Hale (Assyrian king)

King of Assyria
Reign fl. c. 2028 BCE
Predecessor Apiashal
Successor Samani
Father Apiashal

Hale had been the eighteenth Assyrian monarch of the Early Period of Aššūrāyu (Assyria) (fl. c. 2028 BCE) according to the Assyrian King List (AKL). Hale is listed within a section of the AKL as the second out of the ten, “kings whose fathers are known.” This section (which in contrast to the rest of the list) had been written in reverse order—beginning with Aminu and ending with Apiashalaltogether ten kings who are ancestors[1][2]”—has often been interpreted as the list of ancestors of the Amorite Šamši-Adad I (fl. c. 1809 BCE)[2] who had conquered the city-state of Aššur.[3] In keeping with this assumption, scholars have inferred that the original form of the AKL had been written (among other things) as an, “attempt to justify that Šamši-Adad I was a legitimate ruler of the city-state Aššur and to obscure his non-Assyrian antecedents by incorporating his ancestors into a native Assyrian genealogy.”[2] However, this interpretation has not been accepted universally; the Cambridge Ancient History rejected this interpretation and instead interpreted the section as being that of the ancestors of Sulili.[4]

The AKL also states the following: "Hale son of Apiashal," additionally; "Samani son of Hale." Apiashal (fl. c. 2029 BCE) is listed within the section of the AKL as the last of whom, "altogether seventeen kings, tent dwellers."[1][2] This section shows marked similarities to the ancestors of the First Babylonian Dynasty.[2] According to the AKL, Apiashal had been preceded by his father Ushpia (fl. c. 2030 BCE.) Ushpia had been an early Assyrian king who had ruled Aššūrāyu (fl. c. 2030 BC), as the second last within the section "kings who lived in tents" of the AKL, however; Ushpia has yet to be confirmed by contemporary artifacts. Ushpia is also said to had been the founder of the temple for the god Aššur within the city-state Aššur.[5] According to the Cambridge Ancient History, the conclusion of this section, "marked the end of the nomadic period of the Assyrian people," and, "visualized Ushpia as the actual founder of the Semitic city of Aššur."[4] The earliest kings had been independent semi-nomadic pastoralist rulers. These kings had at some point become fully urbanized and founded the city-state of Aššur.[6]

Very little is otherwise known about Hale's reign.

Preceded by
King of Assyria
fl. c. 2028 BCE
Succeeded by

See also


  1. 1 2 Glassner, Jean-Jacques (2004). Mesopotamian Chronicles. Society of Biblical Literature. p. 137. ISBN 1589830903.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Meissner, Bruno (1990). Reallexikon der Assyriologie. 6. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 104. ISBN 3110100517.
  3. Van De Mieroop, Marc (2004). A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000-323 BC (2nd ed.). Blackwell Publishing. p. 107. ISBN 9781405149112.
  4. 1 2 Hildegard Levy, "Assyria c. 2600-1816 B.C.", Cambridge Ancient History. Volume 1, Part 2: Early History of the Middle East, 729-770, p. 745-746.)
  5. Rowton, M.B. (1970). The Cambridge Ancient History. 1.1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 202–204. ISBN 0521070511.
  6. Saggs, The Might, 24.

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 7/30/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.