List of pharaohs

Pharaoh of Egypt

The Pschent combined the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt.

A typical depiction of a pharaoh.
Style Five-name titulary
First monarch Narmer (a.k.a. Menes)
Last monarch Nectanebo II
(last native)[1]
Cleopatra & Caesarion
(last actual)
Formation c. 3100 BC
Abolition 343 BC
(last native pharaoh)[1]
30 BC
(last Greek pharaohs)
Residence Varies by era
Appointer Divine right

This article contains a list of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, from the Early Dynastic Period before 3100 BC through to the end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, when Egypt became a province of Rome under Augustus Caesar in 30 BC.

Note that the dates given are approximate. The list of pharaohs presented below is based on the conventional chronology of Ancient Egypt, mostly based on the Digital Egypt for Universities database developed by the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, but alternative dates taken from other authorities may be indicated separately.

Ancient Egyptian King Lists

Modern lists of pharaohs are based on historical records: Ancient Egyptian king lists and later histories, such as Manetho's Aegyptiaca, as well as archaeological evidence. Concerning ancient sources, Egyptologists and Historians alike call for caution about the credibility, exactitude and completeness of these sources, many of which were written long after the reigns they report.[2] An additional problem is that ancient king lists are often damaged, inconsistent with one another and/or selective.

The following ancient king lists are known (given here by dynasties):[3]

Predynastic period

Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt geographically consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile delta. The following list may not be complete:

Name Image Comments Dates
Seka - Only known from the Palermo stone[4]
Khayu - Only known from the Palermo stone[5]
Tiu - Only known from the Palermo stone[6]
Thesh - Only known from the Palermo stone[7]
Neheb - Only known from the Palermo stone[8]
Wazner - Only known from the Palermo stone[9]
Mekh - Only known from the Palermo stone[10]
(destroyed) - Only known from the Palermo stone[10]
Double Falcon
May also have ruled on Upper Egypt Naqada III

Upper Egypt

Regrouped here are predynastic rulers of Upper Egypt belonging to the late Naqada III period, sometimes informally described as Dynasty 00.

Name Image Comments Dates
- Naqada III
Bull - - Naqada III
Scorpion I - - Naqada III

Early Dynastic Period

Predynastic Rulers: Dynasty 0

The following list of predynastic rulers may be complete. Since these kings precede the First Dynasty, they have been informally grouped as "Dynasty 0".

Name Image Comments Dates
Correct chronological position unclear.[12] c. 3150 BC
Potentially read Shendjw; identity and existence are disputed.[13] c. 3150 BC
Maybe read Sekhen rather than Ka. Correct chronological position unclear.[14] c. 3150 BC
Scorpion II
Potentially read Serqet; possibly the same person as Narmer.[15] c. 3150 BC

First Dynasty

Name Image Comments Reign
Believed to be the same person as Menes and to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt. c. 3100 BC
Greek form: Athotís. c. 3050 BC
Greek form: Uenéphes (after his Gold name In-nebw); His name and titulary appear on the Palermo Stone. His tomb was later thought to be the legendary tomb of Osiris. 54 years[16]
Greek form: Usapháis. 10 years[17]
Greek form: Kénkenes (after the ramesside diction of his birthname: Qenqen[18]). First pharaoh depicted wearing the double crown of Egypt, first pharaoh with a full niswt bity-name. 42 years[17]
Greek form: Miebidós. Known for his ominous nebwy-title.[19] 10 years
Greek form: Semempsés. First Egyptian ruler with a fully developed Nebty name. His complete reign is preserved on the Cairo stone. 8½ years[17]
Greek form: Bienéches. Ruled very long, his tomb is the last one with subsidiary tombs. 34 years
Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown. c. 2900 BC
Horus Bird
Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown. c. 2900 BC

Second Dynasty

Name Image Comments Dates
Manetho names him Boëthos and claims that under this ruler an earthquake killed lots of people. 15 years
Greek form: Kaíechós (after the ramesside cartouche name Kakaw). First ruler who uses the sun-symbol in his royal name, could be identical to king Weneg. 14 years
Greek form: Binóthris. May have divided Egypt between his successors, allegedly allowed women to rule like pharaohs. 43–45 years
Greek form: Ougotlas/Tlás. Could be an independent ruler or the same as Peribsen, Sekhemib-Perenmaat or Raneb.
Greek form: Sethenes. Possibly the same person as Peribsen. This, however, is highly disputed.[25]
Used a Seth-animal above his serekh rather than an Horus falcon. He promoted the sun-cult in Egypt and reduced the powers of officials, nomarchs and palatines. Some scholars believe that he ruled over a divided Egypt.[26]
Could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen.[27]
Neferkara I
Greek form: Néphercherés. Known only from ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested.
Greek form: Sesóchris. Known only from ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested. Old Kingdom legends claim that this ruler saved Egypt from a long lasting draught.[28]
Hudjefa I Known only from ramesside king lists, his "name" is actually a paraphrase pointing out that the original name of the king was already lost in ramesside times.
Greek form: Chenerés. May have reunified Egypt after a period of trouble, his serekh name is unique for presenting both Horus and Set.

Old Kingdom

Main article: Old Kingdom of Egypt

Third Dynasty

Name Image Comments Dates
Greek form: Tosórthros. Commissioned the first Pyramid in Egypt, created by chief architect and scribe Imhotep. 19 or 28 years ca. 2670 BC.
Greek form: Tyréis (after the ramesside cartouche name for Sekhemkhet, Teti). In the necropolis of his unfinished step pyramid, the remains of a 2-year old infant were found.[34] 26492643
Greek form: Necheróphes. Could be the same as Nebka, this is disputed amongst scholars. c. 2650
Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid, could be identical with Huni. 26432637
Greek form: Áches. Could be the same as Qahedjet or Khaba. Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid and several cultic pyramids throughout Egypt. Huni was for a long time credited with the building of the pyramid of Meidum. This, however, is disproved by New Kingdom graffitos which praise king Snofru, not Huni. 26372613

Fourth Dynasty

Name Image Comments Dates
Greek form: Sóris. Reigned pretty long (48 years), giving him enough time to build the Meidum Pyramid, the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid. Some scholars believe that he was buried in the Red Pyramid. Long time it was thought that the Meidum Pyramid was not Snofru's work, but that of king Huni. Ancient Egyptian documents describe Snofru as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler.[36]
26132589 BC
Greek form: Cheops and Suphis. Built the Great pyramid of Giza. Khufu is depicted as a cruel tyrant by ancient Greek authors, Ancient Egyptian sources however describe him as a generous and pious ruler. He is the main protagonist of the famous Westcar Papyrus, in which he allegedly consults a magician named Dedi. Dedi makes a prophecy and performs magical wonders. The first imprinted papyri originate from Khufu's reign, which may have made ancient Greek authors believe that Khufu wrote books in attempt to praise the gods.
25892566 BC
Greek form: Rátoises. Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash. However, this pyramid is no longer intact as it is believed the Romans recycled the materials it was made from.
25662558 BC
Greek form: Chéphren and Suphis II. His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Some scholars prefer him as the creator of the Great Sphinx before Djedefra. Ancient Greek authors describe Khafra as likewise cruel as Khufu.
25582532 BC
Greek form: Bikheris. Could be the owner of the Unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet el'Aryan.
Greek form: Menchéres. His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. A legend claims that his only daughter died due an illness and Menkaura buried her in a golden coffin in shape of a cow.
25322503 BC
Greek form: Seberchéres. Owner of the Mastabat el-Fara'un.
25032498 BC
Thamphthis According to Manetho the last king of the 4th dynasty. He is not archaeologically attested and thus possibly fictional.

Fifth Dynasty

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara. Built the first solar temple at Abusir.
24982491 BC
Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir, where he built his pyramid.
24902477 BC
Neferirkare Kakai
Son of Sahure, born with the name Ranefer
24772467 BC
Son of Neferirkare
24602458 BC
Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months, possibly a son of Sahure.[37]
Few months
Nyuserre Ini
Brother to Neferefre, built extensively in the Abusir necropolis.
24452422 BC
Menkauhor Kaiu
Last pharaoh to build a sun temple
24222414 BC
Djedkare Isesi
Effected comprehensive reforms of the Egyptian administration. Enjoyed the longest reign of his dynasty, with likely more than 35 years on the throne.
24142375 BC
The Pyramid of Unas is inscribed with the earliest instance of the pyramid texts
23752345 BC

Sixth Dynasty

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
According to Manetho, he was murdered.
2345–2333 BC
Reigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of Teti
2333–2332 BC
Meryre Pepi I
2332–2283 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
2283–2278 BC
Neferkare Pepi II
Possibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Alternatively, may have reigned "only" 64 years.
2278–2184 BC
Neferka Only mentioned in the Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler.
2200–2199 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II[38]
Short lived pharaoh, possibly an aged son of Pepi II.
1 year and 1 month c. 2184 BC
Neitiqerty Siptah
Identical with Netjerkare. This male king gave rise to the legendary queen Nitocris of Herodotus and Manetho.[39] Sometimes classified as the first king of the combined 7th/8th Dynasties. Short reign: c. 2184–2181 BC

First Intermediate Period

The First Intermediate Period (2181–2060 BC) is a period of disarray and chaos between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for more than 64 and likely up to 94 years, longer than any monarch in history. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age. The union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

The kings of the 7th and 8th Dynasties, who represented the successors of the 6th Dynasty, tried to hold onto some power in Memphis but owed much of it to powerful nomarchs. After 20 to 45 years, they were overthrown by a new line of pharaohs based in Herakleopolis Magna. Some time after these events, a rival line based at Thebes revolted against their nomial Northern overlords and united Upper Egypt. Around 2055 BC, Mentuhotep II, the son and successor of pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled for approximately 20–45 years. They comprise numerous ephemeral kings reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt and, in any case, holding only limited power owing to the effectively feudal system into which the administration had evolved. The list below is based on the Abydos King List dating to the reign of Seti I and taken from Jürgen von Beckerath's Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen[40] as well as from Kim Ryholt's latest reconstruction of the Turin canon, another king list dating to the Ramesside Era.[41]

Name Image Comments Dates
Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit.[42][43][44]
Neferkare II
Neferkare (III) Neby
Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in Saqqara.
Djedkare Shemai
Neferkare (IV) Khendu
Possibly attested by a cylinder-seal.
Neferkare (V) Tereru
Attested by a cylinder seal.
Neferkare (VI) Pepiseneb
Neferkamin Anu
Qakare Ibi
Built a pyramid at Saqqara inscribed with the last known instance of the Pyramid Texts 2169–2167 BC
Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of Min at Coptos. 2167–2163 BC
Neferkauhor Khuwihapi
Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of Shemay. 2163–2161 BC
Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min. 2161–2160 BC

Ninth Dynasty

The Ninth Dynasty[45] ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC. The Turin King List has 18 kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial.[45]

Name Image Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety I (Acthoes I)
Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty. 2160?
- ?
Neferkare VII - ?
Nebkaure Khety II (Acthoes II)
- ?
Senenh or Setut - ?
- ?
Mery - ?
Shed - ?
H - ?

Tenth Dynasty

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Neferkare VIII ?
Wahkare Khety (Acthoes III)

Eleventh Dynasty

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC. The 11th dynasty originated from a dynasty of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Intef the Elder Iry-pat
Theban nomarch serving an unnamed king, later considered a founding figure of the 11th Dynasty.

The successors of Intef the Elder, starting with Mentuhotep I, became independent from their northern overlords and eventually conquered Egypt under Mentuhotep II.

Name Image Comments Dates
Mentuhotep I Tepy-a
Nominally a Theban nomarch but may have ruled independently.
?2134 BC
Sehertawy Intef I
First member of the dynasty to claim a Horus name.
21342117 BC
Wahankh Intef II
Conquered Abydos and its nome.
21172069 BC
Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III
Conquered Asyut and possibly moved further North up to the 17th nome.[46]
20692060 BC

Middle Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom (2060–1802 BC) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time. This opening of trade eventually led to the downfall of the Middle Kingdom, induced by an invasion from the Hyksos.

Eleventh Dynasty continued

The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be part of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebhetepre Mentuhotep II[47]
Gained all Egypt ca. 2015 BC, Middle Kingdom begins.
20602010 BC
Sankhkare Mentuhotep III[48]
Commanded the first expedition to Punt of the Middle Kingdom
20101998 BC
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV [49]
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. May have been overthrown by his vizier and successor Amenemhat I.
19971991 BC

Enigmatic kings, only attested in Lower Nubia

Name Image Comments Dates
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty.
Qakare Ini[50]
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty.
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty.

Twelfth Dynasty

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sehetepibre Amenemhat I[51][52]
Seized power after overthrowing Mentuhotep IV. Died assassinated.
19911962 BC
Kheperkare Senusret I[53] (Sesostris I)
Built the White Chapel
19711926 BC
Nubkaure Amenemhat II[54]
19291895 BC
Khakheperre Senusret II[55] (Sesostris II)
18971878 BC
Khakaure Senusret III[56] (Sesostris III)
Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs.
18781860 BC
Nimaatre Amenemhat III[57]
18601815 BC
Maakherure Amenemhat IV[58]
Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Konosso.
18151807 BC
Sobekkare Sobekneferu[59]
A rare female ruler.
18071802 BC
Seankhibtawy Seankhibra
Enigmatic king of the Twelfth Dynasty. He was either a usurper or identical with one of the first three kings of the Dynasty.

Second Intermediate Period

The Second Intermediate Period (1802–1550 BC) is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth, made their appearance in Egypt.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the two lands of Egypt. Either at the start of the dynasty, c. 1805 BC or toward the middle of it in c. 1710 BC, the provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the eastern Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Canaanite Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na), conquering the kingdom of the 14th dynasty. Then, some time around 1650 BC the Hyksos, perhaps led by Salitis the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, conquered Memphis, thereby terminating the 13th dynasty. The power vacuum in Upper Egypt resulting from the collapse of the 13th dynasty allowed the 16th dynasty to declare its independence in Thebes, only to be overrun by the Hyksos kings shortly thereafter.

Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh of the New Kingdom.

Thirteenth Dynasty

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1802 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 years according to Manetho. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I
Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is well attested. Referred to as Sobekhotep I in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep II in older studies 1802–1800 BC[60]
Perhaps a brother of Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep and son of Amenemhat IV[60] 1800–1796 BC[60]
1796 BC
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V
3 to 4 years[60] 1796–1793 BC[60]
Ameny Qemau
Buried in his pyramid in south Dashur 1795–1792 BC
Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef
Also called Sehotepibre 1792–1790 BC
Iufni Only attested on the Turin canon Very short reign, possibly c. 1790 – 1788 BC[60]
Seankhibre Amenemhet VI
1788–1785 BC
Semenkare Nebnuni
1785–1783 BC[60] or 1739 BC[61]
Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy
1783–1781 BC[60]
Sewadjkare Known only from the Turin canon
Nedjemibre Known only from the Turin canon 7 months, 1780 BC[60] or 1736 BC[61]
Khaankhre Sobekhotep
Referred to as Sobekhotep II in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep I in older studies Reigned c. 3 years, 1780–1777 BC[60]
Renseneb 4 months 1777 BC[60]
Awybre Hor I
Famous for his intact tomb treasure and Ka statue Reigned 1 year and 6 months, 1777–1775 BC[60]
Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw
Possibly a son of Hor Awibre Estimated reign 3 years, 1775–1772 BC[60]
Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with Khendjer Estimated reign 2 years, 1772–1770 BC[60]
Possibly two kings, Seb and his son Kay.[60]
A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents. 5 to 7 years or 3 years, 1769–1766 BC[60]
Khutawyre Wegaf
Founder of the dynasty in old studies c. 1767 BC
Possibly the first semitic pharaoh, built a pyramid at Saqqara Minimum 4 years and 3 months c. 1765 BC
Attested by two colossal statues Reigned less than 10 years, starting 1759 BC[60] or 1711 BC.[62]
Sehetepkare Intef IV
Seth Meribre
Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III
4 years and 2 months c. 1755–1751 BC
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I
11 years 1751–1740 BC
Menwadjre Sihathor Ephemeral coregent with his brother Neferhotep I, may not have reigned independently. 1739 BC[60]
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV
10 or 11 years 1740–1730 BC
Merhotepre Sobekhotep V
c. 1730 BC
Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI
4 years 8 months and 29 days c. 1725 BC
Wahibre Ibiau
10 years and 8 months 1725–1714 BC or 1712–1701 BC[60]
Merneferre Ay I
Longest reigning king of the dynasty 23 years, 8 months and 18 days, 1701–1677 BC[60] or 1714–1691 BC
Merhotepre Ini
Possibly a son of his predecessor 2 Years 3 or 4 Months and 9 days, 1677–1675 BC[60] or 1691–1689 BC
Sankhenre Sewadjtu Attested only on the Turin canon 3 years and 2–4 months, 1675–1672 BC[60]
Mersekhemre Ined
May be the same person as Neferhotep II 3 years, 1672–1669 BC[60]
Sewadjkare Hori 5 years ?
Merkawre Sobekhotep VII 2 years and 6 months [60] 1664–1663 BC[60]
Seven kings Names lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon [60] 1663 BC –?[60]
Mer[…]re ?
Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC [60]
Merkare Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC [60]
Name lost ?
Sewadjare Mentuhotep V
c. 1655 BC[60]
[…]mosre ?
Ibi […]maatre ?
Hor[…] […]webenre ?
Se...kare ? ?
Seheqenre Sankhptahi
May be the son of his predecessor ? ? ?
Se...enre ? ?–1649 BC [60]

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Name Image Comments Dates
Dedumose I
Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty c. 1654
Dedumose II
Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty ?
Sewahenre Senebmiu
Late 13th dynasty. After 1660 BC.[60]
Possibly a king of the Abydos Dynasty ?
Mershepsesre Ini II
Late 13th dynasty. ?

Fourteenth Dynasty

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Avaris,[63] that ruled from either from 1805 BC or c. 1710 BC until around 1650 BC. The dynasty comprised many rulers with West Semitic names and is thus believed to have been Canaanite in origin. It is here given as per Ryholt, however this reconstruction of the dynasty is heavily debated with the position of the five kings preceding Nehesy highly disputed.

Name Image Comments Dates
Yakbim Sekhaenre
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[63] 1805–1780 BC
Ya'ammu Nubwoserre
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[63] 1780–1770 BC
Qareh Khawoserre[63]
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[63] 1770–1760 BC
'Ammu Ahotepre[63]
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[63] 1760–1745 BC
Chronological position, duration of reign and extend of rule uncertain, here given as per Ryholt.[63] Alternatively, he could be an early Hyksos king, a Hyksos ruler of the second part of the 15th Dynasty or a vassal of the Hyksos. 1745–1705 BC
Short reign, perhaps a son of Sheshi [63] c. 1705
Khakherewre - ?
Nebefawre - c. 1704
Sehebre Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[60] -
Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[60] c. 1699
Sewadjkare III - ?
Nebdjefare - c. 1694
Webenre - ?
- ?
Djefare? - ?
Webenre c. 1690
Attested by a jar bearing his prenomen At least 5 months of reign, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Sekheperenre[63] Attested by a single scarab seal 2 months, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Anati Djedkare[63] Only known from the Turin canon
Bebnum[63] Only known from the Turin canon
'Apepi[63] Possibly attested as a king's son by 5 scarabs-seals

The position and identity of the following pharaohs is uncertain:

Name Image Comments Dates
Nuya[60] Attested by a scarab-seal
May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare c. 1700 BC ?
May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare
Shenshek[60] Attested by a scarab-seal
May belong to the 14th dynasty, the 15th dynasty or be a vassal of the Hyksos. 17th–16th centuries BCE

The Turin King List provides additional names, none of which are attested beyond the list.

Fifteenth Dynasty

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged from the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Chronological position uncertain. 1649 BC ?
Chronological position uncertain.
Sakir-Har - ?
Apex of the Hyksos' power, conquered Thebes toward the end of his reign 30–40 years
- 40 years or more
- 1555–1544

Abydos Dynasty

The Second Intermediate Period may include an independent dynasty reigning over Abydos from c. 1650 BC until 1600 BC.[65][66][67] Four attested kings may be tentatively attributed to the Abydos Dynasty, and they are given here without regard for their (unknown) chronological order:

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemraneferkhau Wepwawetemsaf
May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[68]
Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny
May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[68]
Menkhaure Snaaib
May belong to the late 13th Dynasty.[69][70][71]
Woseribre Senebkay
Tomb discovered in 2014. Perhaps identifiable with a Woser[...]re of the Turin canon.

Sixteenth Dynasty

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a native Theban dynasty emerging from the collapse of the Memphis-based 13 th dynasty c. 1650 BC and finally conquered by the Hyksos 15th dynasty c. 1580 BC. The 16th dynasty held sway over Upper-Egypt only.

Name Image Comments Dates
Name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered
Djehuti Sekhemresementawy
3 years
Sobekhotep VIII Sekhemreseusertawy
16 years
Neferhotep III Sekhemresankhtawy
1 year
Mentuhotepi Seankhenre
May be a king of the 17th Dynasty[70] 1 year
Nebiryraw I Sewadjenre
26 years
Nebiryraw II Neferkare?
Bebiankh Seuserenre
12 years
Dedumose I Djedhotepre
May be a king of the 13th Dynasty[70]
Dedumose II Djedneferre
Montuemsaf Djedankhre
Merankhre Mentuhotep VI
Senusret IV Seneferibre
Sekhemre Shedwast

The 16th Dynasty may also have comprised the reigns of pharaohs Sneferankhre Pepi III[72] and Nebmaatre. Their chronological position is uncertain.[69][70]

Seventeenth Dynasty

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemrewahkhaw Rahotep
c. 1620 BC
Sekhemre Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I
Reigned at least 7 years -
Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II
His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of Ramses IX -
Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef V
- -
Nubkheperre Intef VI
Reigned more than 3 years -
Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef VII
- -
Senakhtenre Ahmose
c. 1558 BC
Seqenenre Tao
Died in battle against the Hyksos.
1558–1554 BC
Wadjkheperre Kamose
1554–1549 BC

The early 17th Dynasty may also have comprised the reign of a pharaoh Nebmaatre, whose chronological position is uncertain.[60]

New Kingdom

The New Kingdom (1550–1077 BC) is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period.

Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Two of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, and Ramesses II, who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.

Eighteenth Dynasty

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 1550 to 1292 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebpehtire Ahmose I, Ahmosis I
Brother and successor to Kamose, conquered north of Egypt from the Hyksos. c. 1550–1525 BCE; Radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 1570–1544 BCE, the mean point of which is 1557 BCE[73]
Djeserkare Amenhotep I
Son of Ahmose I. 1541–1520
Aakheperkare Thutmose I
Father unknown, though possibly Amenhotep I. His mother is known to be Senseneb. Expanded Egypt's territorial extent during his reign. 1520–1492
Aakheperenre Thutmose II
Son of Thutmose I. Grandson of Amenhotep I through his mother, Mutnofret. 1492–1479
Maatkare Hatshepsut
The second known female ruler of Egypt. May have ruled jointly with her nephew Thutmose III during the early part of her reign. Famous for her expedition to Punt documented on her famous Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahari. Built many temples and monuments. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power. Was the daughter of Thutmose I and the Great Wife of her brother Thutmose II. 1479–1458
Menkheperre Thutmose III
Son of Thutmose II. May have ruled jointly with Hatshepsut, his aunt and step-mother, during the early part of her reign. Famous for his territorial expansion into Levant and Nubia. Under his reign, the Ancient Egyptian Empire was at its greatest extent. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power. Late in his reign, he obliterated Hatshepsut's name and image from temples and monuments. 1458–1425
Aakheperrure Amenhotep II
Son of Thutmose III. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power. 1425–1400
Menkheperure Thutmose IV
Famous for his Dream Stele. Son of Amenhotep II. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power. 1400–1390
Nebmaatre Amenhotep III The Magnificent King
Father of Akhenaten and grandfather of Tutankhamun. Ruled Egypt at the height of its power. Built many temples and monuments, including his enormous Mortuary Temple. Was the son of Thutmose IV. 1390–1352
Neferkheperure-waenre Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten
Founder of the Amarna Period in which he changed the state religion from the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion to the Monotheistic Atenism, centered around the worship of the Aten, an image of the sun disc. He moved the capital to Akhetaten. Was the second son of Amenhotep III. He changed his name from Amenhotep (Amun is pleased) to Akhenaten (Effective for the Aten) to reflect his religion change. 1352–1334
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare
Ruled jointly with Akhenaten during the later years of his reign. Unknown if Smenkhare ever ruled in their own right. Identity and even the gender of Smenkhare is uncertain. Some suggest he may have been the son of Akenhaten, possibly the same person as Tutankhamun, other speculate Smenkhare may have been Nefertiti or Meritaten. May have been succeeded by or identical with a female Pharaoh named Neferneferuaten. 1334–1333
Nebkheperure Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun
Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, most likely reinstated the Polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion. His name change from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun reflects the change in religion from the Monotheistic Atenism to the classic religion, of which Amun is a major deity. He is thought to have taken the throne at around age eight or nine and to have died around age eighteen or nineteen, giving him the nickname "The Boy King." 1333–1324
Kheperkheperure Ay
Was Grand Vizier to Tutankhamun and an important official during the reigns of Akhenaten and Smenkhkare. Possibly the brother of Tiye, Great Wife of Amenhotep III, and also possibly father of Nefertiti, Great Wife of Akhenaten. Believed to be born into nobility, but not royalty. Succeeded Tutankhamun due to his lack of an heir. 1324–1320
Djeserkheperure-setpenre Horemheb
Born a Commoner. Was a General during the Amarna Period. Obliterated Images of the Amarna Pharaohs and destroyed and vandalized buildings and monuments associated with them. Succeeded Ay despite Nakhtmin being the intended heir. 1320–1292

Nineteenth Dynasty

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great:

Name Image Comments Dates
Menpehtire Ramesses I[74]
Of non-royal birth. Succeeded Horemheb due to his lack of an heir. 1292–1290
Menmaatre Seti I
Regained much of the territory that was lost under the reign of Akhenaten. 1290–1279
Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses II the Great
Continued expanding Egypt's territory until he reached a stalemate with the Hittite Empire at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which the famous Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC. 1279–1213
Banenre Merenptah[75]
Thirteenth son of Ramesses II. 1213–1203
Menmire-setpenre Amenmesse
Most likely an usurper to the throne. Possibly ruled in opposition to Seti II. Suggested son of Merneptah. 1203–1200
Userkheperure Seti II[76]
Son of Merneptah. May have had to overcome a contest by Amenmesse before he could solidify his claim to the throne. 1203–1197
Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah[77]
Possibly son of Seti II or Amenmesse, ascended to throne at a young age. 1197–1191
Satre-merenamun Tausret
Probably the wife of Seti II. Also known as Twosret or Tawosret. 1191–1190

Twentieth Dynasty

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1190 to 1077 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Userkhaure Setnakhte
Not related to Seti II, Siptah, or Tausret. May have usurped the throne from Tausret. Did not recognize Siptah or Tausret as legitimate rulers. Possibly a member of a minor line of the Ramesside royal family. Also called Setnakt. 1190–1186
Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses III
Son of Setnakhte. Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC. May have been assassinated. 1186–1155
User/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses IV
Son of Ramesses III. During his reign, Egyptian power started to decline. 1155–1149
Usermaatre-sekheperenre Ramesses V
Son of Ramesses IV 1149–1145
Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses VI
Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV. Uncle of Ramesses V. 1145–1137
Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII
Son of Ramesses VI. 1137–1130
Usermaatre-akhenamun Ramesses VIII
An obscure Pharaoh, who reigned only around a year. Identifiable with Prince Sethiherkhepeshef II. Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV and Ramesses VI. Uncle of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII. He is the sole Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty whose tomb has not been found. 1130–1129
Neferkare-setpenre Ramesses IX
Probably grandson of Ramesses III through his father, Montuherkhopshef. First cousin of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII. 1129–1111
Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses X[78]
A poorly documented Pharaoh, his reign was between 3 and 10 years long. His origins are completely uncertain. 1111–1107
Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses XI[79]
Possibly the son of Ramesses X. During the second half of his reign, High Priest of Amun Herihor ruled over the south from Thebes, limiting his power to Lower (Northern) Egypt. He was succeeded in the north by Smendes. 1107–1077

Third Intermediate Period

The Third Intermediate Period (1077–732 BC) marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

Twenty-First Dynasty

The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 943 BC

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed I (Smendes I)[80]
Married to Tentamun, probable daughter of Ramesses XI. 1077–1051
Neferkare Heqawaset Amenemnisu
Obscure four-year reign. 1051–1047
Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I)
Son of Pinedjem I, a High Priest of Amun. Ruled for 40 to 51 years. Famous for his intact tomb at Tanis. Known as "The Silver Pharaoh" due to the magnificent silver coffin he was buried in. One of the most powerful rulers of the Dynasty. 1047–1001
Usermaatre Amenemope
Son of Psusennes I. 1001–992
Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder)
Son of Shoshenq A, Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libya). Also known as Osochor. 992–986
Netjerikheperre-setpenamun Siamun-meryamun
Unknown Origins. Built extensively for a third intermediate period Pharaoh. One of the most powerful rulers of the dynasty. 986–967
Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II)
Son of Pinedjem II, a High Priest of Amun. 967–943

Theban High Priests of Amun

Though not officially Pharaohs, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt during the Twenty-first and Twenty-second Dynasties, writing their names in cartouches and being buried in royal tombs.

Name Image Comments Dates
First High Priest of Amun to claim to be Pharaoh. He ruled in the south in Thebes, while Ramesses XI ruled from the north in Pi-Ramesses. 1080-1074
- 1074-1070
Pinedjem I
Son of Piankh. Father of Psusennes I. 1070-1032
Son of Pinedjem I. 1054-1045
Djedkhonsuefankh Son of Pinedjem I. 1046-1045
Son of Pinedjem I. 1045-992
Nesbanebdjed II (Smendes II)
Son of Menkheperre. 992-990
Pinedjem II
Son of Menkheperre, Father of Psusennes II. 990-976
Pasebakhaennuit III (Psusennes III) Possibly the same person as Psusennes II. Either he or Pinedjem II is generally Considered to be the Last High Priest of Amun to consider himself as a Pharaoh-like figure. 976-943

Twenty-Second Dynasty

The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 943 to 728 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setepenre Shoshenq I
Son of Nimlot A, a brother of Osorkon the Elder and a Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libya). 943–922
Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I
Son of Shoshenq I. 922–887
Heqakheperre Shoshenq II
Obscure Pharaoh, possibly an usurper. 887–885
Tutkheperre Shoshenq IIb Obscure Pharaoh, placement uncertain. 880s
Hedjkheperre Harsiese
An obscure rebel, at Thebes. 880–860
Takelot I
Son of Osorkon I. 885–872
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon II
Son of Takelot I. 872–837
Usermaatre-setepenre Shoshenq III
- 837–798
Shoshenq IV - 798–785
Usermaatre-setepenre Pami
- 785–778
Aakheperre Shoshenq V
- 778–740
Usermaatre Osorkon IV
- 740–720

Twenty-Third Dynasty

The Twenty-Third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 837 to c. 735 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Takelot II
Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd 837–813
Usermaatre-setepenamun Pedubast
A rebel—seized Thebes from Takelot II 826–801
Usermaatre-setepenamun Iuput I Co-regent with Pedubast 812–811
Usermaatre Shoshenq VI Successor to Pedubast 801–795
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon III
Son of Takelot II; recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king 795–767
Usermaatre-setpenamun Takelot III
Co-reign with his father Osorkon III for the first five years of his reign. 773–765
Usermaatre-setpenamun Rudamun
Younger son of Osorkon III and brother of Takelot III. 765–762

Rudamun was succeeded in Thebes by a local ruler:

Name Image Comments Dates
Menkheperre Ini
Reigned at Thebes only 762-?

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two Pharaoh ruling from 732 to 720 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Shepsesre Tefnakhte
- 732–725
Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris)
- 725–720

Twenty-fifth Dynasty

Nubians invaded Lower Egypt and took the throne of Egypt under Piye although they already controlled Thebes and Upper Egypt in the early years of Piye's reign. Piye's conquest of Lower Egypt established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Usermaatre Piye
King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years 752–721 according to Dan'el Kahn
Neferkare Shabaka
- 721–707/706 according to Rolf Krauss/David Warburton[81]
Djedkaure Shebitku
- 707/706–690 according to Dan'el Kahn[82]
Khuinefertemre Taharqa
- 690–664
Bakare Tantamani
lost control of Upper Egypt in 656 BC when Psamtik I extended his authority into Thebes in that year. 664–653

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656–590), and, later, at Meroë (590 BC – 4th century AD).

Late Period

The Late Period runs from around 664 to 332 BC, and includes periods of rule by native Egyptians and Persians.

Twenty-sixth Dynasty

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 664 to 525 BC.[83]

Name Image Comments Dates
Tefnakht II Manetho's Stephinates. May have been a descendant of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. The father of Necho I. 685–678 BC
Nekauba Manetho's Nechepsos. His existence has been questioned. 678–672 BC
Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I)
Was killed by an invading Kushite force in 664 BC under Tantamani. Father of Psamtik I. 672–664 BC

The son and successor of Necho I, Psamtik I, managed to reunify Egypt and is generally regarded as the founder of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I)
Reunified Egypt. Son of Necho I and father of Necho II. 664–610 BC
Wehemibre Necho II (Necho II)
Most likely the pharaoh mentioned in several books of the Bible. Son of Psamtik I and father of Psamtik II. 610–595 BC
Neferibre Psamtik II (Psammetichus II)
Son of Necho II and father of Apries. 595–589 BC
Haaibre Wahibre (Apries)
Fled Egypt after Amasis II (who was a general at the time) declared himself pharaoh following a civil war. Son of Psamtik II. 589–570 BC
Khnemibre Ahmose II (Amasis II)
He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, he was of common origins. Father of Psamtik III. 570–526 BC
Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III)
Son of Amasis II. Ruled for about six months before being defeated by the Persians in the Battle of Pelusium and subsequently executed for attempting to revolt. 526–525 BC

Twenty-seventh Dynasty (First Persian period)

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and annexed by the Persians until 404 BC. The Achaemenid shahenshahs were acknowledged as pharaohs in this era, forming a "Twenty-seventh" Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Cambyses (Cambyses II)
Defeated Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium at 525 BC 525–521 BC
Smerdis (Bardiya) Son of Cyrus the Great 522–521 BC
Petubastis III[84]
A native Egyptian rebel in the Delta 522/21–520 BC
Darius I the Great
- 521–486 BC
Xerxes I the Great
- 486–465 BC
Psammetichus IV[84] A proposed native Egyptian rebel leader. Exact date uncertain. possibly in the 480s BCE
Artabanus the Hyrcanian - 465–464 BC
Artaxerxes I Longhand
- 464–424 BC
Xerxes II claimant 424–423 BC
Sogdianus claimant 424–423 BC
Darius II
424–404 BC

Twenty-eighth Dynasty

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 404 to 398 BC, with one Pharaoh:

Name Image Comments Dates
Amyrtaeus Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians. 404–398 BC

Twenty-ninth Dynasty

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Baenre Nefaarud I
Also known as Nepherites. Defeated Amyrtaeus in open battle and had him executed. 398–393 BC
- 393 BC
Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris)
Overthrew his predecessor Psammuthes. Father of Nefaarud II. 393–380 BC
Nefaarud II Was deposed and likely killed by Nectanebo I after ruling for only 4 months. Son of Hakor. 380 BC

Thirtieth Dynasty

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt once more came under Persian rule in 343 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I)
Also known as Nekhtnebef. Deposed and likely killed Nefaarud II, starting the last dynasty of native Egyptians. Father of Teos. 380–362 BC
Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos)
Co-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365 BC. Was overthrown by Nectanebo II with the aid of Agesilaus II of Sparta. 362–360 BC
Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II)
Last native ruler of ancient Egypt[85] 360–343 BC

Thirty-first Dynasty (Second Persian period)

Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Artaxerxes III Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time 343338 BC
Artaxerxes IV Arses Only reigned in Lower Egypt 338336 BC
Khababash Rebel pharaoh who led an invasion in Nubia 338335 BC
Darius III Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC 336332 BC

Hellenistic Period

Argead Dynasty

The Macedonians under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Alexander III (Alexander the Great)
Macedon conquered Persia and Egypt 332323 BC
Philip III Arrhidaeus
Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander III the Great 323317 BC
Haaibre Alexander IV
Son of Alexander III the Great and Roxana 317309 BC

Ptolemaic Dynasty

The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies, ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency). The most famous member of this dynasty was Cleopatra VII, who in modern times is known simply as Cleopatra who was successively the consort of Julius Caesar and after Caesar's death, of Mark Antony, and had children with both of them. Cleopatra strove to create a dynastic and political union between Egypt and Rome but the assassination of Caesar and the defeat of Mark Antony doomed her plans. Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar) was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, he reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from September 2, 47 BC. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named. Between the alleged death of Cleopatra, on August 12, 30 BC, up to his own alleged death on August 23, 30 BC, he was nominally the sole pharaoh. It is tradition that he was hunted down and killed on the orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus, but the historical evidence does not exist.

Name Image Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Ptolemy I Soter Abdicated in 285 BC; died in 283 BC 305–285 BC
Berenice I Wife of Ptolemy I ?–285 BC
Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy II Philadelphos - 288–246 BC
Arsinoe I Wife of Ptolemy II 284/281–c. 274 BC
Arsinoe II Wife of Ptolemy II 277–270 BC
Ptolemy III Euergetes I - 246–222 BC
Berenice II Wife of Ptolemy III 244/243–222 BC
Ptolemy IV Philopator - 222–204 BC
Arsinoe III Wife of Ptolemy IV 220–204 BC
Hugronaphor Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South 205–199 BC
Ankhmakis Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South 199–185 BC
Ptolemy V Epiphanes Upper Egypt in revolt 207–186 BC 204–180 BC
Cleopatra I Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority 193–176 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor Died 145 BC 180–164 BC
Cleopatra II Wife of Ptolemy VI 175–164 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC. Died 116 BC 171–163 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor Egypt under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164 BC–163 BC; Ptolemy VI restored 163 BC 163–145 BC
Cleopatra II Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of Egypt. 163–127 BC
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Proclaimed co-ruler by father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II 145–144 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Restored 145–131 BC
Cleopatra III Second wife of Ptolemy VIII 142–131 BC
Ptolemy Memphitis Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII 131 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Restored 127–116 BC
Cleopatra III Restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X. 127–107 BC
Cleopatra II Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116. 124–116 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Died 80 BC 116–110 BC
Cleopatra IV Shortly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III 116–115 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Died 88 BC 110–109 BC
Berenice III Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later 81–80 BC
Ptolemy XI Alexander II Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III 80 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BC 80–58 BC
Cleopatra V Tryphaena Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV 79–68 BC
Cleopatra VI Daughter of Ptolemy XII 58–57 BC
Berenice IV Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but had him strangled. Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 57 BC. 58–55 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death 55–51 BC
Cleopatra VII Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; also known simply as Cleopatra 51–30 BC
Ptolemy XIII Brother of Cleopatra VII 51–47 BC
Arsinoe IV In opposition to Cleopatra VII 48–47 BC
Ptolemy XIV Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII 47–44 BC
Ptolemy XV Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Last known ruler of ancient Egypt when Rome took over. 44–30 BC


Cleopatra VII had affairs with Roman Dictator Julius Caesar and Roman General Mark Antony, but it was not until after her suicide (after Marc Antony was defeated by Octavian, who would later be Emperor Augustus) that Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC. Subsequent Roman Emperors were accorded the title of Pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt. One Egyptian king-list lists the Roman Emperors as Pharaohs up to and including Decius. See the list of Roman Emperors.

See also



  1. 1 2 Clayton 1995, p. 217. "Although paying lip-service to the old ideas and religion, in varying degrees, pharaonic Egypt had in effect died with the last native pharaoh, Nectanebo II in 343 BC"
  2. Toby A. H. Wilkinson: Royal Annals Of Ancient Egypt. Routledge, London 2012, ISBN 113660247X, p. 50.
  3. Toby A. H. Wilkinson: Royal Annals Of Ancient Egypt. Routledge, London 2012, ISBN 113660247X, p. 61.
  4. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 259.
  5. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 139.
  6. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 199.
  7. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 138.
  8. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 181.
  9. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 311.
  10. 1 2 Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 137.
  11. Ludwig David Morenz: Bild-Buchstaben und symbolische Zeichen. Die Herausbildung der Schrift der hohen Kultur Altägyptens (= Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 205). Fribourg 2004, ISBN 3-7278-1486-1, p. 91.
  12. P. Tallet, D. Laisnay: Iry-Hor et Narmer au Sud-Sinaï (Ouadi 'Ameyra), un complément à la chronologie des expéditios minière égyptiene. In: Bulletin de L'Institute Français D'Archéologie Orientale (BIFAO) 112. Ausgabe 2012, S. 381-395.
  13. Günter Dreyer: Horus Krokodil, ein Gegenkönig der Dynastie 0. In: Renee Friedman and Barbara Adams (Hrsg.): The Followers of Horus, Studies dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman, 1949–1990 (= Egyptian Studies Association Publication, vol. 2). Oxbow Publications, Bloomington (IN) 1992, ISBN 0946897441, p. 259-263.
  14. Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (= Münchner ägyptologische Studien, vol. 49. von Zabern, Mainz 1999, ISBN 3-8053-2591-6, p. 36-37.
  15. Toby Wilkinson: Early Dynastic Egypt: Strategy, Society and Security. Routeledge, London 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1, p. 38, 56 & 57.
  16. Wolfgang Helck: Untersuchungen zur Thinitenzeit (= Ägyptologische Abhandlungen (ÄA), Vol. 45). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1987, ISBN 3-447-02677-4, p. 124.
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