Pole vault

Pole vault

An athlete in the middle of the vaulting phase
Men's records
World Renaud Lavillenie 6.16 m (20 ft 212 in) (2014)
Olympic Thiago Braz da Silva 6.03 m (19 ft 914 in) (2016)
Women's records
World Yelena Isinbayeva 5.06 m (16 ft 7 in) (2009)
Olympic Yelena Isinbayeva 5.05 m (16 ft 634 in) (2008)

Pole vaulting is a track and field event in which a person uses a long, flexible pole (which today is usually made either of fiberglass or carbon fiber) as an aid to jump over a bar. Pole jumping competitions were known to the ancient Greeks, Cretans and Celts. It has been a full medal event at the Olympic Games since 1896 for men and 2000 for women.

It is typically classified as one of the four major jumping events in athletics, alongside the high jump, long jump and triple jump. It is unusual among track and field sports in that it requires a significant amount of specialised equipment in order to participate, even at a basic level. A number of elite pole vaulters have had backgrounds in gymnastics, including world record breakers Yelena Isinbayeva and Brian Sternberg, reflecting the similar physical attributes required for the sports.[1][2] Running speed, however, may be the most important skill required.


Pole vault in the 1890s at US Naval Academy
Traditional fierljeppen in the Netherlands, using poles to clear distances over rivers

Poles were used as a practical means of passing over natural obstacles in marshy places such as provinces of Friesland in the Netherlands, along the North Sea, and the great level of the Fens across Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Lincolnshire and Norfolk. Artificial draining of these marshes created a network of open drains or canals intersecting each other. To cross these without getting wet, while avoiding tedious roundabout journeys over bridges, a stack of jumping poles was kept at every house and used for vaulting over the canals. Venetian gondoliers have traditionally used punting poles for moving to the shore from their boat.

Distance pole vaulting competitions continue to be held annually in the lowlands around the North Sea. These far-jumping competitions (Frysk: Fierljeppen) are not based on height.[3]

In his book The Mechanics of the Pole Vault, Richard Ganslen reports that the London Gymnastic Society under Professor Voelker held measured pole vaulting events in 1826, involving 1,300 participants and recording heights up to 10 ft 10 in (3.3 m).[4] Other early pole vaulting competitions where height was measured took place at the Ulverston Football and Cricket Club, Lancashire, north of the sands (now Cumbria) in 1843.[5] Modern competition began around 1850 in Germany, when pole vaulting was added to the exercises of the Turner gymnastic clubs by Johann C. F. GutsMuths and Friedrich L. Jahn. In Great Britain, it was first practiced at the Caledonian Games.

Initially, vaulting poles were made from stiff materials such as bamboo or aluminum. The introduction of flexible vaulting poles in the early 1950s made from composites such as fiberglass or carbon fiber allowed vaulters to achieve greater height.[6] Physical attributes such as speed, agility and strength are essential to pole vaulting effectively, but technical skill is an equally if not more important element. The object of pole vaulting is to clear a bar or crossbar supported upon two uprights (standards) without knocking it down.

Pole vaulter Allison Stokke prepares for her jump

Modern vaulting

Today, athletes compete in the pole vault as one of the four jumping events in track and field. Because the high jump and pole vault are both vertical jumps, the competitions are conducted similarly. Each athlete can choose what height they would like to enter the competition. Once they enter, they have three attempts to clear the height. If a height is cleared, the vaulter advances to the next height, where they will have three more attempts. Once the vaulter has three consecutive misses, they are out of the competition and the highest height they cleared is their result. A "no height", often denoted "NH", refers to the failure of a vaulter to clear any bar during the competition.

Once the vaulter enters the competition, they can choose to pass heights. If a vaulter achieves a miss on their first attempt at a height, they can pass to the next height, but they will only have two attempts at that height, as they will be out once they achieve three consecutive misses. Similarly, after earning two misses at a height, they could pass to the next height, when they would have only one attempt.

An athlete passes the bar with the aid of a pole

The competitor who clears the highest height is the winner. If two or more vaulters have finished with the same height, the tie is broken by the number of misses at the final height. If the tied vaulters have the same number of misses at the last height cleared, the tie is broken by the total number of misses in the competition.

If there is still a tie for first place, a jump-off occurs to break the tie. Marks achieved in this type of jump-off are considered valid and count for any purpose that a mark achieved in a normal competition would.

If a tie in the other places still exists, a jump-off is not normally conducted, unless the competition is a qualifying meet, and the tie exists in the final qualifying spot. In this case, an administrative jump-off is conducted to break the tie, but the marks are not considered valid for any other purpose than breaking the tie.

A jump-off is a sudden death competition in which the tied vaulters attempt the same height, starting with the last attempted height. If both vaulters miss, the bar goes down by a small increment, and if both clear, the bar goes up by a small increment. A jump-off ends when one vaulter clears and the other misses. Each vaulter gets one attempt at each height until one makes and one misses.

The equipment and rules for pole vaulting are similar to the high jump. Unlike high jump, however, the athlete in the vault has the ability to select the horizontal position of the bar before each jump and can place it a distance beyond the back of the box, the metal pit that the pole is placed into immediately before takeoff. The range of distance the vaulter may place the standards varies depending on the level of competition.

Painting by former athlete Raffaello Ducceschi depicting the pole vault

If the pole used by the athlete dislodges the bar from the uprights, a foul attempt is ruled, even if the athlete has cleared the height. An athlete does not benefit from quickly leaving the landing pad before the bar has fallen. The exception to this rule if the vaulter is vaulting outdoors and has made a clear effort to throw the pole back, but the wind has blown the pole into the bar; this counts as a clearance. This call is made at the discretion of the pole vault official. If the pole breaks during the execution of a vault, it is considered an equipment failure and is ruled a non-jump, neither a make nor a miss. Other types of equipment failure include the standards slipping down or the wind dislodging the bar when no contact was made by the vaulter.

Each athlete has a set amount of time in which to make an attempt. The amount of time varies by level of competition and the number of vaulters remaining. If the vaulter fails to begin an attempt within this time, the vaulter is charged with a time foul and the attempt is a miss.

Poles are manufactured with ratings corresponding to the vaulter's maximum weight. Some organizations forbid vaulters to use poles rated below their weight as a safety precaution. The recommended weight corresponds to a flex rating that is determined by the manufacturer by placing a standardized amount of stress (most commonly a 50 lb weight) on the pole and measuring how much the center of the pole is displaced. Therefore, two poles rated at the same weight are not necessarily the same stiffness.

Because pole stiffness and length are important factors to a vaulter's performance, it is not uncommon for an elite vaulter to carry as many as ten poles to a competition. The effective properties of a pole can be changed by gripping the pole higher or lower in relation to the top of the pole. The left and right handgrips are typically a bit more than shoulder width apart. Poles are manufactured for people of all skill levels and body sizes, with sizes as short as 3.05 m (10 feet) to as long as 5.30 m (17 feet 4.5 inches), with a wide range of weight ratings. Each manufacturer determines the weight rating for the pole and the location of the maximum handhold band.

However speed is the most essential element to higher jumps, because the energy produced by the run (1/2 x mass x speed^2) is converted to vertical propulsion (mass x height x gravity(9.81)).


Competitive pole vaulting began using solid ash poles. As the heights attained increased, the bamboo poles gave way to tubular aluminum,[7] which was tapered at each end. Today's pole vaulters benefit from poles produced by wrapping pre-cut sheets of fiberglass that contains resin around a metal pole mandrel, to produce a slightly curved pole that bends more easily under the compression caused by an athlete's take-off. The shape of the fiberglass sheets and the amount of fiberglass used is carefully planned to provide the desired length and stiffness of pole. Different fiber types, including carbon-fiber, are used to give poles specific characteristics intended to promote higher jumps. In recent years, carbon fiber has been added to the commonly used E-glass and S-glass materials to create a lighter pole.

As in the high jump, the landing area was originally a heap of sawdust or sand where athletes landed on their feet. As technology enabled higher vaults, mats evolved into bags of large chunks of foam. Today's high-tech mats are foam usually 1–1.5 meters (3 ft 3 in–4 ft 11 in) thick. Mats are growing larger in area as well to minimize risk of injury. Proper landing technique is on the back or shoulders. Landing on the feet should be avoided, to eliminate the risk of injury to the lower extremities, particularly ankle sprains.

Rule changes over the years have resulted in larger landing areas and additional padding of all hard and unyielding surfaces.

The pole vault crossbar has evolved from a triangular aluminum bar to a round fiberglass bar with rubber ends. This is balanced on standards and can be knocked off when it is hit by a pole vaulter or the pole. Rule changes have led to shorter pegs and crossbar ends that are semi-circular.


Phases of Pole Vaulting

Although many techniques are used by vaulters at various skill levels to clear the bar, the generally accepted technical model can be broken down into several phases:


During the approach the pole vaulter sprints down the runway in such a way as to achieve maximum speed and correct position to initiate takeoff at the end of the approach. Top class vaulters use approaches with 18 to 22 strides, often referred to as a "step" in which every other foot is counted as one step. The run-up to the vaulting pit begins forcefully with the vaulter running powerfully in a relaxed, upright position with knees lifted and torso leaning very slightly forward. The head, shoulders and hips are aligned, the vaulter increasing speed as the body becomes erect. The tip of the vaulting pole is angled higher than eye level until three paces from takeoff, when the pole tip descends efficiently, amplifying run speed as the pole is planted into the vault box. The faster the vaulter can run and the more efficient his/her take-off is, the greater the kinetic energy that can be achieved and used during the vault.

Plant and take-off

The plant and take off is initiated typically three steps out from the final step. Vaulters will usually count their steps backwards from their starting point to the box only counting the steps taken on the left foot (vice versa for left-handers) except for the second step from the box, which is taken by the right foot. For example; a vaulter on a "ten count" (referring to the number of counted steps from the starting point to the box) would count backwards from ten, only counting the steps taken with the left foot, until the last three steps taken and both feet are counted as three, two, one. These last three steps are normally quicker than the previous strides and are referred to as the "turn-over". The goal of this phase is to efficiently translate the kinetic energy accumulated from the approach into potential energy stored by the elasticity of the pole, and to gain as much initial vertical height as possible by jumping off the ground. The plant starts with the vaulter raising his arms up from around the hips or mid-torso until they are fully outstretched above his head, with the right arm extended directly above the head and the left arm extended perpendicular to the pole (vice versa for left-handed vaulters). At the same time, the vaulter is dropping the pole tip into the box. On the final step, the vaulter jumps off the trail leg which should always remain straight and then drives the front knee forward. As the pole slides into the back of the box the pole begins to bend and the vaulter continues up and forward, leaving the trail leg angled down and behind him.

Swing up

The swing and row simply consists of the vaulter swinging his trail leg forward and rowing the pole, bringing his top arm down to the hips, while trying to keep the trail leg straight to store more potential energy into the pole, the rowing motion also keeps the pole bent for a longer period of time for the vaulter to get into optimum position. Once in a "U" shape the left arm hugs the pole tight to efficiently use the recoil within the pole. The goal is to carry out these motions as thoroughly and as quickly as possible; it is a race against the unbending of the pole. Effectively, this causes a double pendulum motion, with the top of the pole moving forward and pivoting from the box, while the vaulter acts as a second pendulum pivoting from the right hand. This action gives the vaulter the best position possible to be "ejected" off the pole. The swing continues until the hips are above the head and the arms are pulling the pole close to the chest; from there the vaulter shoots his legs up over the cross bar while keeping the pole close.


The extension refers to the extension of the hips upward with outstretched legs as the shoulders drive down, causing the vaulter to be positioned upside down. This position is often referred to as "inversion". While this phase is executed, the pole begins to recoil, propelling the vaulter quickly upward. The hands of the vaulter remain close to his body as they move from the shins back to the region around the hips and upper torso.


The turn is executed immediately after or even during the end of the rockback. As the name implies, the vaulter turns 180° toward the pole while extending the arms down past the head and shoulders. Typically the vaulter will begin to angle his body toward the bar as the turn is executed, although ideally the vaulter will remain as vertical as possible. A more accurate description of this phase of the vault may be "the spin" because the vaulter spins around an imaginary axis from head to toe.


This is often highly emphasized by spectators and novice vaulters, but it is arguably the easiest phase of the vault and is a result of proper execution of previous phases. This phase mainly consists of the vaulter pushing off the pole and releasing it so it falls away from the bar and mats. As his/her body goes over and around the bar, the vaulter is facing the bar. Rotation of the body over the bar occurs naturally, and the vaulter's main concern is making sure that his/her arms, face and any other appendages do not knock the bar off as he/she goes over. The vaulter should land near the middle of the foam landing mats, or pits, face up.


All-time top 25 athletes

Men (comprehensive)

Rank Mark Athlete Date Venue Ref
1 6.16 m (20 ft 212 in)  Renaud Lavillenie (FRA) 15 February 2014 Donetsk (indoor)
2 6.15 m (20 ft 2 in)  Sergey Bubka (UKR) 21 February 1993 Donetsk (indoor)
3 6.06 m (19 ft 1012 in)  Steve Hooker (AUS) 7 February 2009 Boston (indoor)
4 6.05 m (19 ft 10 in)  Maksim Tarasov (RUS) 16 June 1999 Athens
 Dmitri Markov (AUS) 9 August 2001 Edmonton
6 6.04 m (19 ft 934 in)  Brad Walker (USA) 8 June 2008 Eugene
7 6.03 m (19 ft 914 in) Okkert Brits (RSA) 18 August 1995 Cologne
 Jeff Hartwig (USA) 14 June 2000 Jonesboro
 Thiago Braz da Silva (BRA) 15 August 2016 Rio de Janeiro [13]
10 6.02 m (19 ft 9 in)  Radion Gataullin (URS) 4 February 1989 Gomel (indoor)
11 6.01 m (19 ft 812 in)  Igor Trandenkov (RUS) 4 July 1996 Saint Petersburg
 Timothy Mack (USA) 18 September 2004 Monaco
 Yevgeny Lukyanenko (RUS) 1 July 2008 Bydgoszcz
 Björn Otto (GER) 5 September 2012 Aachen
15 6.00 m (19 ft 8 in)  Tim Lobinger (GER) 27 August 1997 Cologne
 Toby Stevenson (USA) 8 May 2004 Modesto
 Paul Burgess (AUS) 25 February 2005 Perth
 Jean Galfione (FRA) 6 March 1999 Maebashi (indoor)
 Danny Ecker (GER) 11 February 2001 Dortmund (indoor)
6.00 m (19 ft 8 in) A  Shawnacy Barber (CAN) 15 January 2016 Reno (indoor) [14]
21 5.98 m (19 ft 714 in)  Lawrence Johnson (USA) 25 May 1996 Knoxville
22 5.97 m (19 ft 7 in)  Scott Huffman (USA) 18 June 1994 Knoxville
23 5.96 m (19 ft 612 in)  Joe Dial (USA) 18 June 1987 Norman (indoor)
24 5.95 m (19 ft 614 in)  Andrei Tivontschik (GER) 16 August 1996 Cologne
 Michael Stolle (GER) 18 August 2000 Monaco
 Romain Mesnil (FRA) 6 August 2003 Castres


Below is a list of vaults equal or superior to 6.00m.

Women (comprehensive)

Rank Mark Athlete Date Place Ref
1 5.06 m (16 ft 7 in)  Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS) 28 August 2009 Zürich
2 5.03 m (16 ft 6 in)  Jennifer Suhr (USA) 30 January 2016 Brockport (indoor) [15]
3 5.00 m (16 ft 434 in)  Sandi Morris (USA) 9 September 2016 Brussels [16]
4 4.91 m (16 ft 114 in)  Yarisley Silva (CUB) 2 August 2015 Beckum
5 4.90 m (16 ft 034 in)  Ekaterini Stefanidi (GRE) 20 February 2016 New York City (indoor) [17]
 Demi Payne (USA) 20 February 2016 New York City (indoor) [18]
7 4.88 m (16 ft 0 in)  Svetlana Feofanova (RUS) 4 July 2004 Iraklio
8 4.87 m (15 ft 1112 in)  Holly Bleasdale (GBR) 21 January 2012 Villeurbanne (indoor)
 Fabiana Murer (BRA) 3 July 2016 São Bernardo do Campo [19]
10 4.85 m (15 ft 1034 in)  Anna Rogowska (POL) 6 March 2011 Paris (indoor)
 Anzhelika Sidorova (RUS) 21 June 2016 Cheboksary [20]
12 4.83 m (15 ft 10 in)  Stacy Dragila (USA) 8 June 2004 Ostrava
 Nikolía Kiriakopoúlou (GRE) 4 July 2015 Saint-Denis [21]
14 4.82 m (15 ft 934 in)  Monika Pyrek (POL) 22 September 2007 Stuttgart
 Silke Spiegelburg (GER) 21 July 2012 Fontvieille
16 4.81 m (15 ft 914 in)  Alana Boyd (AUS) 2 July 2016 Sunshine Coast [22]
17 4.80 m (15 ft 834 in)  Martina Strutz (GER) 30 August 2011 Daegu
 Eliza McCartney (NZL) 5 March 2016 Dunedin [23]
19 August 2016 Rio de Janeiro [24]
 Nicole Büchler (SUI) 17 March 2016 Portland (indoor) [25]
20 4.78 m (15 ft 8 in)  Tatyana Polnova (RUS) 19 September 2004 Monaco
21 4.77 m (15 ft 734 in)  Annika Becker (GER) 7 July 2002 Wattenscheid
22 4.76 m (15 ft 714 in)  Jirina Ptacnikova (CZE) 4 September 2013 Plzen
23 4.75 m (15 ft 7 in)  Katerina Badurova (CZE) 28 August 2007 Osaka
 Yuliya Golubchikova (RUS) 18 August 2008 Beijing
 Kylie Hutson (USA) 2 March 2013 Albuquerque A (indoor)


Below is a list of vaults equal or superior to 4.80m.

Six metres club

The "six metres club" consists of pole vaulters who have reached at least 6.00.[26] In 1985 Sergey Bubka became the first pole vaulter to clear six metres.

Measure Athlete Nation Outdoors Indoors Year first
6 metres
6.16 Renaud Lavillenie  France 6.05 6.16 2009
6.15 Sergey Bubka  Soviet Union /  Ukraine 6.14 6.15 1985
6.06 Steve Hooker  Australia 6.00 6.06 2008
6.05 Maksim Tarasov  Russia 6.05 6.00 1997
Dmitri Markov  Belarus /  Australia 6.05 1998
6.04 Brad Walker  United States 6.04 5.86 2006
6.03 Okkert Brits  South Africa 6.03 1995
Jeff Hartwig  United States 6.03 6.02 1998
Thiago Braz da Silva  Brazil 6.03 2016
6.02 Rodion Gataullin  Soviet Union /  Russia 6.00 6.02 1989
6.01 Igor Trandenkov  Russia 6.01 1996
Timothy Mack  United States 6.01 2004
Yevgeniy Lukyanenko  Russia 6.01 2008
Björn Otto  Germany 6.01 2012
6.00 Tim Lobinger  Germany 6.00 1997
Jean Galfione  France 6.00 1999
Danny Ecker  Germany 6.00 2001
Toby Stevenson  United States 6.00 2004
Paul Burgess  Australia 6.00 2005
Shawnacy Barber  Canada 6.00 2016

Five metres club

Three women have cleared 5 metres. Yelena Isinbayeva was the first to clear 5.00 m (16 ft 434 in) on July 22, 2005. On March 2, 2013, Jenn Suhr cleared 5.02 m (16 ft 512 in) indoors to become the second. Sandi Morris cleared 5.00 meters on September 9, 2016, to become the third.


This is a list of the first time a milestone height was cleared.[27]

Measure Athlete Nation Date
13 ft (3.96 m) Robert Gardner  United States 1 June 1912
4 m (13 ft 1 12 in) Marc Wright  United States 8 June 1912
14 ft (4.27 m) Sabin Carr  United States 27 May 1927
4.5 m (14 ft 9 in) William Sefton [28]  United States 29 May 1937
15 ft (4.57 m) Cornelius "Dutch" Warmerdam  United States 13 April 1940
16 ft (4.88 m) John Uelses  United States 31 March 1962
5 m (16 ft 5 in) Brian Sternberg  United States 27 April 1963
17 ft (5.18 m) John Pennel  United States 24 August 1963
18 ft (5.49 m) Christos Papanikolaou  Greece 24 October 1970
5.5 m (18 ft 12 in) Kjell Isaksson  Sweden 8 April 1972
19 ft (5.79 m) Thierry Vigneron  France 20 June 1981
6 m (19 ft 8 in) Sergey Bubka  Soviet Union 13 July 1985
20 ft (6.10 m) Sergey Bubka  Soviet Union 16 March 1991 (indoors)
5 August 1991 (outdoors)

Olympic medalists


Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
 William Hoyt (USA)  Albert Tyler (USA)  Evangelos Damaskos (GRE)
 Ioannis Theodoropoulos (GRE)
1900 Paris
 Irving Baxter (USA)  Meredith Colket (USA)  Carl Albert Andersen (NOR)
1904 St. Louis
 Charles Dvorak (USA)  LeRoy Samse (USA)  Louis Wilkins (USA)
1908 London
 Edward Cook (USA) none awarded  Edward Archibald (CAN)
 Clare Jacobs (USA)
 Alfred Gilbert (USA)
 Bruno Söderström (SWE)
1912 Stockholm
 Harry Babcock (USA)  Frank Nelson (USA)  William Halpenny (CAN)
 Frank Murphy (USA)
 Marc Wright (USA)
 Bertil Uggla (SWE)
1920 Antwerp
 Frank Foss (USA)  Henry Petersen (DEN)  Edwin Myers (USA)
1924 Paris
 Lee Barnes (USA)  Glen Graham (USA)  James Brooker (USA)
1928 Amsterdam
 Sabin Carr (USA)  William Droegemueller (USA)  Charles McGinnis (USA)
1932 Los Angeles
 Bill Miller (USA)  Shuhei Nishida (JPN)  George Jefferson (USA)
1936 Berlin
 Earle Meadows (USA)  Shuhei Nishida (JPN)  Sueo Ōe (JPN)
1948 London
 Guinn Smith (USA)  Erkki Kataja (FIN)  Bob Richards (USA)
1952 Helsinki
 Bob Richards (USA)  Don Laz (USA)  Ragnar Lundberg (SWE)
1956 Melbourne
 Bob Richards (USA)  Bob Gutowski (USA)  Georgios Roubanis (GRE)
1960 Rome
 Don Bragg (USA)  Ron Morris (USA)  Eeles Landström (FIN)
1964 Tokyo
 Fred Hansen (USA)  Wolfgang Reinhardt (EUA)  Klaus Lehnertz (EUA)
1968 Mexico City
 Bob Seagren (USA)  Claus Schiprowski (FRG)  Wolfgang Nordwig (GDR)
1972 Munich
 Wolfgang Nordwig (GDR)  Bob Seagren (USA)  Jan Johnson (USA)
1976 Montreal
 Tadeusz Ślusarski (POL)  Antti Kalliomäki (FIN)  David Roberts (USA)
1980 Moscow
 Władysław Kozakiewicz (POL)  Tadeusz Ślusarski (POL) none awarded
 Konstantin Volkov (URS)
1984 Los Angeles
 Pierre Quinon (FRA)  Mike Tully (USA)  Earl Bell (USA)
 Thierry Vigneron (FRA)
1988 Seoul
 Sergey Bubka (URS)  Radion Gataullin (URS)  Grigoriy Yegorov (URS)
1992 Barcelona
 Maksim Tarasov (EUN)  Igor Trandenkov (EUN)  Javier García (ESP)
1996 Atlanta
 Jean Galfione (FRA)  Igor Trandenkov (RUS)  Andrei Tivontchik (GER)
2000 Sydney
 Nick Hysong (USA)  Lawrence Johnson (USA)  Maksim Tarasov (RUS)
2004 Athens
 Timothy Mack (USA)  Toby Stevenson (USA)  Giuseppe Gibilisco (ITA)
2008 Beijing
 Steve Hooker (AUS)  Yevgeny Lukyanenko (RUS)  Denys Yurchenko (UKR)
2012 London
 Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)  Björn Otto (GER)  Raphael Holzdeppe (GER)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
 Thiago Braz da Silva (BRA)  Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)  Sam Kendricks (USA)


Games Gold Silver Bronze
2000 Sydney
 Stacy Dragila (USA)  Tatiana Grigorieva (AUS)  Vala Flosadóttir (ISL)
2004 Athens
 Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)  Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)  Anna Rogowska (POL)
2008 Beijing
 Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)  Jennifer Stuczynski (USA)  Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)
2012 London
 Jennifer Suhr (USA)  Yarisley Silva (CUB)  Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
 Ekaterini Stefanidi (GRE)  Sandi Morris (USA)  Eliza McCartney (NZL)

World Championships medalists


Games Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
 Sergey Bubka (URS)  Konstantin Volkov (URS)  Atanas Tarev (BUL)
1987 Rome
 Sergey Bubka (URS)  Thierry Vigneron (FRA)  Rodion Gataullin (URS)
1991 Tokyo
 Sergey Bubka (URS)  István Bagyula (HUN)  Maksim Tarasov (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
 Sergey Bubka (UKR)  Grigoriy Yegorov (KAZ)  Maksim Tarasov (RUS)
 Igor Trandenkov (RUS)
1995 Gothenburg
 Sergey Bubka (UKR)  Maksim Tarasov (RUS)  Jean Galfione (FRA)
1997 Athens
 Sergey Bubka (UKR)  Maksim Tarasov (RUS)  Dean Starkey (USA)
1999 Seville
 Maksim Tarasov (RUS)  Dmitri Markov (AUS)  Aleksandr Averbukh (ISR)
2001 Edmonton
 Dmitri Markov (AUS)  Aleksandr Averbukh (ISR)  Nick Hysong (USA)
2003 Saint-Denis
 Giuseppe Gibilisco (ITA)  Okkert Brits (RSA)  Patrik Kristiansson (SWE)
2005 Helsinki
 Rens Blom (NED)  Brad Walker (USA)  Pavel Gerasimov (RUS)
2007 Osaka
 Brad Walker (USA)  Romain Mesnil (FRA)  Danny Ecker (GER)
2009 Berlin
 Steve Hooker (AUS)  Romain Mesnil (FRA)  Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)
2011 Daegu
 Paweł Wojciechowski (POL)  Lázaro Borges (CUB)  Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)
2013 Moscow
 Raphael Holzdeppe (GER)  Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)  Björn Otto (GER)
2015 Beijing
 Shawnacy Barber (CAN)  Raphael Holzdeppe (GER)  Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)
 Pawel Wojciechowski (POL)
 Piotr Lisek (POL)


Games Gold Silver Bronze
1999 Seville
 Stacy Dragila (USA)  Anzhela Balakhonova (UKR)  Tatiana Grigorieva (AUS)
2001 Edmonton
 Stacy Dragila (USA)  Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)  Monika Pyrek (POL)
2003 Saint-Denis
 Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)  Annika Becker (GER)  Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)
2005 Helsinki
 Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)  Monika Pyrek (POL)  Pavla Hamáčková (CZE)
2007 Osaka
 Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)  Kateřina Baďurová (CZE)  Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)
2009 Berlin
 Anna Rogowska (POL)  Chelsea Johnson (USA)
 Monika Pyrek (POL)
none awarded
2011 Daegu
 Fabiana Murer (BRA)  Martina Strutz (GER)  Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)
2013 Moscow
 Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)  Jennifer Suhr (USA)  Yarisley Silva (CUB)
2015 Beijing
 Yarisley Silva (CUB)  Fabiana Murer (BRA)  Nikoléta Kyriakopoúlou (GRE)

World Indoor Championships medalists


Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]  Sergey Bubka (URS)  Thierry Vigneron (FRA)  Vasiliy Bubka (URS)
1987 Indianapolis
 Sergey Bubka (URS)  Earl Bell (USA)  Thierry Vigneron (FRA)
1989 Budapest
 Radion Gataullin (URS)  Grigoriy Yegorov (URS)  Joe Dial (USA)
1991 Seville
 Sergey Bubka (URS)  Viktor Ryzhenkov (URS)  Ferenc Salbert (FRA)
1993 Toronto
 Radion Gataullin (RUS)  Grigoriy Yegorov (KAZ)  Jean Galfione (FRA)
1995 Barcelona
 Sergey Bubka (UKR)  Igor Potapovich (KAZ)  Okkert Brits (RSA)
 Andrei Tivontchik (GER)
1997 Paris
 Igor Potapovich (KAZ)  Lawrence Johnson (USA)  Maksim Tarasov (RUS)
1999 Maebashi
 Jean Galfione (FRA)  Jeff Hartwig (USA)  Danny Ecker (GER)
2001 Lisbon
 Lawrence Johnson (USA)  Tye Harvey (USA)  Romain Mesnil (FRA)
2003 Birmingham
 Tim Lobinger (GER)  Michael Stolle (GER)  Rens Blom (NED)
2004 Budapest
 Igor Pavlov (RUS)  Adam Ptáček (CZE)  Denys Yurchenko (UKR)
2006 Moscow
 Brad Walker (USA)  Alhaji Jeng (SWE)  Tim Lobinger (GER)
2008 Valencia
 Yevgeny Lukyanenko (RUS)  Brad Walker (USA)  Steve Hooker (AUS)
2010 Doha
 Steve Hooker (AUS)  Malte Mohr (GER)  Alexander Straub (USA)
2012 Istanbul
 Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)  Björn Otto (GER)  Brad Walker (USA)
2014 Sopot
 Konstadinos Filippidis (GRE)  Malte Mohr (GER)  Jan Kudlička (CZE)
2016 Portland
 Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)  Sam Kendricks (USA)  Piotr Lisek (POL)


Games Gold Silver Bronze
1997 Paris
 Stacy Dragila (USA)  Emma George (AUS)  Cai Weiyan (CHN)
1999 Maebashi
 Nastja Ryshich (GER)  Vala Flosadóttir (ISL)  Nicole Humbert (GER)
 Zsuzsanna Szabó-Olgyai (HUN)
2001 Lisbon
 Pavla Hamáčková (CZE)  Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)
 Kellie Suttle (USA)
none awarded
2003 Birmingham
 Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)  Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)  Monika Pyrek (POL)
2004 Budapest
 Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)  Stacy Dragila (USA)  Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)
2006 Moscow
 Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)  Anna Rogowska (POL)  Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)
2008 Valencia
 Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)  Jennifer Stuczynski (USA)  Fabiana Murer (BRA)
 Monika Pyrek (POL)
2010 Doha
 Fabiana Murer (BRA)  Svetlana Feofanova (RUS)  Anna Rogowska (POL)
2012 Istanbul
 Yelena Isinbayeva (RUS)  Vanessa Boslak (FRA)  Holly Bleasdale (GBR)
2014 Sopot
 Yarisley Silva (CUB)  Anzhelika Sidorova (RUS)
 Jiřina Svobodová (CZE)
none awarded
2016 Portland
 Jennifer Suhr (USA)  Sandi Morris (USA)  Ekaterini Stefanidi (GRE)

Season's bests


1970 5.49 m (18 ft 0 in)  Christos Papanikolaou (GRE) Athens
1971 5.43 m (17 ft 934 in)  Kjell Isaksson (SWE) Siena
1972 5.63 m (18 ft 512 in)  Bob Seagren (USA) Eugene
1973 5.49 m (18 ft 0 in)  Steve Smith (USA) New York City
1974 5.53 m (18 ft 112 in)  Steve Smith (USA) Pocatello
1975 5.65 m (18 ft 614 in)  David Roberts (USA) Gainesville
1976 5.70 m (18 ft 814 in)  David Roberts (USA) Eugene
1977 5.66 m (18 ft 634 in)  Wladyslaw Kozakiewicz (POL) Warsaw
1978 5.71 m (18 ft 834 in)  Mike Tully (USA) Corvallis
1979 5.65 m (18 ft 614 in)  Patrick Abada (FRA)
 Philippe Houvion (FRA)
1980 5.78 m (18 ft 1112 in)  Wladyslaw Kozakiewicz (POL) Moscow
1981 5.81 m (19 ft 012 in)  Vladimir Polyakov (URS) Tbilisi
1982 5.75 m (18 ft 1014 in)  Dave Volz (USA)
 Jean-Michel Bellot (FRA)
1983 5.83 m (19 ft 112 in)  Thierry Vigneron (FRA) Rome
1984 5.94 m (19 ft 534 in)  Sergey Bubka (URS) Rome
1985 6.00 m (19 ft 8 in)  Sergey Bubka (URS) Paris
1986 6.01 m (19 ft 812 in)  Sergey Bubka (URS) Moscow
1987 6.03 m (19 ft 914 in)  Sergey Bubka (URS) Prague
1988 6.06 m (19 ft 1012 in)  Sergey Bubka (URS) Nice
1989 6.03 m (19 ft 914 in)i  Sergey Bubka (URS) Osaka
1990 6.05 m (19 ft 10 in)i  Sergey Bubka (URS) Donetsk
1991 6.12 m (20 ft 034 in)i  Sergey Bubka (URS) Grenoble
1992 6.13 m (20 ft 114 in)  Sergey Bubka (UKR) Tokyo; Berlin
1993 6.15 m (20 ft 2 in)i  Sergey Bubka (UKR) Donetsk
1994 6.14 m (20 ft 112 in)  Sergey Bubka (UKR) Sestriere
1995 6.03 m (19 ft 914 in)  Okkert Brits (RSA) Cologne
1996 6.02 m (19 ft 9 in)  Sergey Bubka (UKR) Atlanta
1997 6.05 m (19 ft 10 in)  Sergey Bubka (UKR) Fukuoka
1998 6.01 m (19 ft 812 in)  Jeff Hartwig (USA) Uniondale
1999 6.05 m (19 ft 10 in)  Maxim Tarasov (RUS) Athens
2000 6.03 m (19 ft 914 in)  Jeff Hartwig (USA) Jonesboro
2001 6.05 m (19 ft 10 in)  Dmitriy Markov (AUS) Edmonton
2002 6.02 m (19 ft 9 in)i  Jeff Hartwig (USA) Sindelfingen
2003 5.95 m (19 ft 614 in)  Romain Mesnil (FRA) Castres
2004 6.01 m (19 ft 812 in)  Timothy Mack (USA) Monaco
2005 6.00 m (19 ft 8 in)  Paul Burgess (AUS) Perth
2006 6.00 m (19 ft 8 in)  Brad Walker (USA) Jockgrim
2007 5.95 m (19 ft 614 in)  Brad Walker (USA) Brisbane
2008 6.04 m (19 ft 934 in)  Brad Walker (USA) Eugene
2009 6.06 m (19 ft 1012 in)  Steve Hooker (AUS) Boston
2010 6.01 m (19 ft 812 in)i  Steve Hooker (AUS) Doha
2011 6.03 m (19 ft 914 in)i  Renaud Lavillenie (FRA) Paris
2012 6.01 m (19 ft 812 in)  Björn Otto (GER) Aachen
2013 6.02 m (19 ft 9 in)  Renaud Lavillenie (FRA) London
2014 6.16 m (20 ft 212 in)i  Renaud Lavillenie (FRA) Donetsk
2015 6.05 m (19 ft 10 in)  Renaud Lavillenie (FRA) Eugene


1991 4.05 m (13 ft 314 in)  Zhang Chunzhen (CHN) Guangzhou
1992 4.05 m (13 ft 314 in)  Sun Caiyun (CHN) Nanjing
1993 4.11 m (13 ft 534 in)  Sun Caiyun (CHN) Guangzhou
1994 4.12 m (13 ft 6 in)  Sun Caiyun (CHN) Guangzhou
1995 4.28 m (14 ft 012 in)  Emma George (AUS) Perth
1996 4.45 m (14 ft 7 in)  Emma George (AUS) Sapporo
1997 4.55 m (14 ft 11 in)  Emma George (AUS) Melbourne
1998 4.59 m (15 ft 012 in)  Emma George (AUS) Brisbane
1999 4.60 m (15 ft 1 in)  Emma George (AUS)
 Stacy Dragila (USA)
2000 4.63 m (15 ft 214 in)  Stacy Dragila (USA) Sacramento
2001 4.81 m (15 ft 914 in)  Stacy Dragila (USA) Palo Alto
2002 4.78 m (15 ft 8 in)  Svetlana Feofanova (RUS) Stockholm
2003 4.82 m (15 ft 934 in)  Elena Isinbaeva (RUS) Gateshead
2004 4.92 m (16 ft 112 in)  Elena Isinbaeva (RUS) Brussels
2005 5.01 m (16 ft 5 in)  Elena Isinbaeva (RUS) Helsinki
2006 4.91 m (16 ft 114 in)  Elena Isinbaeva (RUS) London; Donetsk
2007 4.93 m (16 ft 2 in)i  Elena Isinbaeva (RUS) Donetsk
2008 5.05 m (16 ft 634 in)  Elena Isinbaeva (RUS) Beijing
2009 5.06 m (16 ft 7 in)  Elena Isinbaeva (RUS) Zürich
2010 4.89 m (16 ft 012 in)  Jennifer Suhr (USA) Des Moines
2011 4.91 m (16 ft 114 in)  Jennifer Suhr (USA) Rochester, New York
2012 5.01 m (16 ft 5 in)i  Elena Isinbaeva (RUS) Stockholm
2013 5.02 m (16 ft 512 in)Ai  Jennifer Suhr (USA) Albuquerque
2014 4.80 m (15 ft 834 in)  Fabiana Murer (BRA) New York City
2015 4.91 m (16 ft 114 in)  Yarisley Silva (CUB) Beckum

Notes and references

  1. Rosenbaum, Mike. Yelena Isinbayeva: Pole Vault Record-Breaker. About Track and Field. Retrieved on 25 January 2014.
  2. Rudman, Steve (31 May 2013). Huskies vault legend Brian Sternberg (1943-13). Sports Press NW. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  3. "Info". Polsstokverspringen/ Fierljeppen Holland. 5 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  4. http://www.pureskyvaulting.com/Some%20Cool%20Stuff/First25Pages.pdf
  5. Turnbull, Simon (13 June 2009). Kate Dennison: 'It helps being a little bit crazy'. The Independent. Retrieved on 2009-06-15.
  6. https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1356&dat=19620207&id=CWxPAAAAIBAJ&sjid=MwUEAAAAIBAJ&pg=4887,840268
  7. McCormick, Matthew. Soaring to New Heights: The Evolution of Pole Vaulting and Pole Materials . Illumin. Retrieved on 25 January 2014.
  8. Pole Vault - men - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 25 January 2014.
  9. Pole Vault - women - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 25 January 2014.
  10. Pole Vault - men - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 25 January 2014.
  11. Pole Vault - women - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 25 January 2014.
  12. Lavillenie breaks Diamond League pole vault record in Eugene. IAAF. Retrieved on 31 May 2015.
  13. "Men's Pole Vault Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 15 August 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  14. "Pole Vault Results" (PDF). polevaultsummit.files.wordpress.com. 15 January 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  15. "Jenn Suhr Sets Indoor Pole Vault World Record". flotrack.org. January 30, 2016. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
  16. "Pole Vault Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  17. "Stefanidi and Payne clear 4.90m at Millrose Games - indoor round-up". IAAF. 21 February 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  18. "Stefanidi and Payne clear 4.90m at Millrose Games - indoor round-up". IAAF. 21 February 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  19. Eduardo Biscayart (3 July 2016). "Murer soars over South American record of 4.87m at Brazilian Championships". IAAF. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  20. Alfonz Juck (21 June 2016). "Yelena Isinbayeva clears 4.90m, makes one try at 5.07m!". runblogrun.com. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  21. "Pole Vault Results". IAAF. 4 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  22. "Alana Boyd breaks Australian pole vault record to surge into Rio medal running". The Sydney Morning Herald. 29 January 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  23. "Red-hot pole vaulter Eliza McCartney smashes more records with leap of 4.80m". stuff.co.nz. 5 March 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  24. "Women's Pole Vault Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 19 August 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  25. "Pole Vault Results" (PDF). IAAF. 17 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  26. US unit calculator for unofficial mark conversions in athletic events, hosted by USATF.org
  27. http://trackfield.brinkster.net/RecProgression.asp?RecCode=WR&EventCode=MF2&P=F
  28. Note: Earle Meadows cleared the same height minutes later in the same competition
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