1929 as round-robin tournament
|Number of teams||20|
|Level on pyramid||1|
|Relegation to||Serie B|
UEFA Champions League|
UEFA Europa League
Juventus (32nd title) |
|Most championships||Juventus (32 titles)|
SKY Italia |
|2016–17 Serie A|
Serie A (Italian pronunciation: [ˈsɛːrje ˈa]), also called Serie A TIM due to sponsorship by TIM, is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top of the Italian football league system and has been operating for over eighty years since the 1929–30 season. It had been organized by Lega Calcio until 2010, but a new league, the Lega Serie A, was created for the 2010–11 season. Serie A is regarded as one of the best football leagues in the world and it is often depicted as the most tactical national league. Serie A is the world's second-strongest national league according to IFFHS and has produced the highest number of European Cup finalists: Italian clubs have reached the final of the competition on a record 27 different occasions, winning the title 12 times. Serie A is ranked fourth among European leagues according to UEFA's league coefficient, behind La Liga, the Bundesliga and the Premier League, which is based on the performance of Italian clubs in the Champions League and the Europa League during the last five years. Serie A led the UEFA ranking from 1986 to 1988 and from 1990 to 1999.
In its current format, the Italian Football Championship was revised from having regional and interregional rounds, to a single-tier league from the 1929–30 season onwards. The championship titles won prior to 1929 are officially recognised by FIGC with the same weighting as titles that were subsequently awarded. However, the 1945–46 season, when the league was played over two geographical groups due to the ravages of WWII, is not statistically considered, even if its title is fully official. All the winning teams are recognised with the title of Campione d'Italia ("Champion of Italy"), which is ratified by the Lega Serie A before the start of the next edition of the championship.
The league hosts three of the world's most famous clubs as Juventus, Milan and Internazionale, all founding members of the G-14, a group which represented the largest and most prestigious European football clubs; Serie A was the only league to produce three founding members. More players have won the coveted Ballon d'Or award while playing at a Serie A club than any other league in the world - although Spain's La Liga has the highest total number of Ballon d'Or winners including the FIFA Ballon d'Or. Milan is the third club with the most official international titles in the world, with 18. Juventus, Italy's most successful club of the 20th century and the most successful Italian team, is tied for fourth in Europe and eighth in the world in the same ranking. The club is the only one in the world to have won all possible official continental competitions and the world title. Internazionale, following their achievements in the 2009–10 season, became the first Italian team to have achieved a treble. Juventus, Milan and Inter, along with Roma, Fiorentina, Lazio and Napoli, are known as the Seven Sisters of Italian football.
For most of Serie A's history, there were 16 or 18 clubs competing at the top level. Since 2004–05, however, there have been 20 clubs altogether. One season (1947–48) was played with 21 teams for political reasons. Below is a complete record of how many teams played in each season throughout the league's history;
- 18 clubs: 1929–1934
- 16 clubs: 1934–1942
- 18 clubs: 1942–1946
- 20 clubs: 1946–1947
- 21 clubs: 1947–1948
- 20 clubs: 1948–1952
- 18 clubs: 1952–1967
- 16 clubs: 1967–1988
- 18 clubs: 1988–2004
- 20 clubs: 2004–present
During the league, from August to May, each club plays each of the other teams twice; once at home and once away, totaling 38 games for each team by the end of the season. Thus, in Italian football a true round-robin format is used. In the first half of the season, called the andata, each team plays once against each league opponent, for a total of 19 games. In the second half of the season, called the ritorno, the teams play in exactly the same order that they did in the first half of the season, the only difference being that home and away situations are switched. Since the 1994–95 season, teams are awarded three points for a win, one point for a draw and no points for a loss.
Since Italy is currently rated fourth in Europe in terms of club football ratings, the top three teams in the Serie A qualify for the UEFA Champions League (from the 2011–12 season). The top two teams qualify directly to the group phase, while the third-placed team enters the competition at the playoff qualifying round and must win a two-legged knockout tie in order to enter the group phase. Teams finishing fourth and fifth qualify for the UEFA Europa League tournament. A third UEFA Europa League spot is reserved for the winner of the Coppa Italia. If the Coppa Italia champion has already qualified for the major European tournament by placing in the top three of Serie A, the third UEFA Europa League spot goes to the sixth-ranked team in Serie A. If both Coppa Italia finalists finish among the top five teams in Serie A, the sixth-ranked team in Serie A is awarded the UEFA Europa League spot. The three lowest-placed teams are relegated to Serie B.
From 2005–06 season if 2 or more teams are tied in points (for every place), the deciding tie-breakers are follows:
- Head-to-head records (results and points)
- Goal difference of head-to-head games
- Goal difference overall
- Higher number of goals scored
Until 2004–05 season, there were a play-off: it was used especially to award title, European spots or relegation. Any play-off was held after the end of regular season.
Serie A clubs
- For more details see List of Italian Football Championship clubs
Prior to 1929, many clubs competed in the top level of Italian football as the earlier rounds were competed up to 1922 on a regional basis then interregional up to 1929. Below is a list of Serie A clubs who have competed in the competition when it has been a league format (66 in total).
Serie A Members for 2016–17
Seasons in Serie A
There are 66 teams that have taken part in 85 Serie A championships in a single round that was played from the 1929–30 season until the 2016–17 season. The teams in bold compete in Serie A currently. Internazionale is the only team that has played Serie A football in every season.
Serie A, as it is structured today, began during the 1929–1930 season. From 1898 to 1922, the competition was organised into regional groups. Because of ever growing teams attending regional championships, the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) split the CCI (Italian Football Confederation) in 1921. When CCI teams rejoined the FIGC created two interregional divisions renaming Categories into Divisions and splitting FIGC sections into two North-South leagues. In 1926, due to internal crises, the FIGC changed internal settings, adding southern teams to the national division, ultimately leading to the 1929–30 final settlement. No title was awarded in 1927 after Torino were stripped of the championship by the FIGC. Torino were declared champions in the 1948–49 season following a plane crash near the end of the season in which the entire team was killed.
The Serie A Championship title is often referred to as the scudetto ("small shield") because since the 1924–25 season, the winning team will bear a small coat of arms with the Italian tricolour on their strip in the following season. The most successful club is Juventus with 32 championships, followed by both Milan and Internazionale, with 18 championships apiece. From 2004–05 onwards, an actual trophy was awarded to club on the pitch after the last turn of the championship. The trophy, called the Coppa Campioni d'Italia, has officially been used since the 1960–61 season, but between 1961 and 2004 was consigned to the winning clubs at the head office of the Lega Nazionale Professionisti.
On 30 April 2009, Serie A announced a split from Serie B. Nineteen of the twenty clubs voted in favour of the move in an argument over television rights; the relegation-threatened Lecce had voted against the decision. Maurizio Beretta, the former head of Italy's employers' association, became president of the new league.
On 14 April 2016, it was announced that Serie A was selected by the International Football Association Board to test video replays, which will initially be private for the 2016–17 season, before allowing them to become a live pilot phase with replay assistance by the 2017–18 season at the latest. On the decision, FIGC President Carlo Tavecchio said, "We were among the first supporters of using technology on the pitch and we believe we have everything required to offer our contribution to this important experiment."
In the past, individual clubs competing in the league had the rights to sell their broadcast rights to specific channels throughout Italy, unlike in most other European countries. Currently, the two broadcasters in Italy are the satellite broadcaster Sky Italia and terrestrial broadcaster Mediaset Premium for its own pay television networks; RAI is allowed to broadcast only highlights (in exclusive from 13:30 to 22:30 CET). This is a list of television rights in Italy (until 2009–10):
- Sky Italia (all matches)
- Mediaset Premium (all matches of Milan, Inter, Juventus, Lazio, Roma, Napoli and matches in house and guests of the above teams of Genoa, Atalanta, Chievo, Bari)
- RAI (highlights)
For the 2010–11 and 2011–12 seasons, Serie A clubs negotiating club TV rights collectively rather than individually for the first time since 1998–99. The domestic rights for those two seasons were sold for €1.149 billion to Sky Italia.
Global rights for the 2010–11 and 2011–12 seasons were sold for €181.5 million to MP & Silva.
In countries and territories outside of Italy, the league is broadcast on:
- Rai Italia (numerous countries in several continents)
- BT Sport (United Kingdom)
- CBC Sport (Azerbaijan)
- Setanta Sports (Ireland)
- beIN Sports (Spain)
- Benfica TV (Portugal)
- Teleclub (Switzerland)
- beIN Sports USA (United States as well as Canada while not having a broadcast channel)
- TV Esporte Interativo, Fox Sports (Brazil)
- ESPN Latin America (Latin America, Brazil and Caribbean)
- CCTV5 (China)
- Sony ESPN (India)
- beIN Sports (Middle East and North Africa)
- Astro SuperSport (Malaysia)
- Kompas TV (Indonesia)
- Neo Sports, TrueVisions (Thailand)
- mio TV (Singapore)
- Fox Sports (Netherlands)
- OTE Sport (Greece)
- Eleven Sports Network (Poland)
- NTV Turkey (Turkey)
- bTV Action, RING (Bulgaria)
- Arenasport (Croatia)
- Digi Sport (Romania)
- Arena Sport (Serbia)
- SuperSport (Albania)
- IPKO (Kosovo)
- Multichoice (South Africa)
- In televizija (Montenegro)
- Sport 5 (Israel)
- HiTV (Nigeria)
- Sport1 (Lithuania)
- Canal9 (Denmark and Norway)
- Sportbox (Mongolia)
- Stöð 2 Sport (Iceland)
- beIN Sports (Australia)
In the 1990s, Serie A was at its most popular in the United Kingdom when it was shown on Channel 4, although it has actually appeared on more UK channels than any other league, rarely staying in one place for long since 2002. Serie A has appeared in the UK on BSB Sports Channel (1990–91), Sky Sports (1991–92), Channel 4 (1992–2002), Eurosport (2002–04), Setanta Sports and Bravo (2004–07), Channel 5 (2007–08), ESPN (2009–13) and BT Sport (since 2013). In Mexico, Televisa Deportes Network HD two games delay in the week.
- Main article: List of Italian football champions
Bold indicates clubs which will play in the 2016–17 Serie A.
- The 2004–05 and 2005–06 titles were initially won by Juventus but were rescinded due to the Calciopoli scandal. The 2004–05 title remained unassigned while the 2005–06 scudetto was reassigned to Inter.
- A decoration was awarded to Spezia in 2002 by the FIGC for the 1944 wartime championship. However, the FIGC has stated that it cannot be considered as a scudetto.
- The 1926–27 title was initially won by Torino, but was rescinded due to the Allemandi match fixing scandal.
||Juventus (32), Torino (7),|
||Milan (18), Inter Milan (18)|
||Genoa (9), Sampdoria (1)|
||Pro Vercelli (7)|
||Roma (3), Lazio (2)|
||Juventus (32), Torino (7), Pro Vercelli (7), Casale (1), Novese (1)|
||Milan (18), Internazionale (18)|
||Genoa (9), Sampdoria (1)|
||Roma (3), Lazio (2)|
|4||Gianluigi Buffon||1995–||Parma, Juventus||601|
|5||Gianluca Pagliuca||1987–2007||Sampdoria, Internazionale, Bologna, Ascoli||592|
|6||Dino Zoff||1961–1983||Udinese, Mantova, Napoli, Juventus||570|
|7||Pietro Vierchowod||1980–2000||Como, Fiorentina, Roma, Sampdoria, Juventus, Milan, Piacenza||562|
|8||Roberto Mancini||1981–2001||Bologna, Sampdoria, Lazio||541|
|9||Silvio Piola||1929–1954||Pro Vercelli, Lazio, Juventus, Novara||537|
|10||Enrico Albertosi||1958–1980||Fiorentina, Cagliari, Milan||532|
|1||Silvio Piola||1929–1954||Pro Vercelli, Lazio, Juventus, Novara||274|
|3||Gunnar Nordahl||1948–1958||Milan, Roma||225|
|4||José Altafini||1958–1976||Milan, Napoli, Juventus||216|
|4||Giuseppe Meazza||1929–1947||Internazionale, Milan, Juventus||216|
|6||Antonio Di Natale||2002–2016||Empoli, Udinese||209|
|7||Roberto Baggio||1986–2004||Fiorentina, Juventus, Milan, Bologna, Internazionale, Brescia||205|
|8||Kurt Hamrin||1956–1971||Juventus, Padova, Fiorentina, Milan, Napoli||190|
|9||Giuseppe Signori||1991–2004||Foggia, Lazio, Sampdoria, Bologna||188|
|9||Alessandro Del Piero||1993–2012||Juventus||188|
|9||Alberto Gilardino||1999–||Piacenza, Verona, Parma, Milan, Fiorentina, Genoa, Bologna, Palermo, Empoli||188|
Unlike La Liga, which imposed a quota on the number of non-EU players on each club, Serie A clubs could sign as many non-EU players as available on domestic transfer.
During the 1980s and 1990s, most Serie A clubs signed a large number of players from foreign nations (both EU and non-EU members). Notable foreign players to play in Serie A during this era included England internationals Paul Gascoigne and David Platt, France's Michel Platini and Laurent Blanc, Lothar Matthaus and Jurgen Klinsmann from Germany, Dutchmen Ruud Gullit and Dennis Bergkamp, and Argentina's Diego Maradona.
But since the 2003–04 season, a quota has been imposed on each of the clubs limiting the number of non-EU, non-EFTA and non-Swiss players who may be signed from abroad each season, following provisional measures introduced in the 2002–03 season, which allowed Serie A and B clubs to sign only one non-EU player in the 2002 summer transfer window.
In the middle of the 2000–01 season, the old quota system was abolished, which no longer limited each team to having more than five non-EU players and using no more than three in each match. Concurrent with the abolishment of the quota, the FIGC had investigated footballers that used fake passports. Alberto and Warley, Alejandro Da Silva and Jorginho Paulista of Udinese; Fábio Júnior and Gustavo Bartelt of Roma; Dida of Milan; Álvaro Recoba of Inter; Thomas Job, Francis Zé, Jean Ondoa of Sampdoria; and Jeda and Dede of Vicenza were all banned in July 2001 for lengths ranging from six months to one year. However, most of the bans were subsequently reduced.
The number of non-EU players was reduced from 265 in 2002–03 season to 166 in 2006–07 season. It also included players who received EU status after their respective countries joined the EU (see 2004 and 2007 enlargement), which made players such as Adrian Mutu, Valeri Bojinov, Marek Jankulovski and Marius Stankevičius EU players.
Since the 2008–09 season, three quotas have been awarded to clubs that do not have non-EU players in their squad (previously only newly promoted clubs could have three quotas); clubs that have one non-EU player have two quotas. Those clubs that have two non-EU players, are awarded one quota and one conditional quota, which is awarded after: 1) Transferred 1 non-EU player abroad, or 2) Release 1 non-EU player as free agent, or 3) A non-EU player received EU nationality. Clubs with three or more non-EU players, have two conditional quotas, but releasing two non-EU players as free agent, will only have one quota instead of two. Serie B and Lega Pro clubs cannot sign non-EU player from abroad, except those followed the club promoted from Serie D.
Large clubs with many foreigners usually borrow quotas from other clubs that have few foreigners or no foreigners in order to sign more non-EU players. For example, Adrian Mutu joined Juventus via Livorno in 2005, as at the time Romania was not a member of the EU. Other examples include Júlio César, Victor Obinna and Maxwell, who joined Internazionale from Chievo (first two) and Empoli respectively.
On 2 July 2010, the above conditional quota reduced back to one, though if a team did not have any non-EU players, that team could still sign up to three non-EU players. In 2011 the signing quota reverted to two.
Serie A also imposed Homegrown players rule, a modification of Homegrown Player Rule (UEFA). Unlike UEFA, Serie A at first did not capped number of players in first team squad at 25, making the club could employ more foreigners by increasing the size of the squad. However, a cap of 25 (under-21 players were excluded) was introduced to 2015–16 season (in 2015–16 season, squad simply require 8 homegrown players but not require 4 of them from their own youth team). In the 2016–17 season, the FIGC sanctioned Sassuolo for fielding ineligible player, Antonino Ragusa. Although the club did not exceed the capacity of 21 players that were not from their own youth team (only Domenico Berardi was eligible as youth product of their own) as well as under 21 of age (born 1995 or after, of which four players were eligible) in their 24-men call-up, It was reported that on Lega Serie A side the squad list was not updated.
In 2015–16 season, the following quota was announced.
|Size of First team squad||Local + club youth product|
|<=25||min. 8 (max. 4 NOT from own youth team)|
FIFA World Players of the Year
- Lothar Matthäus: 1991 (Internazionale)
- Marco van Basten: 1992 (Milan)
- Roberto Baggio: 1993 (Juventus)
- George Weah: 1995 (Milan2)
- Ronaldo: 19972 and 20021 (Internazionale)
- Zinedine Zidane: 1998, 2000 (Juventus)
- Pavel Nedvěd: 2003 (Juventus)
- Fabio Cannavaro: 2006 (Juventus1)
- Kaká: 2007 (Milan)
1Player was a member of the club for the first half of the calendar year (The second part of a finished season - January to May)
2Player was a member of the club for the second half of the calendar year (The first part of a new season - August to December)
Official match ball
- 2007–2008: Nike T90 Aerow II
- 2008–2009: Nike T90 Omni
- 2009–2010: Nike T90 Ascente
- 2010–2011: Nike T90 Tracer
- 2011–2012: Nike Seitiro
- 2012–2013: Nike Maxim
- 2013–2014: Nike Incyte
- 2014–present: Nike Ordem
Until 1993, Serie A matches were all played at the same time,on Sunday afternoon at 2:30 p.m. or 4:30 p.m. (depending on the number of hours of daylight). For the 1993–94 season, Lega Calcio made a notable change: a deferred match, scheduled for Sunday evening at 8:30 p.m. (8:45 p.m. from 2009–10) was made possible. This format was changed again in 1999–2000, due to the emergence of pay television in Italian football:
- Saturday: two matches, the first at 6 p.m and the second at 8:45;
- Sunday: most of a matchday begins at 3 p.m, while a deferred match is still possible.
In 2004, due to the presence of 20 teams, it also became possible to play in midweek: on Wednesday evening, with some matches on Tuesday and others on Thursday (at 8:45). In 2010, a "lunch match" was introduced: a match played on Sunday at 12:30. Finally, for a few weeks, matches can be played on Friday or on Monday (in the evenings).
List of Lega Serie A presidents
- List of foreign Serie A players
- Coppa Campioni d'Italia
- Italian football clubs in international competitions
- UEFA coefficient
- List of Italian football club owners
- Campionato Nazionale Primavera
- The Big Five Leagues
- "The world's strongest national leagues 2014". IFFHS. 19 January 2015. Archived from the original on 20 January 2015.
- Ashby, Kevin (2007-05-24). "Serie A reiterates star quality". UEFA.com. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
- "UEFA Country Ranking 2011". Retrieved 9 August 2010.
- "Member associations - Italy - Honours –". uefa.com.
- "Page 21: official statistical records recognized by FIGC" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "G-14's members". g14.com. Retrieved 12 September 2006.
- "European Footballer of the Year ("Ballon d'Or")". RSSSF.com. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
- "Milan top of the world!". Channel4.com. Archived from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
- "Europe's club of the Century". International Federation of Football History & Statistics. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- "Juventus building bridges in Serie B". fifa.com. Retrieved 20 November 2006.
- Fourth most successful European club for confederation and FIFA competitions won with 11 titles. Fourth most successful club in Europe for confederation club competition titles won (11), cf. "Confermato: I più titolati al mondo!" (in Italian). A.C. Milan S.p.A official website. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- In addition, Juventus were the first club in association football history to have won all possible confederation competitions (e.g. the international tournaments organised by UEFA) and remain the only in the world to achieve this, cf. "Legend: UEFA club competitions". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. 21 August 2006. Archived from the original on 2010-01-31. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
"1985: Juventus end European drought". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. 8 December 1985. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- "FIFA Club World Championship TOYOTA Cup: Solidarity – the name of the game" (PDF). FIFA Activity Report 2005. Zurich: Fédération Internationale de Football Association: 62. April 2004 – May 2005. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
- "We are the champions". Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 2005-12-01. Retrieved 2009-10-28.
- "Inter join exclusive treble club". uefa.com. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "Le "7 sorelle" dell'Italcalcio tornano a spendere all'estero - IlGiornale.it".
- "Calcio al via, uno scudetto per sette sorelle - Avvenire.it".
- Serie A al via: le sette sorelle sono tornate
- "IL PUNTO DI CM.IT - Dalla 'paziente' Juventus al Napoli 'esaurito': come perdono le nostre big".
- "Calciomercato Serie A, le nuove formazioni delle 'sette sorelle'".
- UEFA.com. "UEFA Champions League - UEFA.com".
- "Serie A to form breakaway league - BBC Sport". BBC News. 2009-04-30. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Serie A clubs to set up their own league". Bleacher Report.
- "Serie A set for breakaway". SkySports. 2009-04-30. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Italian league splits in two after meeting ends in stalemate". London: Guardian. 2009-04-30. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Serie A selected by IFAB to test video replay". sportsnet.ca. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Italian clubs cross fingers over TV ruling". FourFourTwo. fourfourtwo.com. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
- "Serie A TV rights sell for 181.5 million". FourFourTwo. fourfourtwo.com. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
- "Italy - All-Time Most Matches Played in Serie A". RSSSF.com. 24 August 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "Italy - All-Time Topscorers". RSSSF.com. 24 August 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- "Italy blocks non-EU players". UEFA.com. 2003-03-05. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
- "Italians bar non-EU imports". UEFA.com. 2002-07-17. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
- "Milan challenge non-EU rule". BBC Sport. 2000-11-03. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
- "Fake passport scandal hits Serie A". BBC News. 2000-10-08. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
- "Lazio hit with passport charges". BBC News. 2001-05-08. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
- Kennedy, Frances (2001-06-28). "Players banned over false passport scandal". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
- "COMUNICATO STAMPA: CONSIGLIO FEDERALE" (PDF). FIGC (in Italian). 21 June 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
- "Comunicato n° 090 del 25 agosto 2004" (PDF). FIGC (in Italian). 25 August 2004. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- "Comunicato n° 225 del 13 giugno 2005" (PDF). FIGC (in Italian). 13 June 2005. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- "Comunicato n° 7 dell' 8 giugno 2006" (PDF). FIGC (in Italian). 8 June 2006. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- "Comunicato n° 8 dell' 8 giugno 2006" (PDF). FIGC (in Italian). 8 June 2006. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- "Comunicato n° 023/A del 21 giugno 2007" (PDF). FIGC (in Italian). 21 June 2007. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- "Comunicato n° 003/A del 3 luglio 2008/" (PDF) (in Italian). FIGC. 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2010-02-01.
- "Coumunicato Stampa" [Press Release] (PDF). The Federal Council (in Italian). FIGC. 2 July 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
- "Su extracomunitari, vivai, Club Italia e Settori le prime misure della FIGC". FIGC (in Italian). 2 July 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
- "C.U. N°6/A (2010–11)" (PDF). FIGC (in Italian). 5 July 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "C.U. N°6/A (2011–12): Tesseramento extracomunitari" (PDF). The Federal Council (in Italian). FIGC. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "Comunicato Ufficiale N°7/A (2011–12)" (PDF). Consiglio Federale (in Italian). FIGC. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
- "C.U. N°83/A (2014–15)" (PDF). Consiglio Federale (in Italian). FIGC. 20 November 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
- "C.U. N°24 (2016–17)" (PDF) (in Italian). Lega Serie A. 30 August 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
- "SASSUOLO-PESCARA: sono 24 i convocati neroverdi" (in Italian). U.S. Sassuolo Calcio. 27 August 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
- "Comunicato Ufficiale" (in Italian). U.S. Sassuolo Calcio. 30 August 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- In 2003, UEFA allowed its federations to change the Kick-off times of matches depending upon the weather: for example in August, matches can be put back at 6 or 7 p.m (instead of 3) in case of warm weather. Likewise, in winter, matches can be at 5 or 6 (rather than 8:45).
- "Lega di A: gli organi dirigenti". FC Internazionale Milano (in Italian). www.inter.it. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010. External link in
- "Comunicato Ufficiale n° 1". Comunicati Segreteria - Lega Serie A (in Italian). 1 July 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- In the 1990s, when the term originated, Parma was seen as one the Seven Sisters and Napoli was not included
- These titles were revoked through the courts following the Calciopoli Scandal.