Sayyid Qutb on trial in 1966 under the Gamal Abdel Nasser regime
9 October 1906|
Mūshā, Asyut Governorate, Khedivate of Egypt
29 August 1966 59) (aged|
|Main interest(s)||Islam, politics, Quranic exegesis (tafsir)|
|Notable idea(s)||Jahiliyyah, Ubudiyya|
|Notable work(s)||Milestones, In the Shade of the Quran|
Sayyid Qutb (// or //; Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [ˈsæjjed ˈʔotˤb], Arabic: [ˈsæjjɪd ˈqʊtˤb]; Arabic: سيد قطب Sayyid Quṭb; also spelled Said, Syed, Seyyid, Sayid, Sayed; Koteb, Qutub, Kotb, Kutb; 9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966) was an Egyptian author, educator, Islamic theorist, poet, and the leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1966 he was convicted of plotting the assassination of Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser and was executed by hanging.
Author of 24 books, including novels, literary arts critique and works on education, he is best known in the Muslim world for his work on what he believed to be the social and political role of Islam, particularly in his books Social Justice and Ma'alim fi al-Tariq (Milestones). His magnum opus, Fi Zilal al-Quran (In the Shade of the Qur'an), is a 30-volume commentary on the Quran.
During most of his life, Qutb's inner circle mainly consisted of influential politicians, intellectuals, poets and literary figures, both of his age and of the preceding generation. By the mid-1940s, many of his writings were officially among the curricula of schools, colleges and universities.
Even though most of his observations and criticism were leveled at the Muslim world, Qutb is also known for his intense disapproval of the society and culture of the United States, which he saw as obsessed with materialism, violence, and sexual pleasures. Views on Qutb vary widely. He has been described by followers as a great thinker and martyr for Islam, while many Western observers see him as a key originator of Islamist ideology. Others in the West believe Qutb is an inspiration for violent groups such as al-Qaeda. Today, his supporters are identified by their opponents as "Qutbists" or "Qutbi".
Life and public career
Qutb was born on 9 October 1906. He was raised in the Egyptian village of Musha, located in Upper Egypt's Asyut Province. His father was a landowner and the family estate's administrator, but he was also well known for his political activism, holding weekly meetings to discuss the political events and Qur'anic recitation. At this young age, Sayyid Qutb first learned about melodic recitations of the Qur'an, which would fuel the artistic side of his personality. In his teens, Qutb was critical of the religious institutions with which he came into contact, holding in contempt the way in which those institutions were used to form public opinion and thoughts. He had a special disdain, however, for schools that specialized in religious studies only, and sought to prove that local schools that held regular academic classes as well as religion were more beneficial than the unevenness of the religious school program. At this time, Qutb developed his bent against the imams and their traditional approach to education. This confrontation would persist throughout his life.
He moved to Cairo where between 1929 and 1933 he received an education based on the British style of schooling before starting his career as a teacher in the Ministry of Public Instruction. During his early career, Qutb devoted himself to literature as an author and critic, writing such novels as Ashwak (Thorns) and even helped to elevate Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz from obscurity. In 1939, he became a functionary in Egypt's Ministry of Education (wizarat al-ma'arif).
From 1948 to 1950, he went to the United States on a scholarship to study its educational system, spending several months at Colorado State College of Education (now the University of Northern Colorado) in Greeley, Colorado. Qutb's first major theoretical work of religious social criticism, Al-'adala al-Ijtima'iyya fi-l-Islam (Social Justice in Islam), was published in 1949, during his time in the West.
Though Islam gave him much peace and contentment, he suffered from respiratory and other health problems throughout his life and was known for "his introvertedness, isolation, depression and concern." In appearance, he was "pale with sleepy eyes." Qutb never married, in part because of his steadfast religious convictions. While the urban Egyptian society he lived in was becoming more Westernized, Qutb believed the Quran taught women that 'Men are the managers of women's affairs ...' Qutb lamented to his readers that he was never able to find a woman of sufficient "moral purity and discretion" and had to reconcile himself to bachelorhood.
It was clear from his childhood that Qutb valued education, playing the part of a teacher to the women in his village:
Syed Qutb from a young age would save up his money for a man called Amsaalih, who used to sell books around the local villages. He would have a big collection of books, and another small collection specifically for Syed Qutb. If Syed never had the money, he would tell him that I don't have the money now, so let me borrow it and I'll give it you next time you come around. And Amsaalih would let him do that. At the age of 12, he had his own library collection of 25 books, even though books were really expensive during that time. He would imitate the scholars by reading the books, and then give lectures to the rest of the village. If any women needed any information, they would wait till Syed Qutb came back from school, and ask him to share the knowledge he had to them. In many occasions he would be shy because he was a young man, but in some occasions he would go and teach the knowledge he had to the people who asked him.
Two years in America
Time in the United States, pursuing further studies in educational administration, cemented some of Qutb's views. Over two years, he worked and studied at Wilson Teachers' College in Washington, D.C. (one of the precursors to today's University of the District of Columbia), Colorado State College for Education in Greeley, and Stanford University. He visited the major cities of the United States and spent time in Europe on his journey home.
On his return to Egypt, Qutb published "The America that I Have Seen." He was critical of things he had observed in the United States: its materialism, individual freedoms, economic system, racism, brutal boxing matches, "poor" haircuts, superficiality in conversations and friendships, restrictions on divorce, enthusiasm for sports, lack of artistic feeling, "animal-like" mixing of the sexes (which "went on even in churches"), and strong support for the new Israeli state. Hisham Sabrin, noted that:
As a brown person in Greeley, Colorado in the late 40s studying English he came across much prejudice. He was appalled by what he perceived as loose sexual openness of American men and women (a far cry from his home of Musha, Asyut). This American experience was for him a fine-tuning of his Islamic identity. He himself tells us on his boat trip over "Should I travel to America, and become flimsy, and ordinary, like those who are satisfied with idle talk and sleep. Or should I distinguish myself with values and spirit. Is there other than Islam that I should be steadfast to in its character and hold on to its instructions, in this life amidst deviant chaos, and the endless means of satisfying animalistic desires, pleasures, and awful sins? I wanted to be the latter man."
Qutb noted with disapproval the sexuality of American women:
the American girl is well acquainted with her body's seductive capacity. She knows it lies in the face, and in expressive eyes, and thirsty lips. She knows seductiveness lies in the round breasts, the full buttocks, and in the shapely thighs, sleek legs – and she shows all this and does not hide it.
He also commented on the American taste in arts:
The American is primitive in his artistic taste, both in what he enjoys as art and in his own artistic works. "Jazz" music is his music of choice. This is that music that the Negroes invented to satisfy their primitive inclinations, as well as their desire to be noisy on the one hand and to excite bestial tendencies on the other. The American's intoxication in "jazz" music does not reach its full completion until the music is accompanied by singing that is just as coarse and obnoxious as the music itself. Meanwhile, the noise of the instruments and the voices mounts, and it rings in the ears to an unbearable degree… The agitation of the multitude increases, and the voices of approval mount, and their palms ring out in vehement, continuous applause that all but deafens the ears.
Return to Egypt
Qutb concluded that major aspects of American life were primitive and "shocking", a people who were "numb to faith in religion, faith in art, and faith in spiritual values altogether". His experience in the U.S. is believed to have formed in part the impetus for his rejection of Western values and his move towards Islamism upon returning to Egypt. Resigning from the civil service, he joined the Muslim Brotherhood in the early 1950s and became editor-in-chief of the Brothers' weekly Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin, and later head of its propaganda section, as well as an appointed member of the working committee and of its guidance council, the highest branch in the organization.
Nasser and Qutb's death
In July 1952, Egypt's pro-Western government was overthrown by the nationalist Free Officers Movement headed by Gamal Abdel Nasser. Both Qutb and the Muslim Brotherhood welcomed the coup against the monarchist government – which they saw as un-Islamic and subservient to British imperialism – and enjoyed a close relationship with the movement prior to and immediately following the coup. Nasser would go the house of Syed Qutb and ask him for ideas about the Revolution. Many members of the Brotherhood expected Nasser to establish an Islamic government. However, the cooperation between the Brotherhood and Free Officers which marked the revolution's success soon soured as it became clear the secular nationalist ideology of Nasserism was incompatible with the Islamism of the Brotherhood.
Nasser had secretly set up an organisation that would sufficiently oppose the Muslim Brotherhood once he came to power. This organisation was called "Tahreer" ("freedom" in Arabic). It was well known that the Brotherhood were made popular by their extensive social programs in Egypt, and Nasser wanted to be ready once he had taken over. At this time, Qutb did not realize Nasser's alternate plans, and would continue to meet with him, sometimes for 12 hours a day, to discuss a post monarch Egypt. Once Qutb realized that Nasser had taken advantage of the secrecy between the Free Officers and the Brotherhood, he promptly quit. Nasser then tried to persuade Qutb by offering him any position he wanted in Egypt except its Kingship, saying:
We will give you whatever position you want in the government, whether it's the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Arts, etc.
Qutb refused every offer, having understood the reality of Nasser's plans. Upset that Nasser would not enforce a government based on Islamic ideology, Qutb and other Brotherhood members orchestrated a plot to assassinate the Egyptian president in 1954. The attempt was foiled and Qutb was jailed soon afterwards; the Egyptian government used the incident to justify a crackdown on various members of the Muslim Brotherhood for their vocal opposition towards the Nasser administration. During his first three years in prison, conditions were bad and Qutb was tortured. In later years he was allowed more mobility, including the opportunity to write.
This period saw the composition of his two most important works: a commentary of the Qur'an Fi Zilal al-Qur'an (In the Shade of the Qur'an), and a manifesto of political Islam called Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq (Milestones). These works represent the final form of Qutb's thought, encompassing his radically anti-secular and anti-Western claims based on his interpretations of the Qur'an, Islamic history, and the social and political problems of Egypt. The school of thought he inspired has become known as Qutbism.
Qutb was let out of prison at the end of 1964 at the behest of the Prime Minister of Iraq, Abdul Salam Arif, for only 8 months before being rearrested in August 1965. He was accused of plotting to overthrow the state and subjected to what some consider a show trial. Many of the charges placed against Qutb in court were taken directly from Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq and he adamantly supported his written statements. The trial culminated in a death sentence for Qutb and six other members of the Muslim Brotherhood. He was sentenced to death for his part in the conspiracy to assassinate the President and other Egyptian officials and personalities, though he was not the instigator or leader of the actual plot. On 29 August 1966, he was executed by hanging.
Evolution of thought, views and statements
Qutb held that belief in matters that cannot be seen (or are imperceptible) was an important sign of man's ability to accept knowledge from fields outside of science:
The concept of the imperceptible is a decisive factor in distinguishing man from animal. Materialist thinking, ancient as well as modern, has tended to drag man back to an irrational existence, with no room for the spiritual, where everything is determined by sensory means alone. What is peddled as 'progressive thought' is no more than dismal regression.
Different theories have been advanced as to why Qutb turned away from his secularist tendencies towards Islamic sharia. One common explanation is that the conditions he witnessed in prison from 1954–1964, including the torture and murder of Muslim Brothers, convinced him that only a government bound by Islamic law could prevent such abuses. Another is that Qutb's experiences in America as a darker-skinned person and the insufficiently anti-Western policies of Nasser demonstrated to him the powerful and dangerous allure of ignorance (jahiliyyah) – a threat unimaginable, in Qutb's estimation, to the secular mind. Two excerpts of the opening of his book Milestones contain the following view:
It is necessary for the new leadership to preserve and develop the material fruits of the creative genius of Europe, and also to provide mankind with such high ideals and values as have so far remained undiscovered by mankind, and which will also acquaint humanity with a way of life which is harmonious with human nature, which is positive and constructive, and which is practicable.
Democracy in the West has become infertile to such an extent that it is borrowing from the systems of the Eastern bloc, especially in the economic system, under the name of socialism. It is the same with the Eastern bloc. Its social theories, foremost among which is Marxism, in the beginning attracted not only a large number of people from the East but also from the West, as it was a way of life based on a creed. But now Marxism is defeated on the plane of thought, and if it is stated that not a single nation in the world is truly Marxist, it will not be an exaggeration. On the whole this theory conflicts with man's nature and its needs. This ideology prospers only in a degenerate society or in a society which has become cowed as a result of some form of prolonged dictatorship. But now, even under these circumstances, its materialistic economic system is failing, although this was the only foundation on which its structure was based. Russia, which is the leader of the communist countries, is itself suffering from shortages of food. Although during the times of the Tsars Russia used to produce surplus food, it now has to import food from abroad and has to sell its reserves of gold for this purpose. The main reason for this is the failure of the system of collective farming, or, one can say, the failure of a system which is against human nature.
Finally, Qutb offered his own explanation in Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq, arguing that anything non-Islamic was evil and corrupt, while following sharia as a complete system extending into all aspects of life, would bring every kind of benefit to humanity, from personal and social peace, to the "treasures" of the universe.
In general, Qutb's experiences as an Egyptian Muslim – his village childhood, professional career, and activism in the Muslim Brotherhood – left an indelible mark on his theoretical and religious works. Even Qutb's early, secular writing shows evidence of his later themes. For example, Qutb's autobiography of his childhood Tifl min al-Qarya (A Child From the Village) makes little mention of Islam or political theory and is typically classified as a secular, literary work. However, it is replete with references to village mysticism, superstition, the Qur'an, and incidences of injustice. Qutb's later work developed along similar themes, dealing with Qur'anic exegesis, social justice, and political Islam.
Qutb's career as a writer also heavily influenced his philosophy. In al-Taswiir al-Fanni fil-Quran (Artistic Representation in the Qur'an), Qutb developed a literary appreciation of the Qur'an and a complementary methodology for interpreting the text. His hermeneutics were applied in his extensive commentary on the Qur'an, Fi zilal al-Qur'an (In the Shade of the Quran), which served as the foundation for the declarations of Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq.
Late in his life, Qutb synthesized his personal experiences and intellectual development in the famous Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq, a religious and political manifesto for what he believed was a true Islamic system. It was also in this text that Qutb condemned Muslim governments, such as Abdul Nasser's regime in Egypt, as secular with their legitimacy based on human (and thus corrupt), rather than divine authority. This work, more than any other, established Qutb as one of, if not the premier Islamists of the 20th century.
Qutb, dissatisfied with the Muslim condition, identified the dire situation of modern-day Islam as having two principal causes for its dismal state of affairs: the first being that many Muslims forsook their faith in the holy Qur'an, an action which disturbed the cosmic balance in the world, and which, in turn, led to a second cause that encouraged the virulent spread of a secular culture within Muslim societies, and which, with the assistance of Western imperialism and colonialism that distorted the existing order, was one of the chief causes that led many Muslims to stray from the right path, and which, in his view, represented the new Jahiliyyah in all its glory.
Events that led from secularism to Islam
Qutb told people of his shift from secularism to Islam.
His journey started when he studied the Qur'an in a literal way, and he slowly began to understand the principles lined in the religion. Then something happened to him in America to remove his doubts. He says; that while he was going to America, he was on the boat (ferry), and he saw the way the boat he was travelling in – was rocking in the huge sea – all under the control of Allah without it sinking or capsizing. At that point he realized the power of Allah. He said Iman (belief) entered into his heart due to this. His second scenario was in San Francisco, when he went on top of a mountain, and he could see the whole of creation in front of him, and he realized the beauty and harmony that existed amongst the creation as a whole. He said that, the sweetness of Iman hit him.
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Qutb's mature political views always centered on Islam – Islam as a complete system of morality, justice and governance, whose sharia laws and principles should be the sole basis of governance and everything else in life – though his interpretation of it varied. Qutb's political philosophy has been described as an attempt to instantiate a complex and multilayer eschatological vision, partly grounded in the counter-hegemonic re-articulation of the traditional ideal of Islamic universalism.
Following the 1952 coup, he espoused a 'just dictatorship' that would 'grant political liberties to the virtuous alone.' Later he wrote that rule by sharia law would require essentially no government at all. In an earlier work, Qutb described military jihad as defensive, Islam's campaign to protect itself, while later he believed jihad must be offensive.
On the issue of Islamic governance, Qutb differed with many modernist and reformist Muslims who claimed that democracy was Islamic because the Quranic institution of Shura supported elections and democracy. Qutb pointed out that the Shura chapter of the Qur'an was revealed during the Mekkan period, and therefore, it does not deal with the problem of government. It makes no reference to elections and calls only for the ruler to consult some of the ruled, as a particular case of the general rule of Shura.
Qutb also opposed the then popular ideology of Arab nationalism, having become disillusioned with the 1952 Nasser Revolution after having been exposed to the regime's practices of arbitrary arrest, torture, and deadly violence during his imprisonment.
View on the harmony of man
Qutb felt strongly that the world was meant to serve man if understood properly. He wrote:
"Islam teaches that God created the physical world and all its forces for man's own use and benefit. Man is specifically taught and directed to study the world around him, discover its potential and utilize all his environment for his own good and the good of his fellow humans. Any harm that man suffers at the hands of nature is a result only of his ignorance or lack of understanding of it and of the laws governing it. The more man learns about nature, the more peaceful and harmonious his relationship with nature and the environment. Hence, the notion of "conquering nature" can readily be seen as cynical and negative. It is alien to Islamic perceptions and betrays a shameless ignorance of the spirit in which the world has been created and the divine wisdom that underlies it."
Jahiliyyah versus freedom
This exposure to abuse of power undoubtedly contributed to the ideas in his famous prison-written Islamic manifesto Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq (Milestones), where he advocated a political system that is the opposite of dictatorship; i.e., one with no government. There Qutb argued:
- Much of the Muslim world approaches the Qur'an as a means to simply acquire culture and information, to participate in academic discussions and enjoyment. This evades the real purpose, for rather, it should be approached as a means to change society, to remove man from the enslavement of other men to the servitude of God.
- Rather than support rule by a pious few, (whether a dictator(s) or democratically elected), Muslims should resist any system where men are in "servitude to other men" – i.e. obey other men – as un-Islamic and a violation of God's sovereignty (Hakamiyya) over all of creation. A truly Islamic polity would have no rulers – not even have theocratic ones – since Muslims would need neither judges nor police to obey divine law. It was what one observer has called "a kind of anarcho-Islam."
- The way to bring about this freedom was for a revolutionary vanguard to fight jahiliyyah with a twofold approach: preaching, and abolishing the organizations and authorities of the Jahili system by "physical power and Jihad."
- The vanguard movement would grow with preaching and jihad until it formed a truly Islamic community, then spread throughout the Islamic homeland and finally throughout the entire world, attaining leadership of humanity. While those who had been "defeated by the attacks of the treacherous Orientalists!" might define jihad "narrowly" as defensive, Islamically correct Jihad (according to Qutb) was in fact offensive, not defensive.
Qutb emphasized that this struggle would be anything but easy. True Islam would transform every aspect of society, eliminating everything non-Muslim. True Muslims could look forward to lives of "poverty, difficulty, frustration, torment and sacrifice." Jahili ersatz-Muslims, Jews and Westerners would all fight and conspire against Islam and the elimination of jahiliyyah.
Though his work has motivated and mobilized some Muslims, Qutb also has critics. Following the publication of Milestones and the aborted plot against the Nasser government, mainstream Muslims took issue with Qutb's contention that "physical power" and jihad had to be used to overthrow governments, attack societies, and the "institutions and traditions" of the Muslim – but according to Qutb jahili – world. The ulama of Al-Azhar University school took the unusual step following his death of putting Sayyid Qutb on their index of heresy, declaring him a "deviant" (munharif).
Reformist Muslims, on the other hand, questioned his understanding of sharia, i.e. that it is not only perfect and complete, but completely accessible to people and thus the solution to any of their problems. Also criticized is his dismissal of not only all non-Muslim culture, but many centuries of Muslim learning, culture and beauty following the first four caliphs as un-Islamic and thus worthless.
Conservative criticism went further, condemning Qutb's Islamist/reformist ideas—such as social justice and redistributive economics, banning of slavery, – as "western" and bid‘ah or innovative (innovations to Islam being forbidden). They have accused Qutb of amateur scholarship, overuse of ijtihad, innovation in Ijma (which Qutb felt should not be limited to scholars, but should be conducted by all Muslims), declaring unlawful what Allah has made lawful, assorted mistakes in aqeedah (belief) and manhaj (methodology).
Alongside notable Islamists like Maulana Mawdudi, Hasan al-Banna, and Ruhollah Khomeini, Qutb is considered one of the most influential Muslim thinkers or activists of the modern era, not only for his ideas but also for what many see as his martyr's death. According to authors Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, "it was Sayyid Qutb who fused together the core elements of modern Islamism: the Kharijites' takfir, ibn Taymiyya's fatwas and policy prescriptions, Rashid Rida's salafism, Maududi's concept of the contemporary jahiliyya and Hassan al-Banna's political activism."
Qutb's written works are still widely available and have been translated into many Western languages. His best known work is Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq (Milestones), but the majority of Qutb's theory can be found in his Qur'anic commentary Fi zilal al-Qur'an (In the Shade of the Quran). This 30-volume work is noteworthy for its innovative method of interpretation, borrowing heavily from the literary analysis of Amin al-Khuli, while retaining some structural features of classical commentaries (for example, the practice of progressing from the first sura to the last). For Qutb, the Qur'an was seen as the final arbiter in all matters relating to faith, while his main goal in writing the book, In the Shade of the Qur’an, was to restore the centrality of faith in the consciousness and imagination of Muslims, and to kindle a cognitive revolution that would bring about a political and social process that will lead to the renewal of the Islamic tradition.
The influence of his work extends to issues such as Westernization, modernization, and political reform and the theory of inevitable ideological conflict between "Islam and the West" (see Clash of civilizations), the notion of a transnational umma, and the comprehensive application of jihad.
Al-Qaeda and Islamic Jihad
Qutb had influence on Islamic insurgent/terror groups in Egypt and elsewhere. His influence on al-Qaeda was felt through his writing, his followers and especially through his brother, Muhammad Qutb, who moved to Saudi Arabia following his release from prison in Egypt and became a professor of Islamic Studies and edited, published and promoted his brother Sayyid's work.
One of Muhammad Qutb's students and later an ardent follower was Ayman Zawahiri, who went on to become a member of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad and later a mentor of Osama bin Laden and a leading member of al-Qaeda. Zawahiri was first introduced to Qutb by his uncle and maternal family patriarch, Mafouz Azzam, who was very close to Qutb throughout his life. Azzam was Qutb's student, then protégé, then personal lawyer and executor of his estate – one of the last people to see Qutb before his execution. According to Lawrence Wright, who interviewed Azzam, "young Ayman al-Zawahiri heard again and again from his beloved uncle Mahfouz about the purity of Qutb's character and the torment he had endured in prison." Zawahiri paid homage to Qutb in his work Knights under the Prophet's Banner.
Osama bin Laden was also acquainted with Sayyid's brother, Muhammad Qutb. A close college friend of bin Laden's, Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, told Wright, that bin Laden regularly attended weekly public lectures by Muhammad Qutb, at King Abdulaziz University, and that he and bin Laden both "read Sayyid Qutb. He was the one who most affected our generation."
While imprisoned in Yemen, Anwar al-Awlaki became influenced by the works of Qutb. He would read 150–200 pages a day of Qutb's works, describing himself during the course of his reading as "so immersed with the author I would feel Sayyid was with me in my cell speaking to me directly."
On the other hand, associate professor of history at Creighton University, John Calvert, states that "the al-Qaeda threat" has "monopolized and distorted our understanding" of Qutb's "real contribution to contemporary Islamism."
Recognition in The 9/11 Commission Report
Chapter 2 of The 9/11 Commission Report (2004), "The Foundation of the New Terrorism," cites Qutb for influencing Osama Bin Laden's worldview in these terms:
[Qutb] dismissed Western achievements as entirely material, arguing that 'nothing will satisfy its own conscience and justify its existence.'[n. 12]
Three basic themes emerge from Qutb's writings. First, he claimed that the world was beset with barbarism, licentiousness, and unbelief (a condition he called jahiliyya, the religious term for the period of ignorance prior to the revelations given to the Prophet Mohammed). Qutb argued that humans can choose only between Islam and jahiliyya. Second, he warned that more people, including Muslims, were attracted to jahiliyya and its material comforts than to his view of Islam; jahiliyya could therefore triumph over Islam. Third, no middle ground exists in what Qutb conceived as a struggle between God and Satan. All Muslim – as he defined them – therefore must take up arms in this fight. Any Muslim who rejects his ideas is just one more nonbeliever worthy of destruction.
- Mahammat al-Sha'ir fi'l-Hayah wa Shi'r al-Jil al-Hadir (The Task of the Poet in Life and the Poetry of the Contemporary Generation), 1933
- al-Shati al-Majhul (The Unknown Beach), 1935
- Naqd Kitab: Mustaqbal al-Thaqafa fi Misr (Critique of a Book by Taha Husain: the Future of Culture in Egypt), 1939
- Al-Taswir al-Fanni fi'l-Qu'ran (Artistic Imagery in the Qur'an), 1945
- Al-Atyaf al-Arba'a (The Four Apparitions), 1945
- Tifl min al-Qarya (A Child from the Village), 1946
- Al-Madina al-Mashura (The Enchanted City), 1946
- Kutub wa Shakhsiyyat (Books and Personalities), 1946
- Askwak (Thorns), 1947
- Mashahid al-Qiyama fi'l-Qur'an (Aspects of Resurrection in the Qu'ran), 1946
- Al-Naqd al-Adabi: Usuluhu wa Manahijuhu (Literary Criticism: Its Foundation and Methods'), 1948
- "The America I Have Seen," 1949, reprinted in Kamal Abdel-Malek, ed., 2000, America in an Arab Mirror: Images of America in Arabic Travel Literature: An Anthology, Palgrave. PDF from Portland State University.
- Al-Adala al-Ijtima'iyya fi'l-Islam (Social Justice in Islam), 1949
- Ma'rakat al-Islam wa'l-Ra's Maliyya (The Battle Between Islam and Capitalism), 1951
- Al-Salam al-'Alami wa'l-Islam (World Peace and Islam), 1951
- Fi Zilal al-Qur'an (In the Shade of the Qur'an), first installment 1954
- Dirasat Islamiyya (Islamic Studies), 1953
- Hadha'l-Din (This Religion is Islam), n.d. (after 1954)
- Al-Mustaqbal li-hadha'l-Din (The Future of This Religion), n.d. (after 1954)
- Khasais al-Tasawwur al-Islami wa Muqawamatuhu (The Characteristics and Values of Islamic Conduct), 1960
- Al-Islam wa Mushkilat al-Hadara (Islam and the Problems of Civilization), n.d. (after 1954)
- Ma'alim fi'l-Tariq (Signposts on the Road, or Milestones), 1964 (Reviewed by Yvonne Ridley)
- Basic Principles of Islamic Worldview
- The Islamic Concept and Its Characteristics
- Islam and universal peace
- Fi zilal al-Qur'an
- Islam and antisemitism
- Taqiuddin al-Nabhani
- The Power of Nightmares
- Although the photo is from other sources, it is identified on the BBC Documentary The Power of Nightmares as being the only known photo of Qutb at his trial immediately preceding his execution.
- "Qutb". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
- The Political Thoughts of Sayyed Qutb, Ch. 3, p. 56
- PBS program America at the crossroads.
- David Von Drehle, A Lesson In Hate Smithsonian Magazine
- 'Qutb: Between Terror And Tragedy' by Hisham Sabrin at the Wayback Machine (archived 27 September 2007) quoting Hourani, A. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age: 1798–1939. Cambridge University Press, 1962. and Mitchell, Richard S. The Society of The Muslim Brotherhood. Oxford University Press, 1969.
- Interview with Dr Abdel Moneim Abul Fotouh – Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood leader 8 May 2008
- "Syed Qutb". Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- The Osama Bin Laden I Know By Peter L. Bergen pp. 18–20
- Robert Irwin, "Is this the man who inspired Bin Laden?" The Guardian (1 November 2001).
- Paul Berman, "The Philosopher of Islamic Terror", New York Times Magazine (23 March 2003).
- Out of the Shadows: Getting ahead of prisoner radicalization
- Trevor Stanley. "The Evolution of Al-Qaeda: Osama bin Laden and Abu Musab al-Zarqawi". Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism by Dale C. Eikmeier. From Parameters, Spring 2007, pp. 85–98.
- Pioneers of Islamic revival By ʻAlī Rāhnamā, p. 175
- Some sources (e.g., US Library of Congress) give 1903.
- Khalidy, Saleh. Sayyid Qutb: From Birth to Martydom. Dar Al-Qalam 3rd edition 1999.
- Sayyed said about the Qur'an: "Allah has bestowed upon me with the life in the shades of the Qur'an for a period of time, I have tasted, during it, of his grace and beneficence, what I have never tasted at all in my life." Fi Zilal al-Qur'an, Introduction, 1st Chapter.
- Hamudah, Adil, Sayyid Qutb: min al-qarya ila al-mashnaqa (Cairo, Ruz al-Yusuf, 1987), pp. 60–61, quoted in Moussalli (1992), p. 35
- Shepard, William, Sayyid Qutb and Islamic Activism: a translation and critical analysis of Social Justice in Islam Leiden, EJ. Brill, 1996, p. 62
- Qutb, Sayyid, Dan-bat al-tatawwur, Majallat al-Shu'un al-Ijtima'iyya fi al-Islam, 1940, pp. 6, 43–6, quoted in Calvert (2000)
- The Lives of Hassan elBanna & Syed Qutb, p. 15
- "Encyclopedia of World Biography", 2004
- Excerpt from Qutb's article "Amrika allati Ra'aytu" (The America That I Have Seen)
- Qutb, Milestones, p. 139
- Calvert, John (2000), "'The World is an Undutiful Boy!': Sayyid Qutb's American Experience," Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, Vol. II, No. 1, pp. 87–103:98.
- 1953 according to Calvert (2000), 1951 according to Kepel (1985)
- "Qutb, a one-time literary critic, was not a religious fundamentalist, but a Goebbels-style propagandist for a new totalitarianism to stand side-by-side with fascism and communism." Islamism, fascism and terrorism (Part 2) by Marc Erikson; 8 November 2002, Asia Times Online
- "Others, such as Sayyid Qutb, the Muslim Brotherhood's leading intellectual, or bin Laden's first theological mentor, Abdallah Azzam, a Palestinian Sheikh who first conceptualised global jihad, have laid out the theological tenets of jihadist terrorism better than he [Osama bin Laden]." "People of the decade: From Osama to Obama", 25 December 2009, The National
- "About that time Sayyid Qutb accepted an appointment to head the Muslim Brothers' propaganda department, called the Propagation of the Message Section." "Sayyid Qutb: The Karl Marx of the Islamic Revolution"
- "It is evidence of ideological continuity with the radical Islamist propaganda coming from wartime Berlin. Qutb fused the radical anti-Semitism of modern European history with a radical anti-Semitism rooted in a detailed reading of the Koran. Qutb continued and expanded on the project of cultural fusion and selective appropriation of the traditions of Islam that Husseini and his associates in wartime Berlin had performed." 2009 Nazi Propaganda for the Arab World 2009, Jeffrey Herf
- "Upon his return to Egypt, he formally joined the Muslim Brotherhood and became the head of its propaganda (tabligh) department." Cultural transitions in the Middle East (1994), Şerif Mardin
- "Sayyid Qutb (1906–66) of Egypt provides another example. He became the intellectual spokesman for the Muslim Brotherhood." Muslims: their religious beliefs and practices (2005), Andrew Rippi
- "The basic texts of the Muslim Brotherhood and allied movements contain openly anti-Jewish rather than anti-Zionist propaganda....Texts such as the books of Sayyid Qutb – often called the father of radical militant jihad, who was executed in Egypt in the days of Gamal Abdel Nasser – targeted Judaism." The changing face of antisemitism: from ancient times to the present day (2006), Walter Laqueur
- "In 1953 he formalized his Islamist leanings by joining the Muslim Brotherhood. He was appointed head of its propaganda department and used his position to try to convince 'Abd al-Nasser and the officers to implement Islamic law in Egypt." Islamism: a documentary and reference guide (2008), John Calvert
- "In their propaganda, they increasingly refer to Jahiliyah, a term used most often to reference the pagan time before the rise of Islam literally 'ignorance' – to signify the modern era. This application of the term Jahiliyah to modern government and situations was made popular by Sayyid Qutb, a key ideologue of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt..." Islamic radicalism and global jihad (2009) Devin R. Springer, James L. Regens, David N. Edger
- "Foreign visitors to Syria reported...that textbooks and religious propaganda were offered for sale or distribution in the streets to all seekers; it was said that the works of Sayyid Qutb were available." Asad's legacy: Syria in transition (2001), Eyal Ziser
- Moussalli, Radical Islamic Fundamentalism, (1992), pp. 31–32
- The Life of Syed Qutb, The Revolution Happens, p. 24
- Hassan elBanna & Syed Qutb, p. 24
- Ami Isseroff (December 7, 2008). "Sayyid Qutb". Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Berman, Terror and Liberalism, (2003), p. 63
- Hasan, S. Badrul, Syed Qutb Shaheed, Islamic Publications International, 2nd ed. 1982
- Sivan (1985) p. 93.
- Fouad Ajami, "In the Pharaoh's Shadow: Religion and Authority in Egypt," Islam in the Political Process, editor James P. Piscatori, Cambridge University Press, 1983, pp. 25–26.
- Fi Dhalal al Qur'an, vol. 1, p. 35
- [Milestones, 1964, Syed Qutb, p. 1
- Qutb, Milestones, pp. 90, 32
- Sayed Khatab, Hakimiyyah and Jahiliyyah in the Thought of Sayyid Qutb, Taylor & Francis, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2002 p. 162; Khatab, Sayed (2002). ""Hakimiyyah" and "Jahiliyyah" in the Thought of Sayyid Qutb". Middle Eastern Studies. 38 (3): 145–170. JSTOR 4284246. (registration required (. ))
- The Lives of Hassan elBanna & Syed Qutb, p. 18
- Mura, Andrea (2014). "The Inclusive Dynamics of Islamic Universalism: From the Vantage Point of Sayyid Qutb's Critical Philosophy". Comparative Philosophy. San Jose State University. 5 (1): 29–54. ISSN 2151-6014.
- Sivan, Emmanuel, Radical Islam : Medieval Theology and Modern Politics, Yale University Press, 1985, p. 73
- al-Akhbar, August 8, 1952
- Qutb, Social Justice in Islam
- Berman, Terror and Liberalism (2003), p. 98
- Stahl, A.E. "'Offensive Jihad' in Sayyid Qutb's Ideology." International Institute for Counter-Terrorism. 24/03/2011.
- Sivan, Radical Islam, 1985, p. 73
- The Jew Is Not My Enemy: Unveiling the Myths That Fuel Muslim Anti-Semitism by Tarek Fatah, Random House LLC, 2011, pp. 33–34
- In the Shade of the Qur'an, Vol. 1, p. 6
- Milestones, Ch. 1, p. 7
- "assemblies of men which have absolute power to legislate laws" is un-Islamic as well (Milestones, p. 82)
- Freedom in Milestones
- Qutb, Milestones, pp. 85, 32
- Though Qutb's program for a vanguard to lead a revolutionary bears some resemblance to Vladimir Lenin's Communist Party, he was strongly opposed to all Western ideologies, Communism included.
- Qutb, Milestones, (2003) pp. 63, 69
- Milestones, pp. 130, 134
- major architects and "strategists" of contemporary Islamic revival
- Kepel, Jihad, 1986, p. 58
- Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq#Sharia
- Abou El Fadl, The Great Theft (2005), p. 1982
- Meddeb, Malady of Islam (2003), p. 104
- REFORMER SAYYID QUTB EXPOSES HIS SOCIALISTIC IDEAS at the Wayback Machine (archived 23 February 2007)
- REFORMER SAYYID QUTB ADVISES THAT GOVERNMENT SHOULD CONFISCATE INDIVIDUAL PROPERTY at the Wayback Machine (archived 23 February 2007)
- REFORMER SAYYID QUTB INTERPRETS THE ZAKAT OF ISLAM ERRENOUSLY at the Wayback Machine (archived 24 February 2007)
- "Author of Saudi Curriculums Advocates Slavery". SIA News. Archived from the original on November 7, 2003. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Taming a Neo-Qutubite Fanatic Part 1" (PDF). salafi publications, abdurrahman.org. p. 24. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
Questioner: ... one of the contemporary writers is of the view that this religion, at its inception, was compelled to accept the institution of slavery ... [but] ... that the intent of the Legislator [i.e. God] is to gradually end this institution of slavery. So what is your view on this?
Shaikh Salih alFawzaan: These are words of falsehood (baatil) ... despite that many of the writers and thinkers – and we do not say scholars – repeat these words. Rather we say that they are thinkers (mufakkireen), just as they call them. And it is unfortunate, that they also call them `Du'at' (callers). And this (type of statement) is found in the tafsir of Sayyid Qutb in Dhilaal ul-Qura'aan. He says 'Islam does not affirm slavery, but it only allowed it to remain out of fear that the people may turn to despotism, that they may disapprove of its abolition since they had been accustomed to it. Hence Islaam has allowed ti to continue out of courtesy to the people.' ... These words are falsehood and (constitute) deviation (ilhaad) ... This is deviation and a false accusation against Islaam. And if it had not been for the excuse of ignorance [because] we excuse them on account of (their) ignorance so we do not say that they are Unbelievers because they are ignorant and are blind followers .... Otherwise, these statements are very dangerous and if a person said them deliberately he would become apostate and leave Islaam. ..." Source: Cassette Recording dated 4/8/1416 and subsequently verified by the Sahikh himself with a few minor alterations to the wording.
- Moussalli, Ahmad S., Radical Islamic Fundamentalism: the Ideological and Political Discourse of Sayyid Qutb by Ahmad S. Moussalli, American University of Beirut, 1992 p. 223
- Cassette: "Sharh Kitaab Masaail ul-Jaahiliyyah", 2nd cassette, 2nd side.
- Baraaah Ulamaa il-Ummah of Isaam bin Sinaanee (a compilation of the sayings of the scholars on the deviations of Sayyid Qutb)
- Abdullaah ad-Dawaish, 'al-Mawrid az-Zalaal fit -Tanbeeh alaa Akhtaa az-Zilaal'
- Sivan, Emmanuel, Radical Islam : Medieval Theology and Modern Politics, Yale University, 1985
- "Muslim extremism in Egypt: the prophet and pharaoh", p. 59 "... The iniquitous prince, who had usurped God's sovereignty and made himself the object of worship of his subjects, had the Islamicist theoretician hanged on 29 August 1966. Sazyyid Qutb thereby acquired the status of shahid, or martyr, in the eyes of his admirers."
- The Age of Sacred Terror by Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, p. 62
- Shahrough Akhavi, The Dialectic in Contemporary Egyptian Social Thought: The Scripturalist and Modernist Discourses of Sayyid Qutb and Hasan Hanafi, Cambridge University Press, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2007 p. 379; Akhavi, Shahrough (1997). "The Dialectic in Contemporary Egyptian Social Thought: The Scripturalist and Modernist Discourses of Sayyid Qutb and Hasan Hanafi". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 29 (3): 377–401. JSTOR 164586. (registration required (. ))
- Kepel, War for Muslim Minds, (2004) pp. 174–75
- Kepel, Jihad, (2002), p. 51
- Sageman, Marc, Understanding Terror Networks, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004, p. 63
- "How Did Sayyid Qutb Influence Osama bin Laden?". Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- Wright, Looming Tower, 2006, pp. 36–7
- "Sayyid_Qutbs_Milestones". Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- Wright, Looming Tower, 2006, p. 79
- Scott Shane; Souad Mekhennet & Robert F. Worth (May 8, 2010). "Imam's Path From Condemning Terror to Preaching Jihad". The New York Times. Retrieved May 13, 2010.
- Sayyid Qutb and the Origins of Radical Islamism By John Calvert
- Content of n. 12: Sayyid Qutb, Milestones (American Trust Publications, 1990). Qutb found sin everywhere, even in rural midwestern churches. Qutb's views were best set out in Sayyid Qutb, "The America I Have Seen" (1949), reprinted in Kamal Abdel-Malek, ed., America in an Arab Mirror: Images of America in Arabic Travel Literature: An Anthology (Palgrave, 2000). PDF from Portland State University.
- The 9/11 Commission Report (2004), Authorized Edition, pp. 50, 466 (n. 12).
- Valentine, Simon Ross, Sayyid Qutb: Terrorism & the Origins of Militant Islam", American Chronicle, December 2008.
- From Secularism to Jihad: Sayyid Qutb and the Foundations of Radical Islamism – Adnan A. Musallam
- The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb: The Theory of Jahiliyyah (2006)- Sayed Khatab
- The Power of Sovereignty: The Political And Ideological Philosophy of Sayyid Qutb (2006)- Sayed Khatab
- The Political Theory of Sayyid Qutb: A Genealogy of Discourse (2004)- Mohamed Soffar
- Radical Islamic Fundamentalism: The Ideological and Political Discourse of Sayyid Qutb – Ahmad S. Moussalli
- Abou El Fadl, Khalid (2005). The Great Theft. Harper San Francisco.
- Berman, Paul (2003). Terror and Liberalism. W. W. Norton.
- Burke, Jason (2004). Al Qaeda: The True Story of Radical Islam. Penguin.
- Calvert, John (2000), "'The World is an Undutiful Boy!': Sayyid Qutb's American Experience," Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, Vol. II, No.1, pp. 87–103:98.
- Calvert, John (2010). Sayyid Qutb and the Origins of Radical Islamism. Hurst & Co / Columbia University Press.
- Curtis, Adam (2005). The Power of Nightmares: The Rise of the Politics of Fear. BBC.
- Damir-Geilsdorf, Sabine (2003). Der islamische Wegbereiter Sayyid Qutb und seine Rezeption. Würzburg.
- Haddad, Yvonne Y. (1983). "Sayyid Qutb: ideologue of Islamic revival". In Esposito, J. Voices of the Islamic Revolution.
- Kepel, Gilles (1985). The Prophet and Pharaoh: Muslim Extremism in Egypt. Jon Rothschild (trans.). Al Saqi. ISBN 0-86356-118-7.
- Kepel, Gilles (2004). The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West. Pascale Ghazaleh (trans.). Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01575-4.
- Kepel, Gilles (2002). Jihad: the trail of political Islam. Anthony F. Roberts (trans.). Al Saqi. ISBN 0-674-00877-4.
- March, Andrew F. (2010) "Taking People as They Are: Islam as a 'Realistic Utopia' in the Political Theory of Sayyid Qutb," American Political Science Review, Vol. 104, No. 1.
- Meddeb, Abelwahab (2003). The Malady of Islam. Pierre Joris and Ann Reid (translators). Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-04435-2.
- Moussalli, Ahmad S. (1992). Radical Islamic Fundamentalism: the Ideological and Political Discourse of Sayyid Qutb. American University of Beirut.
- Mura, Andrea (2014). "The Inclusive Dynamics of Islamic Universalism: From the Vantage Point of Sayyid Qutb's Critical Philosophy". Comparative Philosophy. San Jose State University. 5 (1): 29–54. ISSN 2151-6014.
- Mura, Andrea (2015). The Symbolic Scenarios of Islamism: A Study in Islamic Political Thought. London: Routledge.
- Soffar, Mohamed (2004) The Political Theory of Sayyid Qutb: A Genealogy of Discourse. Berlin: Verlag Dr. Koester, 1st ed. Missing or empty
- Qutb, Sayyid (2003). Milestones. Kazi Publications. ISBN 1-56744-494-6.
- Qutb, Sayyid (2003). J. Calvert; W. Shepard, eds. A Child From the Village. Calvert, John; Shepard, William (trans.). Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0-8156-0805-5.
- Qutb, Sayyid (2000). Social justice in Islam. John B. Hardie; revised by Hamid Algar (trans.). Islamic Publications International. ISBN 1-889999-11-3.
- Shepard, William E. (1996). Sayyid Qutb and Islamic Activism. A Translation and Critical Analysis of "Social Justice in Islam". Leiden.
- Sivan, Emmanuel (1985). Radical Islam : Medieval Theology and Modern Politics. Yale University Press.
- Wright, Lawrence (2006). The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-375-41486-2.
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