "Merkel honours Mohammad cartoonist at press award". Reuters. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012.
- "The Sarrazin Debate: Germany Is Becoming Islamophobic". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Connor, Richard (8 September 2010). "Merkel defends 'Muhammad' cartoonist, condemns Koran-burning". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- BBC: Germany's Central Muslim Council (Zentralrat der Muslime in Deutschland) criticised Mrs. Merkel for attending the award ceremony. 8 September 2010. A ZMD spokesman, Aiman Mazyek, told public broadcaster Deutschlandradio that the Chancellor was honouring someone "who in our eyes kicked our prophet, and therefore kicked all Muslims". He said giving Mr Westergaard the prize in a "highly charged and heated time" was "highly problematic".
- "Merkel honours Danish Muhammad cartoonist Westergaard". BBC News. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010.
- Christine Buchholz (9 September 2010). "Merkel's affront to Muslims" (in German). Die linke. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Grüne/Bündnis 90 Spokesman Renate Künast: "I wouldn't have done it", said Green Party floor leader Renate Künast. It was true that the right to freedom of expression also applies to cartoons, she said. "But if a chancellor also makes a speech on top of that, it serves to heat up the debate."
- "Award for Danish Muhammad Cartoonist: Merkel Defends Press Freedom, Condemns Koran-Burning". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Ehrung des Mohammed-Karikaturisten: Angela Merkels Risiko". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Merkel: Sarrazin spaltet Gesellschaft" (in German). N24 News. Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "REGIERUNGonline – Islamunterricht an Schulen". Bundesregierung. 17 May 2009. Archived from the original on 22 January 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Bundesregierung: De Maizière dringt auf Islam-Unterricht an Schulen" (in German). Die Welt Online. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
- "Integration: Schäuble und Muslime planen Islam-Unterricht an deutschen Schulen". Der Spiegel (in German). Archived from the original on 15 March 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
- "Sprachkritik: "Alternativlos" ist das Unwort des Jahres". Der Spiegel (in German). 18 January 2011. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- Prantl, Heribert (24 September 2013). "Alternative dank Merkel". Süddeutsche Zeitung. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "'Merkel diamond' takes centre stage in German election campaign". The Guardian. 3 September 2013. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- "German Chancellor Merkel Defends Work of Intelligence Agencies". Der Spiegel. 10 July 2013. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "Germany's Merkel rejects NSA-Stasi comparison". Associated Press. 10 July 2013. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- Strange, Hannah (20 June 2013). "Angela Merkel refers to internet as 'virgin territory'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Frickel, Claudia (20 June 2013). "Merkel beim Besuch von Obama: Das Netz lacht über Merkels "Internet-Neuland"". Der Focus (Online Version) (in German). Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Traynor, Ian (17 December 2013). "Merkel compared NSA to Stasi in heated encounter with Obama". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "Sensible talks urged by Merkel to restore trust with US". Germany News.Net. Archived from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "Germany's vice-chancellor backs 'federalization' in Ukraine". Reuters. 23 August 2014. Archived from the original on 23 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- Wenzel Michalski (22 August 2014). "Merkel Shouldn't Let Ukrainian Abuses Slide". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 25 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- "Gehört der Islam zu Deutschland? Kauder widerspricht Merkel", Idea (news agency), 19 January 2015 (German)
- "Kauder: 'Der Islam gehört nicht zu Deutschland'" [Kauder: "Islam does not belong to Germany"] (in German). dpa/T-Online. 18 January 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- "Viktor Orbán, Bavaria's hardline hero". Politico. 23 September 2015.
- "Merkel splits conservative bloc with green light to refugees". Reuters. 6 September 2015.
- "Germany: 'No Limit' To Refugees We'll Take In". Sky News. 5 September 2015.
- Tracy McVeigh. "Poverty is sexist: leading women sign up for global equality | Life and style". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- Michael Paraskos, In Search of Sixpence (London: Friction Press, 2016)
- Skard, Torild (2014) "Angela Merkel" in Women of Power – Half a Century of Female presidents and Prime Ministers Worldwide, Bristol: Policy Press, ISBN 978-1-44731-578-0
- Margaret Heckel: So regiert die Kanzlerin. Eine Reportage. Piper, München 2009, ISBN 978-3-492-05331-0.
- Volker Resing: Angela Merkel. Die Protestantin. Ein Porträt. St.-Benno-Verlag, Leipzig 2009, ISBN 978-3-7462-2648-4.
- Gertrud Höhler: Die Patin. Wie Angela Merkel Deutschland umbaut. Orell Füssli, Zürich 2012, ISBN 978-3-280-05480-2.
- Stefan Kornelius]: Angela Merkel. Die Kanzlerin und ihre Welt. Hoffmann und Campe, Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-455-50291-6.
- Nikolaus Blome: Angela Merkel – Die Zauderkünstlerin. Pantheon, München 2013, ISBN 978-3-570-55201-8.
- Stephan Hebel: Mutter Blamage – Warum die Nation Angela Merkel und ihre Politik nicht braucht. Westend, Frankfurt am Main 2013, ISBN 978-3-86489-021-5.
- Stephan Hebel: Die zwei Gesichter der Angela M., Frankfurter Rundschau, 21. Februar 2013.
- Günther Lachmann, Ralf Georg Reuth: Das erste Leben der Angela M. Piper, München 2013, ISBN 978-3-492-05581-9.
- Judy Dempsey: Das Phänomen Merkel – Deutschlands Macht und Möglichkeiten. Edition Körber-Stiftung, Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-89684-097-4.
- Dirk Kurbjuweit: Alternativlos – Merkel, die Deutschen und das Ende der Politik. Hanser, München, 2014, ISBN 978-3-446-24620-1.
- Official Website of Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Merkel's personal website (German)
- Merkel on her party's website
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Angela Merkel at the Internet Movie Database
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English
- "Angela Merkel collected news and commentary". Bloomberg News.
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at The Economist
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Forbes
- "Angela Merkel collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Time
- "Angela Merkel collected news and commentary". The Wall Street Journal.
- Packer, George (1 December 2014). "The Quiet German". The New Yorker: 46–63.
|Minister for Women and Youth
| Succeeded by|
|Minister for the Environment
| Succeeded by|
|Chancellor of Germany
|Party political offices|
|General Secretary of the Christian Democratic Union
| Succeeded by|
|Leader of the Christian Democratic Union
|Chair of the Group of Eight
| Succeeded by|
Herman Van Rompuy
José Manuel Barroso
|Chair of the Group of Eight
| Succeeded by|
|Invocation Speaker of the College of Europe
| Succeeded by|
|Order of precedence|
as President of the Bundestag
|Order of precedence of Germany
| Succeeded by|
as President of the Bundesrat