Enlil-kudurrī-uṣur, mdEnlil(be)-ku-dúr-uṣur, (Enlil protect the eldest son), was the 81st king of Assyria. Depending on the length of reign one gives to his successor, Ninurta-apal-Ekur, this would have been either from 1187 to 1183 BC or from 1197 to 1193 BC. The former dates are more common in recent studies.
Enlil-kudurri-usur was the son of Tukulti-Ninurta I. He succeeded his nephew, Ashur-nirari III’s brief reign and ruled for five years. Apart from king lists and chronicles, there are no other extant inscriptions of this king.
The Synchronistic King List identifies his Babylonian contemporary with Adad-šuma-uṣur, his eventual nemesis. In the Synchronistic History, the battle between him and Adad-šuma-uṣur is given as a pretext for his Assyrian rival, Ninurta-apal-Ekur, a son of Ilī-padâ and descendant of Eriba-Adad I, to “come up from Karduniaš,” i.e. Babylonia, and make a play for the Assyrian throne. Grayson and others have speculated that this was with the tacit assistance of Adad-šuma-uṣur, but there is currently no published evidence to support this theory. Ninurta-apal-Ekur’s purpose for being in Babylonia is also unknown, whether a political refugee or an administrator of the Assyrian held portion. The Walker Chronicle describes how following his abject defeat at Adad-šuma-uṣur’s hands, Enlil-kudurrī-uṣur was seized by his own officers and handed over to his opponent. Only after these events did Adad-šuma-uṣur go on to extend his territory to include the city of Babylon itself.
Meanwhile, the Synchronistic History continues, Ninurta-apal-Ekur had “mustered his numerous troops and marched to conquer Libbi-ali (the city of Aššur). But [...] arrived unexpectedly, so he turned and went home.” As Grayson points out, this passage is open to various interpretations, only one of which is that the missing name could have been that of Enlil-kudurrī-uṣur, released by his captor to sow confusion amongst his northern foes.
- Assyrian King List, iii 14.
- Synchronistic King List, tablet excavation number Ass. 14616c (KAV 216), ii 6.
- Synchronistic History, ii 3–8.
- Walker Chronicle, ABC 25, BM 27796, obverse lines 3 to 7.
- A. K. Grayson (1975). Assyrian and Babylonian chronicles. J. J. Augustin. p. 215.
- A. K. Grayson (2001). "Ninurta-apal-Ekur". In Erich Ebeling; Bruno Meissner; Dietz Otto Edzard. Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie: Nab – Nuzi. Walter De Gruyter Inc. pp. 524–525.
- J. A. Brinkman (1999). "Ilī-padâ". In Erich Ebeling; Bruno Meissner. Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie. Walter De Gruyter Inc. pp. 50–51.
- C.B.F. Walker (May 1982). "Babylonian Chronicle 25: A Chronicle of the Kassite and Isin II Dynasties". In G. van Driel. Assyriological Studies presented to F. R. Kraus on the occasion of his 70th birthday. Netherlands Institute for the Near East. pp. 398–406.
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