Perth's skyline, viewed from South Perth.
|Coordinates||31°57′8″S 115°51′32″E / 31.95222°S 115.85889°ECoordinates: 31°57′8″S 115°51′32″E / 31.95222°S 115.85889°E|
|Population||2,039,200 (2015) (4th)|
|• Density||317.736/km2 (822.933/sq mi)|
|Area||6,417.9 km2 (2,478.0 sq mi)(GCCSA)|
|Time zone||AWST (UTC+8)|
|State electorate(s)||Perth (and 41 others)|
|Federal Division(s)||Perth (and 10 others)|
Perth (//) is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is the fourth-most populous city in Australia, with an estimated population of 2.04 million (as of 30 June 2015) living in Greater Perth. Perth is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with the majority of the metropolitan area of Perth located on the Swan Coastal Plain, a narrow strip between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp, a low coastal escarpment. The first areas settled were on the Swan River, with the city's central business district and port (Fremantle) both located on its shores. The Perth Metropolitan Region includes 30 local government areas, which themselves consist of a large number of suburbs, extending from Two Rocks in the north to Rockingham in the south, and east inland to The Lakes.
Perth was originally founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony. It gained city status (currently vested in the smaller City of Perth) in 1856, and was promoted to the status of a Lord Mayorality in 1929. The city is named after Perth, Scotland, due to the influence of Sir George Murray, Member of Parliament for Perthshire and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. The city's population increased substantially as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes in the late 19th century, largely as a result of emigration from the eastern colonies of Australia. During Australia's involvement in World War II, Fremantle served as a base for submarines operating in the Pacific Theatre, and a US Navy Catalina flying boat fleet was based at Matilda Bay. An influx of immigrants after the war, predominantly from Britain, Greece, Italy and Yugoslavia, led to rapid population growth. This was followed by a surge in economic activity flowing from several mining booms in the late 20th and early 21st centuries that saw Perth become the regional headquarters for a number of large mining operations located around the state.
As part of Perth's role as the capital of Western Australia, the state's Parliament and Supreme Court are located within the city, as is Government House, the residence of the Governor of Western Australia. Perth became known worldwide as the "City of Light" when city residents lit their house lights and streetlights as American astronaut John Glenn passed overhead while orbiting the earth on Friendship 7 in 1962. The city repeated the act as Glenn passed overhead on the Space Shuttle in 1998. Perth came 7th in the Economist Intelligence Unit's August 2016 list of the world's most liveable cities, and was classified by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2010 as a world city.
The Whadjuk Noongar people have inhabited the Perth area for 38,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological remains at Upper Swan. The Noongar people occupied the southwest corner of Western Australia and lived as hunter-gatherers. The wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain were particularly important to them, both spiritually (featuring in local mythology) and as a source of food.
The Noongar people know the area where Perth now stands as Boorloo. Boorloo formed part of Mooro, the tribal lands of Yellagonga's group, one of several based around the Swan River and known collectively as the Whadjuk. The Whadjuk were part of a larger group of fourteen tribes that formed the south-west socio-linguistic block known as the Noongar (meaning "the people" in their language), also sometimes called the Bibbulmun. On 19 September 2006 the Federal Court of Australia brought down a judgment recognising Noongar native title over the Perth metropolitan area in the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia  FCA 1243. The judgment was overturned on appeal.
Early European sightings
The first documented sighting of the region was made by the Dutch Captain Willem de Vlamingh and his crew on 10 January 1697. Subsequent sightings between this date and 1829 were made by other Europeans, but as in the case of the sighting and observations made by Vlamingh, the area was considered to be inhospitable and unsuitable for the agriculture that would be needed to sustain a settlement.
Swan River Colony
Although the Colony of New South Wales had established a convict-supported settlement at King George's Sound (later Albany) on the south coast of Western Australia in 1826 in response to rumours that the area would be annexed by France, Perth was the first full-scale settlement by Europeans in the western third of the continent. The British colony would be officially designated Western Australia in 1832, but was known informally for many years as the Swan River Colony after the area's major watercourse.
On 4 June 1829, newly arriving British colonists had their first view of the mainland, and Western Australia's founding has since been recognised by a public holiday on the first Monday in June each year. Captain James Stirling, aboard Parmelia, said that Perth was "as beautiful as anything of this kind I had ever witnessed". On 12 August that year, Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the second ship, Sulphur, cut down a tree to mark the founding of the town.
It is clear that Stirling had already selected the name Perth for the capital well before the town was proclaimed, as his proclamation of the colony, read in Fremantle on 18 June 1829, ended "given under my hand and Seal at Perth this 18th Day of June 1829. James Stirling Lieutenant Governor". The only contemporary information on the source of the name comes from Fremantle's diary entry for 12 August, which records that they "named the town Perth according to the wishes of Sir George Murray". Murray was born in Perth, Scotland, and was in 1829 Secretary of State for the Colonies and Member for Perthshire in the British House of Commons. The town was named after the Scottish Perth, in Murray's honour.
Beginning in 1831, hostile encounters between the British settlers and the Noongar people – both large-scale land users with conflicting land value systems – increased considerably as the colony grew. The hostile encounters between the two groups of people resulted in a number of events, including the execution of the Whadjuk elder Midgegooroo, the death of his son Yagan in 1833, and the Pinjarra massacre in 1834.
The racial relations between the Noongar people and the Europeans were strained due to these happenings. Because of the large amount of building in and around Boorloo, the local Whadjuk Noongar people were slowly dispossessed of their country. They were forced to camp around prescribed areas, including the swamps and lakes north of the settlement area including Third Swamp, known to them as Boodjamooling. Boodjamooling continued to be a main camp-site for the remaining Noongar people in the Perth region, and was also used by travellers, itinerants, and homeless people. By the gold-rush days of the 1890s they were joined by miners who were en route to the goldfields.
Federation and beyond
After a referendum in 1900, Western Australia joined the Federation of Australia in 1901. It was the last of the Australian colonies to agree to join the Federation, and did so only after the other colonies had offered several concessions, including the construction of a transcontinental railway line from Port Augusta in South Australia to Kalgoorlie to link Perth with the eastern states.
In 1933, Western Australia voted in a referendum to leave the Australian Federation, with a majority of two to one in favour of secession. However, the state general election held at the same time as the referendum had voted out the incumbent "pro-independence" government, replacing it with a government that did not support the independence movement. Respecting the result of the referendum, the new government nonetheless petitioned the Imperial Parliament at Westminster. The House of Commons established a select committee to consider the issue but after 18 months of negotiations and lobbying, finally refused to consider the matter, declaring that it could not legally grant secession.
Perth's development and relative prosperity, especially since the mid-1960s, has resulted from its role as the main service centre for the state's resource industries, which extract gold, iron ore, nickel, alumina, diamonds, mineral sands, coal, oil, and natural gas. Whilst most mineral and petroleum production takes place elsewhere in the state, the non-base services provide most of the employment and income to the people of Perth.
Central business district
The central business district of Perth is bounded by the Swan River to the south and east, with Kings Park on the western end, while the railway reserve formed a northern border. A state and federally funded project named Perth City Link sunk a section of the railway line, to link Northbridge and the CBD for the first time in 100 years. The Perth Arena is a building in the city link area that has received a number of architecture awards. St Georges Terrace is the prominent street of the area with 1.3 million m2 of office space in the CBD. Hay Street and Murray Street have most of the retail and entertainment facilities. The tallest building in the city is Central Park, which is the seventh tallest building in Australia. The CBD has recently been the centre of a mining-induced boom, with several commercial and residential projects being built, including Brookfield Place, a 244 m (801 ft) office building for Anglo-Australian mining company BHP Billiton.
Geology and landforms
Perth is set on the Swan River, named for the native black swans by Willem de Vlamingh, captain of a Dutch expedition and namer of WA's Rottnest Island who discovered the birds while exploring the area in 1697. Traditionally, this water body had been known by Aboriginal inhabitants as Derbarl Yerrigan. The city centre and most of the suburbs are located on the sandy and relatively flat Swan Coastal Plain, which lies between the Darling Scarp and the Indian Ocean. The soils of this area are quite infertile. The metropolitan area extends along the coast to Two Rocks in the north and Singleton to the south, a total distance of approximately 125 kilometres (78 mi). From the coast in the west to Mundaring in the east is a total distance of approximately 50 km (31 mi). The Perth metropolitan area covers 6,418 km2 (2,478 sq mi).
To the east, the city is bordered by a low escarpment called the Darling Scarp. Perth is on generally flat, rolling land – largely due to the high amount of sandy soils and deep bedrock. The Perth metropolitan area has two major river systems: the first is made up of the Swan and Canning Rivers; the second is that of the Serpentine and Murray Rivers, which discharge into the Peel Inlet at Mandurah.
Perth receives moderate though highly seasonal rainfall, making it the fourth wettest Australian capital city after Darwin, Sydney and Brisbane. Summers are generally hot and dry, lasting from December to late March, with February generally being the hottest month of the year. Winters are relatively cool and wet, making Perth a classic example of a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa). Perth is a particularly sunny city for this type of climate; it has an average of 8.8 hours of sunshine per day, which equates to around 3200 hours of annual sunshine, and 138.7 clear days annually, making it the sunniest capital city in Australia.
Summer is not completely devoid of rain and humidity, with sporadic rainfall in the form of short-lived thunderstorms, weak cold fronts and on occasions decaying tropical cyclones from Western Australia's north-west, which can bring significant rainfall. Winters are also known to be clear and sunny. The highest temperature recorded in Perth was 46.2 °C (115.2 °F) on 23 February 1991, although Perth Airport recorded 46.7 °C (116.1 °F) on the same day. On most summer afternoons a sea breeze, known locally as the "Fremantle Doctor", blows from the southwest, providing relief from the hot north-easterly winds. Temperatures often fall below 30 °C (86 °F) a few hours after the arrival of the wind change. In the summer, the 3 pm dewpoint averages at around 12 °C (54 °F).
Winters are wet but mild, with most of Perth's annual rainfall being between May and September. The lowest temperature recorded in Perth was −0.7 °C (30.7 °F) on 17 June 2006. The lowest temperature within the Perth metropolitan area was −3.4 °C (25.9 °F) on the same day at Jandakot Airport. However, temperatures at or below zero are very rare occurrences and it seldom gets cold enough for frost to form.
The rainfall pattern has changed in Perth and southwest Western Australia since the mid-1970s. A significant reduction in winter rainfall has been observed with a greater number of extreme rainfall events in the summer months, such as the slow-moving storms on 8 February 1992 that brought 120.6 millimetres (4.75 in) of rain, the highest recorded in Perth, and a severe thunderstorm on 22 March 2010, which brought 40.2 mm (1.58 in) of rain and caused significant damage in the metropolitan area.
|Climate data for Perth, Western Australia|
|Record high °C (°F)|| 45.8
|Average high °C (°F)|| 31.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)|| 24.8
|Average low °C (°F)|| 18.2
|Record low °C (°F)|| 8.9
|Average rainfall mm (inches)|| 15.4
|Average precipitation days||2.4||2.1||4.1||6.7||11.1||15.2||16.9||15.7||15.3||8.7||6.3||3.9||108.4|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 1500)||39||38||39||46||50||56||57||54||53||46||44||41||47|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||360.6||314.9||295.5||246.0||211.7||180.6||188.4||219.8||232.4||299.8||320.4||359.4||3,229.5|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||11.5||11.0||9.6||8.3||6.9||5.9||6.1||7.2||7.7||9.6||10.6||11.5||8.8|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
Temperatures: 1993–2015; Extremes: 1897–2015; Rain data: 1876–2012
|Climate data for Fremantle|
|Record high °C (°F)|| 42.4
|Average high °C (°F)|| 27.3
|Average low °C (°F)|| 17.8
|Record low °C (°F)|| 11.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)|| 6.3
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||2.6||2.6||4.2||7.8||14.1||17.8||19.3||17.4||14.4||10.9||6.8||3.9||121.8|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 1500)||57||55||57||59||62||64||66||63||62||62||59||60||61|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
|Climate data for Kalamunda|
|Average high °C (°F)|| 30.4
|Average low °C (°F)|| 16.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)|| 11.9
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
|Climate data for Jandakot Airport|
|Record high °C (°F)|| 45.7
|Average high °C (°F)|| 31.4
|Average low °C (°F)|| 16.8
|Record low °C (°F)|| 4.7
|Average rainfall mm (inches)|| 13.8
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
Perth is one of the most isolated major cities in the world. The nearest city with a population of more than 100,000 is Adelaide, 2,104 km (1,307 mi) away. Only Honolulu (population 953,000), 3,841 km (2,387 mi) from San Francisco, is more isolated.
Perth is geographically closer to both Dili, East Timor (2,785 km (1,731 mi)), and Jakarta, Indonesia (3,002 km (1,865 mi)), than to Sydney (3,291 km (2,045 mi)), Brisbane (3,604 km (2,239 mi)), or Canberra (3,106 km (1,930 mi)).
Perth is Australia's fourth-most populous city, having overtaken Adelaide's population in the early 1980s. At June 2015 there were approximately 2.04 million residents in the metropolitan area.
In 2006, the largest ancestry groups in the Perth metropolitan areas were: English (534,555 or 28.6%), Australian (479,174 or 25.6%), Irish (115,384 or 6.2%), Scottish (113,846 or 6.1%), Italian (84,331 or 4.5%) and Chinese (53,390 or 2.9%). There were 26,486 Indigenous Australians in the city.
Perth's population is notable for the high proportion of British and Irish born residents. At the 2006 Census, 142,424 England-born Perth residents were counted, narrowly behind Sydney (145,261), despite the fact that Perth had just 35% of the overall population of Sydney.
The ethnic make-up of Perth changed in the second part of the 20th century, when significant numbers of continental European immigrants arrived in the city. Prior to this, Perth's population had been almost completely Anglo-Celtic in ethnic origin. As Fremantle was the first landfall in Australia for many migrant ships coming from Europe in the 1950s and 1960s, Perth started to experience a diverse influx of people, including Italians, Greeks, Dutch, Germans, Croats. The Italian influence in the Perth and Fremantle area has been substantial, evident in places like the "Cappuccino strip" in Fremantle featuring many Italian eateries and shops. In Fremantle the traditional Italian blessing of the fleet festival is held every year at the start of the fishing season. In Northbridge every December is the San Nicola (Saint Nicholas) Festival, which involves a pageant followed by a concert, predominantly in Italian. Suburbs surrounding the Fremantle area, such as Spearwood and Hamilton Hill, also contain high concentrations of Italians, Croatians and Portuguese. Perth also has a small Jewish community – numbering 5,082 in 2006 – who have emigrated primarily from Eastern Europe and more recently from South Africa.
Another more recent wave of arrivals includes white minorities from Southern Africa. South African residents overtook those born in Italy as the fourth largest foreign group in 2001. By 2006, there were 18,825 South Africans residing in Perth, accounting for 1.3% of the city's population. Many Afrikaners and Anglo-Africans emigrated to Perth during the 1980s and 1990s, with the phrase "packing for Perth" becoming associated with South Africans who choose to emigrate abroad, sometimes regardless of the destination. As a result, the city has been described as "the Australian capital of South Africans in exile". The reason for Perth being so popular among white South Africans has often been the location, the vast amount of land, and the slightly warmer climate compared to other large Australian cities – Perth has a Mediterranean climate reminiscent of Cape Town.
Since the late 1970s, Southeast Asia has become an increasingly important source of migrants, with communities from Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Mainland China, and India all now well-established. There were 53,390 persons of Chinese descent in Perth in 2006 – 2.9% of the city's population. These are supported by the Australian Eurasian Association of Western Australia, which also serves a community of Portuguese-Malacca Eurasian or Kristang immigrants.
The Indian community includes a substantial number of Parsees who emigrated from Bombay – Perth being the closest Australian city to India – and the India-born population of the city at the time of the 2006 census was 14,094 or 0.8%. Perth is also home to the largest population of Anglo-Burmese in the world; many settled here following the independence of Burma in 1948 and the city is now the cultural hub for Anglo-Burmese worldwide. There is also a substantial Anglo-Indian population in Perth, who also settled in the city following the independence of India.
Protestants, predominantly Anglican, make up approximately 28% of the population. Perth is the seat of the Anglican Diocese of Perth and of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Perth. Roman Catholics make up about 23% of the population, and Catholicism is the most common single denomination. Perth is also home to 12,000 Latter-day Saints and the Perth Australia Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Perth is also home of the seat of the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross as the Church of St Ninian and St Chad in Perth was named the principal church of the ordinariate.
Buddhism and Islam each claim more than 20,000 adherents. Perth has the third largest Jewish population in Australia, numbering approximately 20,000, with both Orthodox and Progressive synagogues and a Jewish Day School. The Bahá'í community in Perth numbers around 1,500. Hinduism has over 20,000 adherents in Perth; the Diwali (festival of lights) celebration in 2009 attracted over 20,000 visitors. There are Hindu temples in Canning Vale, Anketell and a Swaminarayan temple north of the Swan River. Hinduism is the fastest growing religion in Australia.
Approximately one in five people from Perth profess to having no religion, with 11% of people not specific as to their beliefs. One hundred years ago this figure was one in 250 (0.4%). Internationally this is not an isolated occurrence as other countries such as New Zealand and Great Britain are reporting similar increases.
Perth houses the Parliament of Western Australia and the Governor of Western Australia. As of the 2008 state election, 42 of the Legislative Assembly's 59 seats and 18 of the Legislative Council's 36 seats are based in Perth's metropolitan area. Perth is represented by 9 full seats and significant parts of three others in the Federal House of Representatives, with the seats of Canning, Pearce and Brand including some areas outside the metropolitan area. The metropolitan area is divided into over 30 local government bodies, including the City of Perth which administers Perth's central business district.
The state's highest court, the Supreme Court, is located in Perth, along with the District and Family Courts. The Magistrates' Court has six metropolitan locations. The Federal Court of Australia and the Federal Circuit Court of Australia (previously the Federal Magistrates Court) occupy the Commonwealth Law Courts building on Victoria Avenue, which is also the location for annual Perth sittings of Australia's High Court.
The administrative region of Perth includes 30 local governments, with the outer extent being the City of Wanneroo and the City of Swan to the north, the Shire of Mundaring, Shire of Kalamunda and the City of Armadale to the east, the Shire of Serpentine-Jarrahdale to the southeast and the City of Rockingham to the southwest, and including the islands of Rottnest Island and Garden Island off the west coast; this also correlates with the Metropolitan Region Scheme. Perth can also be defined by its wider extent of Greater Perth.
By virtue of its population and role as the administrative centre for business and government, Perth dominates the Western Australian economy, despite the major mining, petroleum, and agricultural export industries located elsewhere in the state. Perth's function as the state's capital city, its economic base and population size have also created development opportunities for many other businesses oriented to local or more diversified markets.
Perth's economy has been changing in favour of the service industries since the 1950s. Although one of the major sets of services it provides is related to the resources industry and, to a lesser extent, agriculture, most people in Perth are not connected to either; they have jobs that provide services to other people in Perth.
As a result of Perth's relative geographical isolation, it has never had the necessary conditions to develop significant manufacturing industries other than those serving the immediate needs of its residents, mining, agriculture and some specialised areas, such as, in recent times, niche ship building and maintenance. It was simply cheaper to import all the needed manufactured goods from either the eastern states or overseas.
Industrial employment influenced the economic geography of Perth. After WWII, Perth experienced suburban expansion aided by high levels of car ownership. Workforce decentralisation and transport improvements made it possible for the establishment of small-scale manufacturing in the suburbs. Many firms took advantage of relatively cheap land to build spacious, single-storey plants in suburban locations with plentiful parking, easy access and minimal traffic congestion. "The former close ties of manufacturing with near-central and/or rail-side locations were loosened."
Industrial estates such as Kwinana, Welshpool and Kewdale were post-war additions contributing to the growth of manufacturing south of the river. The establishment of the Kwinana industrial area was supported by standardisation of the east-west rail gauge linking Perth with eastern Australia. Since the 1950s the area has been dominated by heavy industry, including an oil refinery, steel-rolling mill with a blast furnace, alumina refinery, power station and a nickel refinery. Another development, also linked with rail standardisation, was in 1968 when the Kewdale Freight Terminal was developed adjacent to the Welshpool industrial area, replacing the former Perth railway yards.
With significant population growth post-WWII, employment growth occurred not in manufacturing but in retail and wholesale trade, business services, health, education, community and personal services and in public administration. Increasingly it was these services sectors, concentrated around the Perth metropolitan area, that provided jobs.
Education is compulsory in Western Australia between the ages of six and seventeen, corresponding to primary and secondary school. Tertiary education is available through a number of universities and technical and further education (TAFE) colleges.
Primary and secondary education
Students may attend either public schools, run by the state government's Department of Education, or private schools, usually associated with a religion.
The Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE) is the credential given to students who have completed Years 11 and 12 of their secondary schooling.
Perth is home to four public universities: the University of Western Australia, Curtin University, Murdoch University, and Edith Cowan University. There is also one private university, the University of Notre Dame.
The University of Western Australia, which was founded in 1911, is renowned as one of Australia's leading research institutions. The university's monumental neo-classical architecture, most of which is carved from white limestone, is a notable tourist destination in the city. It is the only university in the state to be a member of the Group of Eight, as well as the Sandstone universities. It is also the state's only university to have produced a Nobel Laureate – Barry Marshall who graduated with a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery in 1975 and was awarded a joint Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine in 2005, together with Robin Warren.
Curtin University (previously known as Western Australian Institute of Technology (1966-1986) and Curtin University of Technology (1986-2010) is Western Australia's largest university by student population.
Murdoch University was founded in the 1973, and incorporates Western Australia's only veterinary school.
Edith Cowan University was established in 1991 from the existing Western Australian College of Advanced Education (WACAE) which itself was formed in the 1970s from the existing Teachers Colleges at Claremont, Churchlands, and Mount Lawley. It incorporates the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts (WAAPA).
The University of Notre Dame Australia was established in 1990. Notre Dame was established as a Catholic university with its lead campus in Fremantle and a large campus in Sydney. Its campus is set in the west end of Fremantle, using historic port buildings built in the 1890s, giving Notre Dame a distinct European university atmosphere. Though Notre Dame shares its name with the University of Notre Dame in Indiana USA, it is a separate institution, claiming only "strong ties" with its American namesake.
Colleges of TAFE provide trade and vocational training, including certificate- and diploma-level courses. TAFE began as a system of technical colleges and schools under the Education Department, from which they were separated in the 1980s and ultimately formed into regional colleges. Four exist in the Perth metropolitan area: Central Institute of Technology (formerly Central TAFE); West Coast Institute of Training (northern suburbs); Polytechnic West (eastern and south-eastern suburbs; formerly Swan TAFE); and Challenger Institute of Technology (Fremantle/Peel).
Perth is served by twenty-eight digital free-to-air television channels:
- ABC Me
- ABC News 24
- SBS HD (SBS broadcast in HD)
- SBS Viceland
- Food Network
- 7HD (Seven broadcast in HD)
- 9HD (Nine broadcast in HD)
- Ten HD (Ten broadcast in HD)
- Spree TV
- West TV (Perth's community TV station)
ABC, SBS, Seven, Nine and Ten were also broadcast in an analogue format until 16 April 2013, when the analogue transmission was switched off. Community station Access 31 closed in August 2008. In April 2010 a new community station, West TV, began transmission (in digital format only).
Foxtel provides a subscription-based satellite and cable television service. Perth has its own local newsreaders on ABC (James McHale), Seven (Rick Ardon, Susannah Carr), Nine (Emmy Kubainski, Tim McMillan) and Ten (Narelda Jacobs).
Television shows produced in Perth include local editions of the current affair program Today Tonight, and other types of programming such as The Force. An annual telethon has been broadcast since 1968 to raise funds for charities including Princess Margaret Hospital for Children. The 24-hour Perth Telethon claims to be "the most successful fundraising event per capita in the world" and raised more than A$20 million in 2013, with a combined total of over A$153 million since 1968.
The main newspapers for Perth are The West Australian and The Sunday Times. Localised free community papers cater for each local government area. There are also many advertising newspapers, such as The Quokka. The local business paper is Western Australian Business News.
Radio stations are on AM, FM and DAB+ frequencies. ABC stations include News Radio (585AM), 720 ABC Perth, Radio National (810AM), Classic FM (97.7FM) and Triple J (99.3FM). The six local commercial stations are: 92.9, Nova 93.7, Mix 94.5, 96fm, on FM and 882 6PR and 1080 6IX on AM. DAB+ has mostly the same as both FM and AM plus national stations from the ABC/SBS, Radar Radio and Novanation, along with local stations My Perth Digital and HotCountry Perth. Major community radio stations include RTRFM (92.1FM), Sonshine FM (98.5FM), SportFM (91.3FM) and Curtin FM (100.1FM).
Online news media covering the Perth area include TheWest.com.au backed by The West Australian, Perth Now from the newsroom of The Sunday Times, WAToday from Fairfax Media and other outlets like TweetPerth on social media.
Arts and entertainment
The Perth Cultural Centre is the location of the city's major arts, cultural and educational institutions, including the Art Gallery of Western Australia, Western Australian Museum, State Library of Western Australia, State Records Office, and Perth Institute of Contemporary Arts (PICA). The State Theatre Centre of Western Australia is also located there, and is the home of the Black Swan State Theatre Company and the Perth Theatre Company. Other performing arts companies based in Perth include the West Australian Ballet, the West Australian Opera and the West Australian Symphony Orchestra, all of which present regular programmes. The Western Australian Youth Orchestras provide young musicians with performance opportunities in orchestral and other musical ensembles.
Perth is also home to the internationally regarded Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts at Edith Cowan University, from which many successful actors and broadcasters have launched their careers. The city's main performance venues include the Riverside Theatre within the Perth Convention Exhibition Centre, the Perth Concert Hall, the historic His Majesty's Theatre, the Regal Theatre in Subiaco and the Astor Theatre in Mount Lawley. Perth Arena can be configured as an entertainment or sporting arena, and concerts are also hosted at other sporting venues, including Subiaco Oval, HBF Stadium, and nib Stadium. Outdoor concert venues include Quarry Amphitheatre, Supreme Court Gardens, Kings Park and Russell Square.
A number of annual events are held in Perth. The Perth International Arts Festival is a large cultural festival that has been held annually since 1953, and has since been joined by the Winter Arts festival, Perth Fringe Festival, and Perth Writers Festival. Perth also hosts annual music festivals including Listen Out, Origin and St Jerome's Laneway Festival. The Perth International Comedy Festival features a variety of local and international comedic talent, with performances held at the Astor Theatre and nearby venues in Mount Lawley, and regular night food markets throughout the summer months across Perth and its surrounding suburbs. Sculpture by the Sea showcases a range of local and international sculptors' creations along Cottesloe Beach. There is also a wide variety of public art and sculptures on display across the city, throughout the year.
Perth has featured in a variety of artistic works in various mediums. An early novel, Moondyne, set in the Swan River Colony, was written by a former Fenian convict, John Boyle O'Reilly, and a A Faithful Picture, edited by Peter Cowan, gives a good idea of the early days of the colony. Songs that refer to the city include "I Love Perth" (1996) by Pavement, and "Perth" (2011) by Bon Iver, while a number of films feature Perth: Last Train to Freo, Two Fists, One Heart, Thunderstruck, Bran Nue Dae, Japanese Story and Nickel Queen. The industrial metal band Fear Factory recorded the video for their single "Cyberwaste" in South Fremantle.
Because of Perth's relative isolation from other Australian cities, overseas performing artists often exclude it from their Australian tour schedules. This isolation, however, has developed a strong local music scene, and the development of local music groups such as John Butler Trio, The Triffids, Pendulum, Eskimo Joe, Pond, Tame Impala, Karnivool, Gyroscope, Jebediah, Little Birdy, The Panics, Birds of Tokyo and Troye Sivan. Celebrity musical performers from Perth have included the late AC/DC lead singer Bon Scott, who has been remembered with a statue in Fremantle, and veteran performer and artist Rolf Harris, given the nickname "The Boy From Bassendean". The largest performance area within the State Theatre Centre, the Heath Ledger Theatre, is named in honour of Perth-born film actor Heath Ledger. Actor Isla Fisher was raised in Perth and Hugh Jackman studied at the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts.
Tourism and recreation
Tourism in Perth is an important part of the state's economy, with approximately 2.8 million domestic visitors and 0.7 million international visitors in the year ending March 2012. Tourist attractions are generally focused around the city centre, Fremantle, the coast, and the Swan River. In addition to the Perth Cultural Centre, there are a number of museums across the city. The Scitech Discovery Centre in is an interactive science museum, with regularly changing exhibitions on a large range of science and technology based subjects. Scitech also conducts live science demonstration shows, and operates the adjacent Horizon planetarium. The Western Australian Maritime Museum in Fremantle displays maritime objects from all eras. It houses Australia II, the yacht that won the 1983 America's Cup, as well as a former Royal Australian Navy submarine. Also located in Fremantle is the Army Museum of Western Australia, situated within a historic artillery barracks. The museum consists of several galleries which reflect the Army's involvement in Western Australia, and the military service of Western Australians. The museum holds numerous items of significance, including three Victoria Crosses. Aviation history is represented by the Aviation Heritage Museum in Bull Creek, with its significant collection of aircraft, including a Lancaster bomber and a Catalina of the type operated from the Swan River during WWII. There are many heritage sites in Perth's CBD, Fremantle, and other parts of the metropolitan areas. Some of the oldest remaining buildings, dating back to the 1830s, include the Round House in Fremantle, the Old Mill in South Perth, and the Old Court House in the city centre. Registers of important buildings are maintained by the Heritage Council of Western Australia and local governments. A late heritage building is the Perth Mint.
Retail shopping in the Perth CBD is focused around Murray Street and Hay Street. Both of these streets are pedestrian malls between William Street and Barrack Street. Forrest Place is another pedestrian mall, connecting the Murray Street mall to Wellington Street and the Perth railway station. A number of arcades run between Hay Street and Murray Street, including the Piccadilly Arcade, which housed the Piccadilly Cinema until it closed in late 2013. Other shopping precincts include Harbour Town in West Perth, featuring factory outlets for major brands, the historically significant Fremantle Markets, which date back to 1897, and the Midland townsite on Great Eastern Highway, combining historic development around the Town Hall and Post Office buildings with the modern Midland Gate shopping centre further east. Joondalup's central business district is largely a shopping and retail area lined with townhouses and apartments, and also features Lakeside Joondalup Shopping City. Joondalup was granted the status of "tourism precinct" by the State Government in 2009, allowing for extended retail trading hours. The Swan Valley, with fertile soil, uncommon in the Perth region, features numerous wineries such as the large complex at Houghtons, the state's biggest producer, Sandalfords and many smaller operators, including microbreweries and rum distilleries. The Swan Valley also contains specialised food producers, many restaurants and cafes, and roadside local-produce stalls that sell seasonal fruit throughout the year. Tourist Drive 203 is a circular route in the Swan Valley, passing by many attractions on West Swan Road and Great Northern Highway.
Kings Park, located in central Perth between the CBD and the University of Western Australia, is one of the world's largest inner-city parks, at 400.6 hectares (990 acres). There are many landmarks and attractions within Kings Park, including the State War Memorial Precinct on Mount Eliza, Western Australian Botanic Garden, and children's playgrounds. Other features include DNA Tower, a 15m high double helix staircase that resembles the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule, and Jacob's Ladder, comprising 242 steps that lead down to Mounts Bay Road. Hyde Park is another inner-city park located 2 km (1.2 mi) north of the CBD. It was gazetted as a public park in 1897, created from 15 ha (37 acres) of a chain of wetlands known as Third Swamp. Avon Valley, John Forrest and Yanchep national parks are areas of protected bushland at the northern and eastern edges of the metropolitan area. Within the city's northern suburbs is Whiteman Park, a 4,000-hectare (9,900-acre) bushland area, with bushwalking trails, bike paths, sports facilities, playgrounds, a vintage tramway, a light railway on a 6-kilometre (3.7 mi) track, motor and tractor museums, and Caversham Wildlife Park.
Perth Zoo, located in South Perth, houses a variety of Australian and exotic animals from around the globe. The zoo is home to highly successful breeding programs for orangutans and giraffes, and participates in captive breeding and reintroduction efforts for a number of Western Australian species, including the numbat, the dibbler, the chuditch, and the western swamp tortoise. More wildlife can be observed at the Aquarium of Western Australia in Hillarys, which is Australia's largest aquarium, specialising in marine animals that inhabit the 12,000-kilometre-long (7,500 mi) western coast of Australia. The northern Perth section of the coastline is known as Sunset Coast; it includes numerous beaches and the Marmion Marine Park, a protected area inhabited by tropical fish, Australian sea lions and bottlenose dolphins, and traversed by humpback whales. Tourist Drive 204, also known as Sunset Coast Tourist Drive, is a designated route from North Fremantle to Iluka along coastal roads.
The climate of Perth allows for extensive outdoor sporting activity, and this is reflected in the wide variety of sports available to residents of the city. Perth was host to the 1962 Commonwealth Games and the 1987 America's Cup defence (based at Fremantle). Australian rules football is the most popular spectator sport in Perth – nearly 23% of Western Australians attended a match at least once in 2009–2010. The two Australian Football League teams located in Perth, the West Coast Eagles and the Fremantle Football Club, have two of the largest fan bases in the country. The Eagles, the older club, is one of the most successful teams in the league, and one of the largest sporting clubs in Australia.The next level of football is the Western Australian Football League, comprising nine clubs each having a League, Reserves and Colts team. Each of these clubs has a junior football system for all genders, and ages from 7 up to 17. The next level of football is the Western Australian Amateur Football League, comprising 68 clubs servicing senior footballers within the metropolitan area. Other popular sports include cricket, basketball, association football (soccer), and rugby union.
Current sport teams
Perth has hosted numerous state and international sporting events. Ongoing international events include the V8 Supercars, the Hopman Cup during the first week of January at the Perth Arena. In addition to these Perth has hosted the World Rally Championships from 1989 to 2006, international Rugby Union games, including qualifying matches for 2003 Rugby World Cup. The 1991 and 1998 FINA World Championships were held in Perth. Four races (2006, 2007, 2008 and 2010) in the Red Bull Air Race World Championship have been held on a stretch of the Swan River called Perth Water, using Langley Park as a temporary air field. Several motorsport facilities exist in Perth including Perth Motorplex, catering to drag racing and speedway, and Barbagallo Raceway for circuit racing and drifting. Perth also has two thoroughbred racing facilities: Ascot, home of the Railway Stakes and Perth Cup; and Belmont Park.
Perth has ten large hospitals with emergency departments. As of 2013, Royal Perth Hospital in the city centre is the largest, with others spread around the metropolitan area: Armadale Kelmscott District Memorial Hospital, Joondalup Health Campus, King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women in Subiaco, Rockingham General Hospital, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital in Nedlands, St John of God Murdoch Hospital, Swan District Hospital in Middle Swan, and Fiona Stanley Hospital in Murdoch. Princess Margaret Hospital for Children is the state's only specialist children's hospital, and Graylands Hospital is the only public stand-alone psychiatric teaching hospital. Most of these are public hospitals, with some operating under public-private partnerships. St John of God Murdoch Hospital is privately owned and operated.
New hospitals are under construction to replace ageing facilities. A new children's hospital, due to open in 2015, is being constructed next to Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, and will replace Princess Margaret Hospital. Midland Health Campus, a public and a private hospital, is under construction in Midland. St John of God Health Care will build and operate the new hospitals under a public-private partnership with the state government. Midland Health Campus will open in late 2015, and replace the nearby Swan District Hospital.
Perth has a road network with three freeways and nine metropolitan highways. The Northbridge tunnel, part of the Graham Farmer Freeway, is the only significant road tunnel in Perth.
Perth metropolitan public transport, including trains, buses and ferries, are provided by Transperth, with links to rural areas provided by Transwa. There are 70 railway stations and 15 bus stations in the metropolitan area.
The Indian Pacific passenger rail service connects Perth with Adelaide and Sydney once per week in each direction. The Prospector passenger rail service connects Perth with Kalgoorlie via several Wheatbelt towns, while the Australind connects to Bunbury, and the AvonLink connects to Northam.
Rail freight terminates at the Kewdale Rail Terminal, 15 km (9 mi) south-east of the city centre.
Perth's main container and passenger port is at Fremantle, 19 km (12 mi) south west at the mouth of the Swan River. The Fremantle Outer Harbour at Cockburn Sound is one of Australia’s major bulk cargo ports.
Perth's electricity is generated, supplied, and retailed by three Western Australian Government corporations. Verve Energy operates coal and gas power generation stations, as well as wind farms and other power sources. The physical network is maintained by Western Power, while Synergy, the state's largest energy retailer, sells electricity to residential and business customers.
Alinta Energy, which was previously a government owned company, had a monopoly in the domestic gas market since the 1990s. However, in 2013 Kleenheat Gas began operating in the market, allowing consumers to choose their gas retailer.
The Water Corporation is the dominant supplier of water, as well as wastewater and drainage services, in Perth and throughout the Western Australia. It is also owned by the state government.
Reduced rainfall in the region in recent years has lowered inflow to reservoirs by two-thirds over the last 30 years, and affected groundwater levels. Coupled with the city's relatively high growth rate, this had led to concerns that Perth could run out of water in the near future. The Western Australian State Government responded by introducing mandatory household sprinkler restrictions in the city. The Kwinana Desalination Plant was opened in November 2006, able to supply over 45 gigalitres (10 billion imperial or 12 billion US gallons) of potable water per year; its power requirements were met by the construction of the Emu Downs Wind Farm near Cervantes. Consideration was given to piping water from the Kimberley region, but the idea was rejected in May 2006 due primarily to its high cost. Other proposals under consideration included the controversial extraction of an extra 45 gigalitres of water a year from the Yarragadee Aquifer in the south-west of the state. However, in May 2007, the state government announced that a second desalination plant will be built at Binningup, on the coast between Mandurah and Bunbury. A trial winter (1 June – 31 August) sprinkler ban was introduced in 2009 by the State Government, a move which the Government later announced would be made permanent. In September 2009 Western Australia's dams reached 50% overall capacity for the first time since 2000.
- "Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2014–15". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 30 March 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2016. Estimated resident population, 30 June 2015.
- "Greater Perth: Basic Community Profile" (xls). 2011 Census Community Profiles. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 March 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
- "Great Circle Distance between PERTH and ADELAIDE". Geoscience Australia. March 2004.
- "Great Circle Distance between PERTH and DARWIN CITY". Geoscience Australia. March 2004.
- "Great Circle Distance between PERTH and MELBOURNE". Geoscience Australia. March 2004.
- "Great Circle Distance between PERTH and SYDNEY". Geoscience Australia. March 2004.
- "2011 Electoral Boundaries". State of Western Australia – Office of the Electoral Distribution Commissioners. 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- "Lord Mayorality". Kalgoorlie Miner. 13 August 1929. p. 4. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- "The Catalina Base". The University of Western Australia, Archives and Records Management Services. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
- (1970) Perth – a city of light Perth, W.A. Brian Williams Productions for the Government of WA, 1970 (Video recording) The social and recreational life of Perth. Begins with a 'mock-up' of the lights of Perth as seen by astronaut John Glenn in February 1962
- Gregory, Jenny. "Biography – Sir Henry Rudolph (Harry) Howard – Australian Dictionary of Biography". Adbonline.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- Australian Broadcasting Corporation (15 February 2008). "Moment in Time – Episode 1". Retrieved 14 July 2008.
- Moore, Charles (5 November 1998). "Grandfather Glenn's blast from the past". The Daily Telegraph (UK). London. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
- "Global Liveability Ranking 2016". The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
- Perth ranked as a "Beta–" class world city: "The World According to GaWC 2010". Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network. Loughborough University. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- Sandra Bowdler. "The Pleistocene Pacific". Published in 'Human settlement', in D. Denoon (ed) The Cambridge History of the Pacific Islanders. pp. 41–50. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. University of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- "Nyungar Boodjar – People's Country". Retrieved 18 July 2015.
- "Bennell v State of Western Australia  FCA 1243". Federal Court of Australia Decisions. Australasia Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
- "Newsletter: Single Noongar appeal—Perth: Bodney v Bennell 2008" (PDF). National Native Title Tribunal. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 February 2014.
- Major, Richard Henry (1859). "Early Voyages to Terra Australis, now called Australia". Project Gutenberg of Australia. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- Appleyard, R. T. and Manford, Toby (1979). The Beginning: European Discovery and Early Settlement of Swan River Western Australia, University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 0-85564-146-0
- "King George's Sound Settlement". State Records. State Records Authority of New South Wales. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Stirling, James (18 June 1829). "Proclamation". wikisource.
- Fremantle, John (1928). Diary & Letters of Admiral Sir C. H. Fremantle, G.C.B. Relating the Founding of the Colony of Western Australia 1829. London: Hazell, Watson & Viey.
- Kimberly, W. B. (1897). History of West Australia. Melbourne: F. W. Niven & Co. p. 44.
- Uren, Malcolm J. L. (1948). Land Looking West. London: Oxford University Press.
- Crowley, Francis K. (1960). Australia's Western Third. London: Macmillan & Co.
- Statham, Pamela (1981). "Swan River Colony". In Stannage, Tom. A New History of Western Australia. Nedlands: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 0-85564-181-9.
- "Town of Vincent – History". Adapted from 'History of the Town of Vincent', from Town of Vincent 2001 Annual Report, p.52 (possibly based on J. Gentili and others). Town of Vincent. Archived from the original on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- ":: REGIONAL WA:: Western Australia: History". Regional Web Australia. 23 December 2003. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- "History of the City of Perth" (PDF). City of Perth. 23 March 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- "Collections in Perth: 4. Colonial Administration". Collections in Perth. National Archives of Australia. 23 August 2007. Archived from the original on 14 July 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- Howell, Peter (2002). South Australia and Federation. Adelaide: Wakefield Press. p. 288. ISBN 1 86254 549 9.
- "Deputy Premier 2nd Collier Government 1933–1935". John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library. 11 May 2005. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- "WA Statistical Indicators June 2002". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 11 July 2002. Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- "Australia's identified mineral resources, 2002" (PDF). Geoscience Australia. 31 October 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2004. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- "Discussion Paper: Greater Perth Economy And Employment" (PDF). Department for Planning and Infrastructure. 25 August 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- "Perth, commercial area information". Emporis.com. Archived from the original on 19 February 2007. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- "World's tallest skyscrapers by country". Emporis.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- "175th Anniversary of Western Australia – Heritage Icons: January – The Swan River". Department of the Premier and Cabinet. 31 December 2004. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2008.
- "History of the North Metro Region". Department of Education. Government of Western Australia. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- Perth Metropolitan Region: Local Governments and Localities (PDF) (Map). Cartography by Location Knowledge Services, Landgate. Western Australian Land Information Authority. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- "About Us". 720 ABC Perth. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- Godfrey, Norm (July 1989). The Value of Wetlands (PDF). Planning and Management for Wetland Conservation Conference, 15 June 1988. 372. Perth, Western Australia: Environmental Protection Authority. pp. 4–11. ISBN 0 7309 1911 0. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- Tapper, Andrew; Tapper, Nigel (1996). Gray, Kathleen, ed. The weather and climate of Australia and New Zealand (First ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press. p. 300. ISBN 0-19-553393-3.
- Linacre, Edward; Geerts, Bart (1997). Climates and Weather Explained. London: Routledge. p. 379. ISBN 0-415-12519-7.
- "Perth Airport climate statistics". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
- "Annual Climate Summary for Perth: Near average rainfall with warmer days for Perth in 2008". Bureau of Meteorology. 2 January 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
- Courtney, Joe; Middelmann, Miriam (2005). "Meteorological hazards" (PDF). Natural hazard risk in Perth, Western Australia – Cities Project Perth Report. Geoscience Australia. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
- "Jandakot Airport climate statistics". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- "How extreme south-west rainfalls have changed" (PDF). Indian Ocean Climate Initiative. 2000. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
- O'Connell, Ronan; McPhee, Lindsay; Hiatt, Bethany (23 March 2010). "Storm brings huge damage bill". The West Australian. Retrieved 23 March 2010.
- Western Australian Climate Services Centre (Bureau of Meteorology) (January 2013). "Perth Metro Climate Averages" (PDF). Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- Western Australian Climate Services Centre (Bureau of Meteorology) (January 2013). "Perth Metro Climatic Extremes" (PDF). Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- "Climate statistics for Perth Metro". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- "Climate Statistics for Fremantle, WA". Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Climate statistics for Kalamunda". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- "3218.0 Historical Population Estimates by Australian Statistical Geography Standard, 1971 to 2011" (XLS). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- "Greater Perth". 2011 Census QuickStats. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 March 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Community Profile Series : Perth (Statistical Division)". 2006 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 19 September 2008.
- "Contents" (PDF). Retrieved 10 July 2015.
• In 2006 the estimated resident Aboriginal population of Western Australia was 77,900 persons, an increase of 18% from the 2001 Census • In 2006 34% of Aboriginal people in Western Australia lived in and around the Perth metropolitan area
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Perth (Statistical Division)". 2006 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Sydney (Statistical Division)". 2006 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- Packing for Perth: The Growth of a Southern African Diaspora, Eric Louw, Gary Mersham, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2001 303
- Yeld, John (6 March 2006). "Packing for Perth because of the poo!". IOL. Cape Argus. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Community Profile Series : Perth (Statistical Division)". 2006 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
- Australian Eurasian Association of WA Inc. Official site
- 500th Anniversary of Portuguese Landing in Malacca 1511, October 2011, at Australian Eurasian Association of WA Inc. Archived from the original Archived 10 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. on 10 October 2011.
- "2011 Census QuickStats: Perth City". Australian Bureau of Statistics.
- "2011 Census QuickStats: Greater Perth". Australian Bureau of Statistics.
- "Diocese of Perth". Anglican Diocese of Perth. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- "Overview". Archdiocese of Perth. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- "LDS Church Statistics". Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- "New Contact Details". ordinariate.org.au. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- "The Jewish population of Australia: Key findings from the 2011 Census". Gen08: the Australian and New Zealand Jewish Population Study. 2014-05-28. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
- The Carmel School 2015 Handbook, Dianella, Western Australia: Carmel School, p. 7, retrieved 2 July 2015
- "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
- Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "2011 Census reveals Hinduism". www.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
- Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Main Features - Losing my religion?". www.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
- "Jurisdiction". Supreme Court of WA. 16 October 2008. Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
- "About the District Court". District Court of WA. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
- "About the Family Court". Family Court of WA. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
- "Magistrate Court Locations". Department of Justice. 16 October 2008. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
- "Introduction to the Federal Circuit Court of Australia". Federal Circuit Court of Australia. 4 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- Federal Circuit Court of Australia Legislation Amendment Act 2012 on 12 April 2013
- "WA Registry". Federal Court of Australia. 2 August 2008. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
- "2007 Annual Report" (PDF). High Court of Australia. 18 March 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
- Metropolitan Local Government Review Panel (September 2011). Defining What we mean by "Perth Metropolitan Area" (Report). Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- "Greater Capital City Statistical Areas" (PDF). Australian Bureau Statistics. Commonwealth of Australia. 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Greater Perth (Greater Capital City Statistical Area)". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Greater Perth Economy and Employment" (PDF). WA Department of Planning and Infrastructure. 25 August 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
- "Structure of the WA Economy" (PDF). WA Department of Treasury and Finance. 24 January 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2008. Retrieved 10 September 2008.
- "Australian Historical Population Statistics 2008". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 5 August 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
- Department of Education. "Pre-compulsory and compulsory education period". Government of Western Australia. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- School Curriculum and Standards Authority. "WACE requirements and certification". Government of Western Australia. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- "WACE Requirements 2012 and Beyond". School Curriculum and Standards Authority. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- "Visitors – History of the University". University of Western Australia. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
The University of Western Australia has helped to shape the careers of more than 75,000 graduates since it was established in 1911.
- Network, Australian Education. "Rankings of Australian Universities 2016-2017 | AustralianUniversities.com.au". www.australianuniversities.com.au. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
- Cabinet, Department of the Prime Minister and. "Australia's Nobel Laureates and the Nobel Prize | australia.gov.au". www.australia.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
- "Digital TV Switchover Australia – Perth and surrounding areas". Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- "About Telethon", telethon.7perth.com.au. Archived from the original Archived 10 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. on 8 July 2009.
- "Telethon7", telethon.7perth.com.au. Archived from the original Archived 10 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. on 24 March 2014.
- "98five Sonshine FM". Sonshine FM. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "91.3 SportFM Perth". SportFM 91.3 Perth. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "Curtin FM 100.1". Curtin FM. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "TweetPerth". TweetPerth. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- "Perth Cultural Centre: About". Government of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "About Black Swan State Theatre Company". Black Swan State Theatre Company. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "Company History". About. Perth Theatre Company. Archived from the original on 25 April 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "About Us – Our Story". West Australian Ballet. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- "History". West Australian Opera. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- "About WASO". West Australian Symphony Orchestra. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- "About". WA Youth Music Association. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- Appelo, Tim (4 May 2012). "The Hollywood Reporter's List of the 25 Top Drama Schools". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "Welcome to WAAPA". Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts. Edith Cowan University. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "Concerts". Plan an event. Perth Convention and Exhibition Centre. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "About Perth Concert Hall". Perth Concert Hall. Archived from the original on 14 August 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- Department of Culture and the Arts. "His Majesty's Theatre". Government of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 10 July 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "Welcome to the Regal Theatre". The Regal Theatre. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "About the Venue". Live at the Astor. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- Tourism Western Australia (June 2012). "Quarterly Visitor Snapshot – Year Ending March 2012" (PDF). Government of Western Australia. p. 32. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- "Museum History". Army Museum of Western Australia. 4 April 2010. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- "The Collection – Items of significance". Army Museum of Western Australia. 4 April 2010. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- "Aviation Heritage Museum". raafawa.org.au. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "The Perth Mint". State Heritage Office. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "Kings Park". Experience Perth. Perth Region Tourism Organisation Inc. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- "Kings Park and Botanic Garden". Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority. Government of Western Australia. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- "DNA Tower Climb". Government of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- "History". City of Vincent. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Native Species Breeding Program, Perth Zoo". perthzoo.wa.gov.au. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
- "Spectator Attendance at Sporting Events" (PDF). Australian Bureau of Statistics. Commonwealth of Australia. 21 December 2010. p. 11. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Main Features - Most popular sports attended". www.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
- Marsh, David (28 May 1997). "'New Era' For Swimming". The West Australian. West Australian Newspapers Ltd. p. 139.
- "Perth won't' bid for Red Bull Air Race over costs". news.com.au. 11 December 2012. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "New Children's Hospital Project". Department of Health, Government of Western Australia. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Midland Health Campus". Department of Health, Government of Western Australia. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- National Health Performance Authority. "Hospitals in Perth". My Hospitals. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Port Information". Fremantle Ports. Archived from the original on 14 May 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
- "Fremantle Ports Profile" (pdf). Fremantle Ports Western Australia. p. 2. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
- "About Us". Verve Energy. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "About us". Western Power. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Who we are". Synergy. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Kleenheat Gas gives West Australians a choice of gas supplier". Perth Now. 24 March 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "The way we work". Water Corporation. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- Dortch, Eloise (7 May 2005). "Plan for a second desalination plant". The West Australian. West Australian Newspapers Ltd. p. 1.
A document dated 12 January obtained by The West Australian under Freedom of Information laws shows that the Water Corporation fears Perth will begin running out of water by late 2008 without one of the two developments.
- "Premier opens Australia's first major desalination plant". Water Corporation. 19 November 2006. Archived from the original on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
When fully operational it will produce on average 130 million litres per day and supply 17 per cent of Perth's needs.
- "Kwinana desalination plant open in months". ABC News Online. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 26 September 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
- Jochen Bundschuh; Jan Hoinkis (2 July 2012). Renewable Energy Applications for Freshwater Production. CRC Press. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-0-415-62089-5.
- "Kimberley Water Source Project" (PDF). Department of Water. 28 April 2006. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
- "Southern Seawater Desalination Project". Water Corporation. Archived from the original on 1 March 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "Winter sprinkler ban made permanent". ABC News. 9 September 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "Dams at record levels". ABC News. 15 September 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Perth.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Perth (Australia).|
- Watch historical footage of Perth and Western Australia from the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia's collection.
- Historical photos of Perth from the State Library of Western Australia
- Tourism Australia Page