List of English by-elections (1689–1700)

This is a list of parliamentary by-elections in England held between 1689 and 1700, with the names of the previous incumbent and the victor in the by-election.

In the absence of a comprehensive and reliable source, for party and factional alignments in this period, no attempt is made to define them in this article. The House of Commons: 1690-1715 and The House of Commons: 1660-1690 provides some guidance to the complex and shifting political relationships, but it is significant that the compilers of those works make no attempt to produce a definitive list of each members allegiances.


During this period England counted its legal year as beginning on 25 March. For the purposes of this list the year is considered to have started on 1 January.


The c/u column denotes whether the by-election was a contested poll or an unopposed return. If the winner was re-elected, at the next general election and any intermediate by-elections, this is indicated by an * following the c or u. In a few cases the winner was elected at the next general election but had not been re-elected in a by-election after the one noted. In those cases no * symbol is used.

Convention Parliament of 1689 (1689–1690)

Date Constituency c/u Former Incumbent Winner Cause
30 January 1689MalmesburyuHenry WhartonThomas TollemacheChose to sit for Westmorland
31 January 1689Bere AlstonuSir John MaynardSir John HoltChose to sit for Plymouth
4 February 1689MonmouthuJohn ArnoldJohn WilliamsChose to sit for Southwark
8 February 1689Great MarlowuSir John BorlaseJohn HobyDeath
8 February 1689Higham FerrersuSir Rice RuddLewis WatsonChose to sit for Carmarthenshire
14 February 1689Thetfordc*Sir Henry HobartFrancis GuybonChose to sit for Norfolk
15 February 1689RichmonduLord ConyersPhilip DarcyDeath
16 February 1689Scarboroughu*William HarbordWilliam ThompsonChose to sit for Launceston
19 February 1689HampshirecLord William PowlettThomas JervoiseChose to sit for Winchester
25 March 1689Old Sarumc*John YoungWilliam HarveyVoid Election
cThomas PittJohn Hawles
6 April 1689TregonyuCharles BoscawenRobert HarleyDeath
18 April 1689DerbyshireuSir John GellSir Philip GellDeath
2 May 1689WarehamuGeorge RyvesThomas SkinnerDeath
7 May 1689BeverleyuSir John HothamSir John HothamDeath
8 May 1689TamworthuHenry SydneyHenry BoyleElevated to the peerage
14 May 1689City of LondoncWilliam LoveSir William AshhurstDeath
14 May 1689NottinghamshireuLord HoughtonJohn WhiteSucceeded to a peerage
21 May 1689Bere AlstonuSir John HoltSir John TrevorAppointed Lord Chief Justice
22 May 1689AbingdoncThomas MedlycottJohn SouthbyVoid Election
John SouthbySir John StonhouseBy-election results reversed on petition 8 January 1690.
23 May 1689New WindsorcSir Christopher WrenSir Algernon MayVoid Election
28 May 1689Ipswichc*Peyton VentrisSir Charles BloisAppointed Puisne Justice of the Common Pleas
28 May 1689Lincolnu*Sir Henry MonsonSir Edward HusseyDischarged from sitting as a non-juror.
30 May 1689Salisburyc*Giles EyreThomas PittAppointed Puisne Justice of the King's Bench
6 June 1689Exeterc*Henry PollexfenChristopher BaleAppointed Chief Justice of the Common Pleas
11 June 1689Herefordc*Sir William GregoryHenry CornewallAppointed Puisne Justice of the King's Bench
13 June 1689NorthamptonshireuEdward HarbySir Thomas SamwellDeath
20 June 1689ThetforduWilliam HarbordJohn TrenchardChose to sit for Launceston
25 June 1689Newport (I.o.W.)uSir Robert DillingtonEdward DillingtonDeath
10 July 1689Plymouthc*Arthur HerbertJohn GranvilleElevated to the peerage
15 July 1689Higham Ferrersu*Lewis WatsonThomas AndrewSucceeded to a peerage
25 July 1689Applebyu*Philip MusgraveWilliam CheyneDeath
9 August 1689Hastingsc*John AshburnhamJohn BeaumontElevated to the peerage
18 September 1689Mitchellc(*)The Viscount FanshaweWilliam CorytonDischarged from sitting as a non-juror
William CorytonHumphrey CourtneyBy-election results reversed on petition 17 December 1689.
19 September 1689Dartmouthc(*)Charles BooneGeorge BoothDeath
George BoothJoseph HerneBy-election results reversed on petition 28 November 1689.
26 September 1689StockbridgecOliver St JohnWilliam MontaguDeath
21 November 1689Lancasterc*Curwen RawlinsonRoger KirkbyDeath
25 November 1689Southamptonc(*)Richard BrettEdward FlemingDeath
Edward FlemingSir Charles WyndhamBy-election results reversed on petition 31 December 1689.
9 December 1689BletchingleyuJohn GlydJeffrey AmherstDeath
9 December 1689DorchestercGerard NapierThomas ChafinDeath
14 December 1689Great Marlowu*John HobySir William WhitelockDeath
23 December 1689WestmorlanduHenry WhartonGoodwin WhartonDeath
28 December 1689Peterboroughu*Charles FitzWilliamWilliam BrownlowDeath
28 December 1689StockbridgecWilliam MontaguThomas NealeVoid Election
17 January 1690WellsuThomas WyndhamWilliam CowardDeath

1st Parliament of William III & Mary II (1690–1695)

Date Constituency c/u Former Incumbent Winner Cause
9 April 1690St Mawesu*Henry SeymourJohn TredenhamChose to sit for Totnes
10 April 1690Tauntonu*Sir William PortmanJohn SpekeDeath
26 April 1690Plympton ErlecRichard StrodeSir George TrebyVoid Election
George ParkerJohn Pollexfen
30 April 1690PenrynuSamuel RolleSidney GodolphinChose to sit for Devon
8 May 1690Bostonu*Lord Willoughby de EresbyPeregrine BertieElevated to the House of Lords through a writ in acceleration
17 May 1690Bishop's CastleuRichard MasonWalter WaringDeath
26 May 1690ThetforduWilliam HarbordBaptist MayChose to sit for Launceston
25 September 1690Mineheadu*Nathaniel PalmerJohn SanfordChose to sit for Somerset
8 October 1690AmershamuSir William DrakeWilliam MontaguDeath
10 October 1690BathcThe Viscount FitzhardingeJoseph LangtonDeath
14 October 1690Sudburyu*Philip GurdonSir Thomas BarnardistonDeath
16 October 1690East Retfordu*Evelyn PierrepontRichard TaylorSucceeded to a peerage
18 October 1690Mineheadu*Francis LuttrellAlexander LuttrellDeath
20 October 1690CallingtonuSir John CorytonJonathan PrideauxDeath
4 November 1690PlymouthuJohn MaynardJohn TrelawnyDeath
5 December 1690PrestoncLord Willoughby de EresbySir Edward ChisenhallElevated to the House of Lords through a writ in acceleration
9 December 1690Chippenhamc(*)Richard KentSir Basil FirebraceDeath
16 December 1690Newport (Cornwall)c*The Viscount NewhavenJohn MoriceChose to sit for Harwich
14 January 1691LudlowcWilliam GowerFrancis LloydVoid Election
Thomas HanmerSilius Titus
6 April 1691AylesburycSir Thomas LeeSimon MayneDeath
20 April 1691HindonuThomas ChafinThe Viscount FitzhardingeDeath
20 April 1691TivertonuSamuel FooteSir Anthony KeckDeath
4 May 1691StockbridgecWilliam MontaguThomas JervoiseDeath
22 May 1691Weymouth and Melcombe Regisu*Nicholas GouldThomas FrekeDeath
5 June 1691Weobleyc(*)John BirchThomas FoleyDeath (Two MPs elected due to a Double Return)
John Birch
Thomas FoleyThomas FoleyFoley declared elected 12 November 1691
John Birch
26 October 1691Chipping Wycombeu*William JephsonCharles GodfreyDeath
27 October 1691Nottinghamshireu*William SacheverellJohn WhiteDeath
27 October 1691RochesteruFrancis ClerkeCaleb BanksDeath
30 October 1691Riponu*Sir Edmund JenningsJonathan JenningsDeath
30 October 1691SaltashuRichard CarewNarcissus LuttrellDeath
31 October 1691CalnecHenry BayntunWilliam WyndhamDeath
6 November 1691Dunwichc(*)Sir Philip SkipponJohn BenceDeath (Two MPs elected due to a Double Return)
Henry Heveningham
John BenceJohn BenceBence declared elected 8 December 1691
Henry Heveningham
9 November 1691Westminsterc*William PulteneySir Stephen FoxDeath
16 November 1691HampshireuRichard NortonRobert HenleyDeath
16 November 1691KentuSir Vere FaneSir Thomas RobertsSucceeded to a peerage
18 November 1691Montgomery Boroughsu*Charles HerbertPrice DevereuxDeath
14 December 1691ChippenhamcSir Basil FirebraceSir Basil FirebraceVoid Election
Sir Basil FirebraceThomas TollemacheBy-election results reversed on petition 22 January 1692
15 December 1691Bere AlstonuSir Francis DrakeJohn SmithChose to sit for Tavistock
18 December 1691NewtonuSir John ChicheleyJohn BennetDeath
2 January 1692Bramberu*William EgertonHarry MordauntDeath
8 January 1692Newcastle-under-Lymeu*Sir William Leveson GowerSir John Leveson GowerDeath
11 January 1692Whitchurchu*Henry WallopChristopher StokesDeath
3 February 1692MalmesburyuSir James LongGeorge BoothDeath
24 February 1692BridgwatercHenry BullRobert BalchDeath
28 April 1692ScarboroughuWilliam ThompsonJohn HungerfordDeath
23 May 1692CarlisleuJeremiah BubbWilliam LowtherDeath
9 November 1692Plympton Erleu*Sir George TrebySir Thomas TrevorAppointed Chief Justice of the Common Pleas
11 November 1692SaltashuSir John CarewMichael HillDeath
12 November 1692Colchesteru*Edward CaryIsaac RebowDeath
14 November 1692Tewkesburyc*Sir Henry CapellSir Francis WinningtonElevated to the peerage
15 November 1692Launcestonc*William HarbordLord HydeDeath
21 November 1692Cambridge Universityc*Sir Robert SawyerHenry BoyleDeath
24 November 1692GrampounduWalter VincentJohn BullerDeath
24 November 1692Morpethu*Viscount MorpethGeorge NicholasSucceeded to a peerage
29 November 1692Radnorshireu*Richard WilliamsJohn JeffreysDeath
13 December 1692Newport (I.o.W.)uSir Robert HolmesRichard LevesonDeath
14 December 1692TotnesuSir John FowellThomas CoulsonDeath
6 January 1693Newarkc*Nicholas SaundersonSir Francis MolyneuxDeath
9 January 1693Hampshireu*Robert HenleyRichard NortonDeath
10 January 1693EssexcHenry MildmayJohn Lamotte HonywoodDeath
18 January 1693East GrinsteaduThomas SackvilleSimon SmithDeath
8 February 1693Herefordshireu*Sir John MorganSir Edward HarleyDeath
2 March 1693City of Londonc*Sir William TurnerSir John FleetDeath
21 April 1693Knaresboroughu*William StockdaleChristopher WaltersDeath
20 November 1693Bathu*Sir William BassettWilliam BlathwaytDeath
20 November 1693StockbridgecRichard WhithedAnthony RoweDeath
20 November 1693New Windsoru*William AdderleySir William ScawenDeath
28 November 1693Bodminu*Sir John CutlerRussell RobartesDeath
30 November 1693Clitheroec*Anthony ParkerFitton GerardDeath
5 December 1693Worcesterc(*)Sir John SomersSamuel SwiftAppointed Lord Keeper
Samuel SwiftCharles CocksBy-election results reversed on petition 7 February 1694
7 December 1693Maldonc*Sir Thomas DarcySir Eliab HarveyDeath
7 December 1693StaffordshireuWalter ChetwyndSir Walter BagotDeath
11 December 1693Cardigan Boroughsu*Hector PhillipsJohn LewisDeath
11 December 1693Scarboroughc*Francis ThompsonThe Viscount of IrvineDeath
21 December 1693Cambridgeshirec*Sir Levinus BennetThe Lord CuttsDeath
23 December 1693HuntingdonshireuRobert MontaguJohn ProbyDeath
20 January 1694Arundelc*William MorleyLord WaldenDeath
Lord WaldenJohn CookeBy-election results reversed on petition 22 February 1694
24 January 1694WigancSir Richard StandishJohn ByromDeath
6 February 1694Lancashireu*Viscount BrandonSir Ralph AsshetonSucceeded to a peerage
9 February 1694Ryeu*John DarellThomas FrewenDeath
23 February 1694Clitheroec(*)Fitton GerardFitton GerardVoid Election (Two MPs elected due to a Double Return)
Christopher Lister
Fitton GerardFitton GerardGerard declared elected 17 April 1694
Christopher Lister
23 February 1694Essexc*John Lamotte HonywoodSir Charles BarringtonDeath
23 February 1694Okehamptonu*Henry NorthleighJohn BurringtonDeath
9 March 1694Northamptonu*Sir Thomas SamwellSir Justinian IshamDeath
16 March 1694TregonyuSir John TremayneThe Earl of KildareDeath
31 March 1694Bury St Edmundsu*Henry GoldwellJohn HerveyDeath
April 1694BossineycSir Peter ColletonHumphrey NicollDeath
14 May 1694Bere Alstonu*Sir John FaggSir Robert FaggDeath
19 November 1694Bewdleyu*Henry HerbertSalwey WinningtonElevated to the peerage
19 November 1694ChippenhamcThomas TollemacheRichard LongDeath
19 November 1694ColchesteruSamuel ReynoldsSir Thomas CookeDeath
19 November 1694Great Bedwynu*The Viscount FalklandFrancis StonehouseDeath
21 November 1694Staffordu*Jonathan CopeThomas FoleyDeath
23 November 1694StockbridgeuAnthony RoweGeorge PittVoid Election
26 November 1694CarlisleuWilliam LowtherJames LowtherDeath
3 December 1694NorwichuHugh BokenhamJohn WardDeath
4 December 1694Liverpoolc(*)Viscount ColchesterThomas BrothertonSucceeded to a peerage
Thomas BrothertonJasper MauditBy-election results reversed on petition 11 January 1695
6 December 1694Stamfordu*William HydePhilip BertieDeath
13 December 1694ApplebyuCharles BoyleSir John WalterSucceeded to a peerage
16 December 1694RutlanduSir Thomas MackworthSir Thomas MackworthDeath
19 December 1694Cardiganshireu*Sir Carbery PryseJohn VaughanDeath
16 January 1695Ludgershallc*John DeaneJohn Richmond WebbDeath
24 January 1695Marlboroughc*Sir George WilloughbyThomas BennetDeath
26 February 1695East GrinsteaduSimon SmithThe Earl of OrreryDeath
14 March 1695Bishop's Castlec*William OakeleyRichard MoreDeath. Two MPs elected due to a Double Return. Parliament was dissolved before the election was decided.
cHenry Newton
2 April 1695Yarmouthc*Sir John TrevorHenry HolmesExpulsion
15 April 1695Scarboroughu*John HungerfordSir Charles HothamExpulsion
8 May 1695Newarkc*Lord SavileSir George MarkhamSucceeded to a peerage
21 May 1695Pooleu*Sir John TrenchardLord AshleyDeath

2nd Parliament of William III (1695–1698)

Date Constituency c/u Former Incumbent Winner Cause
2 December 1695Newport (I.o.W.)uThe Lord CuttsSir Henry ColtChose to sit for Cambridgeshire
3 December 1695Hedonu*Sir William TrumbullHugh BethellChose to sit for Oxford
uLord SpencerThomas FranklandChose to sit for Tiverton
9 December 1695Nottinghamu*Charles HutchinsonWilliam PierrepontDeath
10 December 1695Bere AlstonuSir Rowland GwynneSir Henry HobartChose to sit for Norfolk
11 December 1695GloucestershireuSir John GuiseThomas StephensDeath
19 December 1695PortsmouthcEdward RussellMatthew AylmerChose to sit for Cambridgeshire (Two MPs elected due to a Double Return.)
c*John Gibson
8 January 1696MiddlesexcEdward RussellSir John BucknallChose to sit for Cambridgeshire
10 January 1696Thetfordu*Sir Joseph WilliamsonJames SloaneChose to sit for Rochester
1 February 1696Portsmouthc*John GibsonJohn GibsonBy-election voided due to a Double Return
Matthew Aylmer
17 February 1696MaidstoneuSir Thomas TaylorThomas RiderDeath
24 February 1696Buckinghamshirec*Thomas WhartonWilliam CheyneSucceeded to a peerage
28 March 1696Chipping WycombeuThomas LewesFleetwood DormerDeath
1 April 1696CamelforduAmbrose ManatonSidney Wortley MontaguChose to sit for Tavistock
September 1696AldboroughcSir Michael WentworthHenry FairfaxDeath
28 October 1696Queenboroughu*Caleb BanksThomas KingDeath
2 November 1696WinchelseauRobert AustenSir George ChuteDeath
5 November 1696GattoncSir John ThompsonGeorge EvelynElevated to the peerage
6 November 1696Cambridgeu*John PepysSir John CottonDeath
10 November 1696Ipswichu*Sir John BarkerRichard PhillipsDeath
10 November 1696Tavistockc*Ambrose ManatonSir Francis DrakeDeath
12 November 1696Liskeardu*Sir Bourchier WreyHenry DarellDeath
12 November 1696Westmorlandu*Sir John LowtherWilliam FlemingElevated to the peerage
21 November 1696St MawescSeymour TredenhamHenry Seymour PortmanDeath
27 November 1696New Romneyu*Sir William TwysdenSir Charles SedleyChose to sit for Appleby
1 December 1696MalmesburyuGoodwin WhartonSir Thomas SkipwithChose to sit for Cockermouth
31 December 1696BuckinghamshirecSir Richard AtkinsHenry NealeDeath
10 February 1697Caernarvonshireu*Sir William WilliamsThomas BulkeleyDeath
17 February 1697BreconshirecEdward JonesSir Edward WilliamsDeath
25 February 1697LancasteruThomas PrestonFitton GerardDeath
4 March 1697OrforduSir Adam FeltonSir John DukeDeath
6 March 1697MitchellcHumphrey CourtneyJohn TregagleDeath
c*Thomas VyvyanJohn PoveyChose to sit for Fowey
8 April 1697Flint BoroughscSir Roger PulestonThomas RavenscroftDeath
14 December 1697Eyeu*Thomas DavenantJoseph JekyllDeath
14 December 1697Huntingdonu*Richard MontaguFrancis Wortley MontaguDeath
15 December 1697Doverc*James ChadwickMatthew AylmerDeath
17 December 1697Buckinghamu*Sir Richard TempleSir Richard TempleDeath
17 December 1697Cambridgeshirec*Edward RussellSir Rushout CullenElevated to the peerage
18 December 1697Granthamc*Sir John BrownlowSir John ThoroldDeath
22 December 1697Bridportc*Nicholas CareyPeter BattiscombeDeath
22 December 1697HindoncCharles MorleyHenry LeeDeath
23 December 1697Applebyu*Sir William TwysdenSir John WalterDeath
28 December 1697Northallertonu*Thomas LascellesRalph MilbanckeDeath
30 December 1697Hertfordshirec*Sir Thomas BlountRalph FremanDeath
12 January 1698ChesteruRoger WhitleyThomas CowperDeath
17 January 1698AldboroughuHenry FairfaxWilliam WentworthVoid Election
21 February 1698DowntonuCharles DuncombeMaurice BoclandExpulsion
2 March 1698Weymouth and Melcombe Regisu*John KnightPhilip TaylorExpulsion
11 March 1698Eveshamc*Sir James RushoutJohn RudgeDeath
16 March 1698SaltashuFrancis BullerFrancis PengellyDeath
18 March 1698Bedfordu*Thomas HillersdenWilliam SpencerDeath
29 March 1698Whitchurchu*Christopher StokesRichard WollastonDeath
11 April 1698Sandwichc*Edward BrentJohn ThurbarneDeath
23 May 1698Downtonu*Sir Charles RaleighJohn EyreDeath
30 May 1698LymingtonuJohn BurrardWilliam TulseDeath
3 June 1698Eyeu*Charles CornwallisSpencer ComptonSucceeded to a peerage
4 June 1698HuntingdonshireuHeneage MontaguRobert ApreeceDeath

3rd Parliament of William III (1698–1700)

Date Constituency c/u Former Incumbent Winner Cause
22 December 1698Buckinghamc*Alexander DentonEdmund DentonDeath
30 December 1698Bere AlstonuSir Rowland GwynneJames MontaguChose to sit for Breconshire
31 December 1698SeaforduSir William ThomasWilliam CampionChose to sit for Sussex
2 January 1699AmershamuThe Viscount NewhavenJohn DrakeChose to sit for Buckinghamshire
2 January 1699Stockbridgeu*George PittJohn PittChose to sit for Wareham
9 January 1699Newport (I.o.W.)cThe Lord CuttsHenry GreenhillChose to sit for Cambridgeshire
11 January 1699TotnesuSir Edward SeymourFrancis GwynChose to sit for Exeter
14 January 1699Droitwichu*Thomas FoleyThomas FoleyChose to sit for Stafford
16 January 1699Grampoundu*John TannerFrancis ScobellChose to sit for St Germans
16 January 1699Penrync*James VernonAlexander PendarvesChose to sit for Westminster
16 January 1699ThetfordcSir Joseph WilliamsonLord PastonChose to sit for Rochester
17 January 1699East Looeu*Charles TrelawnySir Henry SeymourChose to sit for Plymouth
21 January 1699Chipping WycombecJohn ArchdaleThomas ArchdaleRefused to take the oaths
23 January 1699Ryeu*Sir John AustenSir Robert AustenDeath
25 January 1699Saltashu*John SpecottJames BullerChose to sit for Cornwall
26 January 1699Crickladeu*Charles FoxSir Stephen FoxChose to sit for Salisbury
27 January 1699Newport (Cornwall)c*John MoriceFrancis StratfordChose to sit for Saltash
6 February 1699SudburycSir Thomas BarnardistonJohn GurdonDeath
22 February 1699AylesburycSir Thomas LeeRobert DormerVoid Election
23 February 1699BanburyuJames IsaacsonSir John CopeExpulsion (Commissioner of Stamp Duties)
23 February 1699Shaftesburyu*Henry CornishThomas ChafinExpulsion (Commissioner of Stamp Duties)
24 February 1699BramberuSir Henry FurneseJohn CourthopeExpulsion (Director of the East India Company)
25 February 1699HarwichuSamuel AtkinsonSir Thomas MiddletonExpulsion (Commissioner of Hawkers and Pedlars)
7 March 1699Whitchurchu*Richard WollastonRichard WollastonExpulsion (Receiver-General of Taxes in Heretfordshire)
14 March 1699MaldonuSir Eliab HarveyJohn BullockDeath
1 April 1699BramberuJohn CourthopeJohn AsgillDeath
8 April 1699Huntingdonshireu*Robert ThrockmortonJohn DrydenDeath
26 April 1699Corfe Castlec*William CullifordRichard FownesVoid Election
9 May 1699Bridgnorthu*Sir William WhitmoreRoger PopeDeath
10 May 1699SomersetuSir Edward PhelipsNathaniel PalmerDeath
16 May 1699DevonuFrancis CourtenayThomas DreweDeath
28 November 1699BridgwateruRoger HoarSir Francis WarreDeath
28 November 1699Newcastle-under-Lymec*Sir Thomas BellotRowland CottonDeath
29 November 1699NottinghamcRichard SlaterRobert SacheverellDeath
29 November 1699OxfordshirecLord NorreysSir Robert DashwoodSucceeded to a peerage
30 November 1699Great Grimsbyc*Sir Edward AyscoughThomas VynerDeath
4 December 1699WarwickuRobert GrevilleAlgernon GrevilleDeath
8 December 1699HereforduPaul FoleySamuel PyttsDeath
12 December 1699Shropshireu*Edward KynastonRobert LloydDeath
16 December 1699Dartmouthc*Joseph HerneNathaniel HerneDeath (Two MPs elected due to a Double Return. Results voided 12 February 1700. No by-election held.)
cRowland Holt
20 December 1699Glamorganshireu*Bussy ManselThomas ManselDeath
27 December 1699Southamptonc*Sir Benjamin NewlandRoger MompessonDeath
4 January 1700St Germansu*John TannerHenry FlemingDeath
29 January 1700Dunwichu*Sir Robert RichSir Charles BloisDeath
1 February 1700Pontefractc*John BrightJohn BrightVoid Election
8 February 1700ThetfordcJames SloaneJames SloaneVoid Election
16 February 1700Sudburyu*Samuel KekewichSir Gervase ElwesDeath


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