Amtrak Acela Express train, led by power car #2009, at Old Saybrook, Connecticut
|Service type||Inter-city, high speed tilting train|
|Locale||Northeastern United States|
|First service||December 11, 2000|
|Distance travelled||456 mi (734 km)|
|Average journey time||7 hours|
|Service frequency||20 per day|
|Class(es)||Business and first class|
|Disabled access||Fully accessible|
Reclining leather seats |
(4 across in business class, 3 across in first class)
|Catering facilities||On-board café, and at-seat meals in first class|
|Baggage facilities||Overhead bins and luggage racks available, no checked luggage.|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge|
150 mph (240 km/h) maximum|
84 mph (135 km/h) average
72 mph (116 km/h) average including stops
The Acela Express (// ə-SEL-ə; colloquially abbreviated to Acela) is Amtrak's flagship and High-speed rail service along the Northeast Corridor (NEC) in the Northeast United States between Washington DC and Boston via 14 intermediate stops including Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York City. Acela Express trains are the fastest trainsets in the Americas; the highest speed they attain is 150 mph (240 km/h) in revenue service. Acela trains use tilting technology, which helps control lateral centrifugal forces, allowing the train to travel at higher speeds on the sharply curved NEC without disturbing passengers.
Acela operates along routes that are also used by freight and slower regional passenger traffic, and only reaches its maximum speed along short sections. This occurs mostly along the 226-mile (364 km) route from New York's Penn Station to Washington DC's Union Station, with a fastest scheduled time of 2 hours and 45 minutes and an average speed of 82 mph (132 km/h), including intermediate stops. Over this route, Acela has been extremely successful, capturing, combined with the Northeast Regional line, a 75% share of air/train commuters between New York and Washington in 2011, up from 37% in 2000. Due to this competition, one airline canceled service between Washington and New York.
On other portions Acela is limited by both traffic and infrastructure. On the 231-mile (372 km) section from Boston's South Station to New York's Penn Station, the scheduled time is 3 hours and 40 minutes, or an average speed of 63 miles per hour (101 km/h). Along this section, Acela has still captured 54% share of the combined train and air market. The entire 457-mile (735 km) route from Boston to Washington takes 7 hours, at an average of around 65 miles per hour (105 km/h).
Acela carried more than 3.4 million passengers in fiscal year 2015; second only to the somewhat slower and cheaper Northeast Regional, which had over 8 million passengers in FY 2015. The Acela Express had a total revenue of $584,926,276 in FY2015, down from $585,770,219 in 2014. The Acelas accounted for approximately 25% of all total revenue generated by Amtrak services. (Another 25% came from Northeast Regional traffic, and roughly 25% each for long-distance trains and state-supported corridor services throughout the rest of the country).
The present Acela Express equipment will be replaced by new trainsets beginning in 2021, with all of the remaining equipment to retire by the end of 2022. The new trainsets, manufactured by Alstom, will have 30% higher seating capacity than the current trains. The new fleet will have 28 trains versus the current 20, allowing for hourly New York-Boston service all day and half-hourly New York-Washington service at peak hours.
Origins and history
Following the success of Japan's newly inaugurated Shinkansen network, the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965 authorized the U.S. government to explore the creation of high-speed rail in the U.S. which resulted in the introduction of Metroliner trains, the predecessor to Acela. During the 1980s the US Federal Railroad Administration explored the possibilities of high-speed rail in the United States. On December 18, 1991 a slate of five potential high speed rail corridors were authorized ("Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) (PL 102-240)") including the Northeast Corridor.
Amtrak asked railway equipment manufacturers to submit proposals. An X 2000 train was leased from Sweden for test runs from October 1992 to January 1993. It was operated from Washington DC to New York City from February to May and August to September 1993. Siemens showed the ICE 1 train from Germany, organizing the ICE Train North America Tour which started to operate on the Northeast Corridor on July 3, 1993. This testing allowed Amtrak to define a set of specifications that went into a public tender in October 1994.
Building and development
On March 9, 1999, Amtrak unveiled its plan for a high-speed train, the Acela Express. Twenty new trains were to run on the Northeast Corridor. Several changes were made to the corridor to make it suitable for the trains' operation. It was necessary to provide electrification from New Haven to Boston to complete the overhead power supply along the 454-mile (731 km) route, and several grade crossings were upgraded or removed.
In October 1994, Amtrak requested bids from train manufacturers for a trainset that could reach 150 miles per hour (240 km/h). A joint project of Bombardier (75%) and GEC Alsthom (now Alstom) (25%) was selected in March 1996. An inaugural VIP run of the Acela came on November 17, 2000 followed by the first revenue run on December 11, a few months past the intended date.
The Acela service has been a success; by 2005, Amtrak's share of the common-carrier market between New York and Boston had reached 40% from 18% pre-Acela. With the increasing popularity of the faster, modern Acela Express, Metroliner service was phased out in late 2006. To meet the demand, more Acela services were added in September 2005, and more trains may be purchased. By August 2008 crowding had become noticeable.
By 2011, the Acela fleet had reached half of its designed service life. Amtrak proposed several replacement options, including one as part of its A Vision for High-Speed Rail in the Northeast Corridor. In 2011, Amtrak announced that forty new Acela coaches would be ordered in 2012 to increase capacity on existing train sets. The existing trains would each receive two more coaches for an almost 40% capacity increase. The additional coaches would lengthen the train sets from a 1-6-1 configuration to a 1-8-1 configuration (power car - passenger cars - power car). The longer train sets would have required the modifications of the Acela maintenance facilities in Boston, New York and Washington. The first of the stretched train sets was to enter service in Fiscal year 2014. This plan was cancelled in 2012 in favor of replacing, rather than refurbishing, the Acela fleet.
In January 2014, Amtrak issued a request for proposals on 28 or more new model Acelas trainsets, in a combined order with the California High-Speed Rail Authority. These bids were due May 17, 2014. After discussions with manufacturers, Amtrak and the California High Speed Rail Authority concluded that obtaining a meaningful common platform would result in suboptimal solutions for Amtrak and the Authority, and create risks to schedule and costs; thus the joint procurement program was not pursued.
Amtrak's original contract with the Bombardier-Alstom consortium was for the delivery of 20 trainsets (6 coaches each, with power cars at front and rear) for $800 million. By 2004, Amtrak had settled contract disputes with the consortium, paying a total of $1.2 billion for the 20 trainsets plus 15 extra high-speed locomotives and the construction of maintenance facilities in Boston, New York, and Washington.
Acela Express's fastest schedule between New York and Washington DC was 2 hours and 45 minutes in 2012. $450 million was allotted by President Barack Obama's administration to replace catenary and upgrade signals between Trenton and New Brunswick, which will allow speeds of 160 mph (257 km/h) over 20-mile (32 km) runs sometime after 2016. This section of track holds the record for the highest speed by a train in the USA, which is 170.8 mph (274.9 km/h), achieved in a test run by the U.S./Canada-built UAC TurboTrain on December 20, 1967.
In practice, the Acela's speed depends more on local restrictions along its corridor than on its trainset. In addition to speed restrictions through urban areas, the Acela's corridor includes several speed restrictions below 60–80 mph (97–129 km/h) over older bridges, or through tunnels a century old or more. Altogether, Amtrak has identified 224 bridges along Acela's route that are beyond their design life.
The Acela name was announced on March 9, 1999, as a part of the original announcement of the service itself. Amtrak originally intended for this move to be part of a rebranding of the majority of their Northeast services, forming three levels: Acela Express, Acela Regional, and Acela Commuter. The branding team based the name "Acela" on the ideas of acceleration and excellence.
There were then three classes of trains on the Northeast Corridor (and its extension south to Newport News, Virginia)— Philadelphia-New York Clockers, the express Metroliners, and the umbrella term NortheastDirect, applied to other trains on the corridor (in addition to unique names assigned to each departure). Empire Service trains used the Empire Corridor from New York City to Niagara Falls, and Keystone Service ran along the Keystone Corridor from Philadelphia to Harrisburg. Other named trains also used the corridors, branching off or continuing beyond their stations. The original plan included renaming the Empire, Keystone, and NortheastDirect services to Acela Regional, while the Metroliners would be replaced with the new Acela Express service. However, the Empire and Keystone services retained their names.
The Acela Regional name was first applied to NortheastDirect trains 130–133 on January 31, 2000. Those trains, 130 and 131 running weekdays only and 132 and 133 running every day, were the first electrified trains to run on the full Northeast Corridor. As more trains were electrified, they too were rebranded. In 2003, due to confusion between the lower-speed Acela Regional trains and the Acela Express, the Acela branding was removed from the NortheastDirect service (now the Northeast Regional) and the Acela Commuter had its name changed back to the Clocker for a similar reason and ultimately discontinued on October 28, 2005.
|Acela Express (first-generation)|
Business Class interior
|Number built||20 trainsets|
|Number in service||20 trainsets|
|Formation||8 cars (2 x power car; 6 x passenger car)|
|Fleet numbers||2000-2039 (power cars)|
|Capacity||304 (44 first class; 260 business class)|
Ivy City, Washington DC|
Sunnyside Yard, New York City
Southampton Street Yard, Boston
|Line(s) served||Northeast Corridor|
|Car body construction||Stainless Steel|
|Train length||665 feet 8.75 inches (202.91 m)|
69 feet 7 inches (21.21 m) (Power car)|
87 feet 5 inches (26.64 m) (Passenger Car)
10 feet 5 inches (3.18 m) (Power car)|
10 feet 4 1⁄2 inches (3.16 m) (Passenger Car)
14 feet 2 inches (4.32 m) (Power car; rail to roof)|
13 feet 10 5⁄8 inches (4.23 m) (Passenger Car)
|Floor height||4 feet 3 inches (1.30 m)|
Single Leaf Sliding Plug Doors|
Intermediate Passenger Cars: 4
End Passenger Cars: 2
40 inches (1,000 mm) (Power Car)|
36 inches (910 mm) (Passenger Car)
35 feet 3 inches (10.74 m) (Power Car)|
59 feet 6 inches (18.14 m) (Passenger Car)
165 mph (266 km/h) (design)|
150 mph or 240 km/h (operational)
1,246,000 lb (565 t) (Trainset)|
204,000 lb (93 t) (Power Car)
142,000 lb (64 t) (End Cars; Business and First)
139,000 lb (63 t) (Intermediate Business Cars)
137,000 lb (62 t) (Bistro Car)
51,000 lb (23 t) (Power Car)|
35,750 lb (16.22 t) (Passenger Cars)
|Traction system||Alstom GTO Inverters and 3-Phase Asynchronous AC Traction Motors (Model 4-FXA-4559C)|
1,150 kW (1,540 hp) (Per Motor)|
4,600 kW (6,200 hp) (Per Power Car)
49,500 lbf (220.2 kN) (Per power car)
|Power supply||2850 V DC (PWM Rectified) Voltage Regulated from mains re-inverted to three-phase, frequency and voltage controlled AC waveform.|
25 kV 60 Hz AC, 12 kV 60 Hz AC, 12 kV 25 Hz AC
|Current collection method||Pantograph, 2 per power car|
Dynamic and Regenerative (Power Cars)|
Electro-Pneumatic Disk and Tread (Trainset)
|Safety system(s)||Advanced Civil Speed Enforcement System|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
First-generation train design
The first-generation Acela trainset is a unique set of vehicles designed specifically to satisfy governmental rolling stock requirements established primarily by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). This includes the ability to withstand a collision with a freight train at speed without collapsing. Most manufacturers which bid on the Acela were unable to meet the structural requirements, due to increased costs and complications for the manufacture of the trains, and the need for manufacturers to make significant engineering changes to their standard designs. In the end, only three qualified bidders remained: ABB (Swiss manufacturer of the X 2000 train), Siemens (manufacturer of the German ICE), and a consortium of Bombardier (manufacturer of the LRC trains) and Alstom (manufacturer of the French TGV).
The design, using identical 6,200 horsepower (4,600 kW) power cars at each end which operate on a voltage of 11,000 volts AC, and either 25 or 60 Hz frequency, resembles France's TGV. Several components are directly derived from the TGV, such as the third-generation TGV's traction system (including the four asynchronous AC motors per power car, rectifiers, inverters, and regenerative braking), the trucks/bogies structure (a long wheelbase dual transom H frame welded steel with outboard mounted tapered roller bearings), the brake discs (although there are only three per axle, versus four on the TGV), and crash energy management techniques to control structural deformation in the event of an accident. Acela trainsets "are not strictly TGV trains, but they do include a significant content of TGV technology."
The tilting carriages are based upon Bombardier's earlier LRC trains used on Via Rail rather than the TGV's non-tilting articulated trailers. Acela power cars and passenger cars are much heavier than those of the TGV in order to meet the United States Federal Railroad Administration's different approach to rail crash standards. French and Canadian crews testing the Acela referred to it as "the pig" due to its heavy weight. The extra weight leads to the Acela's power-to-weight ratio is about 22.4 hp per tonne, compared to 30.8 hp for a SNCF TGV Reseau trainset. The Tier II crash standards, adopted in 1999, have also resulted in the passenger cars being designed without steps and trapdoors, which means that the trainsets can only serve lines with high-level platforms such as the Northeast Corridor. Acela trains are semi-permanently coupled (but not articulated as in the TGV) and are referred to as trainsets. Bombardier later used the Acela carriage design and a diesel/gas turbine variant of the power car for its experimental JetTrain.
New Acela trains
On August 26, 2016, Vice President Joe Biden announced a $2.45 billion federal loan package to pay for new Acela equipment, as well as upgrades to the NEC. The loans will finance 28 train-sets that will replace the existing fleet. Amtrak will pay off the loans from increased NEC passenger revenue. The new trains will be called Avelia Liberty. They will have one-third greater seating capacity, active tilt technology and will be capable of operating at 186 mph (300 km/h) once infrastructure improvements are completed to allow the higher speeds. The trains will be built by Alstom in Hornell and Rochester, New York. Passenger service using the new trains is expected to begin in 2021 and the current fleet is to be retired by the end of 2022 when all the replacements will have been delivered.
With a 71:23 gear ratio, the Acela is designed with a top speed of 165 mph (266 km/h) and reaches a maximum certified speed of 150 mph (241 km/h) in regular service. The Acela Express is the only service in North America that exceeds the U.S. Department of Transportation's 125 mph (201 km/h) definition of high speed rail. The Acela achieves an average speed (including stops) of 81.7 mph (131 km/h) between Washington and New York, and an average speed of 66.9 mph (108 km/h) from Washington to Boston. The average speed from New York to Boston is a slightly faster 69.8 mph (112 km/h). The average speed for the entire length excluding stops is 84 mph (135 km/h). Its maximum speed limit is 150 mph (241 km/h) on three sections of track totaling 33.9 mi (55 km) in Rhode Island and Massachusetts.
Amtrak also upgraded the track along the Connecticut shoreline east of New Haven to allow maximum speeds in excess of 110 mph (177 km/h). West of New York City, the Acela's top speed is 135 mph (217 km/h). One limiting factor is the overhead catenary support system which was constructed prior to 1935 and lacks the constant-tension features of the new catenary east of New Haven. The Pennsylvania Railroad, however, did run Metroliner test trains in the late 1960s as fast as 164 mph (264 km/h) and briefly intended to run the Metroliner service at speeds reaching 150 mph (241 km/h). The Acela Express trainsets are capable of 165 mph (266 km/h) operation, but the FRA regulations generally do not permit any speeds above 150 mph (241 km/h) on tracks that are shared with freight and slower passenger trains. Certification testing for commercial operation at 160 mph (257 km/h) involving test runs at up to 165 mph (266 km/h) began between Trenton, NJ and New Brunswick, NJ in September 2012.
The slowest section of the electrified NEC is the portion owned by Metro-North Railroad and the Connecticut Department of Transportation between New Haven, Connecticut and New Rochelle, New York and is heavily used by commuter trains. Amtrak's trains here achieve 90 mph (145 km/h) only on a limited 4-mile (6.4 km) stretch in New York State and rarely exceed 60 mph (97 km/h) at any time eastbound through Connecticut until reaching New Haven. Additionally, tilting is not allowed anywhere along the line as at a maximum 4.2° tilt, the Acela Express trainset would pass other trains on parallel tracks only 10 inches (25 cm) away, too close for FRA-mandated clearances. In 1992, ConnDOT began plans to upgrade the catenary system, replace outdated bridges, and straighten certain sections of the New Haven Line to enable the Acela to run slightly faster. As of 2013 the catenary replacement and bridge work are underway and expected to be completed in 2015; however, curve straightening was deemed too expensive, and there are no current plans to increase speeds on the New Haven Line.
On July 9, 2007, Amtrak introduced a limited-stop round trip, with trains stopping only at Philadelphia between New York and Washington. This shortened the trip between the two cities to just 2 hours 35 minutes, making the trip roughly an hour faster than some of the Northeast Regional train services. These trains were an experiment on Amtrak's part to find ways to expedite travel time on the Acela. Amtrak has since dropped these two limited-stop trains.
High speed infrastructure
The dense population of the northeastern United States makes the Northeast Corridor the most heavily traveled portion of the American passenger rail system. Two-thirds of rail passengers in the United States live in New York City, also home to the nation's busiest passenger rail station, Penn Station. In order to compete with airliners, Amtrak needed to increase the speed of trains in the region. However, the former Shore Line, from New Haven to Boston, is burdened by sharp turns and grade crossings, the crossings being of special concern.
Tilting enables passengers to ride more comfortably on curved sections of track faster than would otherwise be possible, by leaning into the bend. Acela trainsets tilt above 60 mph (97 km/h) on most of the system, but some segments of track in the Northeast Corridor are too close together for the cars to safely tilt while maintaining FRA minimum space between trains on parallel tracks. Furthermore, Metro-North Railroad restricts tilting on the segment of track north of New York which it owns. While the system was originally designed for a 6.8° tilt, the cars were redesigned 4 in (10 cm) wider to accommodate wider seats and aisles that reduced allowable tilt to a more modest 4.2° to fit within the clearance constraints of the existing tracks. Traveling at higher than 135 mph (217 km/h) also requires constant-tension catenary, which is only implemented on the more modern catenary system north of New York City. South of New York City the trains are restricted to 135 mph (217 km/h). By comparison, Northeast Regional and the now-defunct Metroliner service reached 125 mph (201 km/h). Acela trainsets can achieve 165 mph (266 km/h) but are restricted to 150 mph (241 km/h) due to track conditions, other traffic, FRA regulations, and other factors.
Acela service was originally expected to begin in late 1999 but was delayed. The catenary system could not support the intended speeds between Washington DC and New York City, but the newer system between New York City and Boston allows the higher speeds. Attention was drawn to the decreased 4.2° tilt, but this was not the root of the speed problem, as the tracks from New York to Boston are similar to those between New York and Washington, and the tilt mechanism is not the factor enabling higher speeds. Following repairs, the first Acela service began on December 11, 2000, a year behind schedule.
With the completion of electrification between New Haven and Boston, all trains on the line have become faster partly because of the removal of a 10‑minute delay in New Haven while swapping diesel and electric locomotives, partly from a faster acceleration away from station stops enabled by electric locomotives and partly because of the faster speed achieved on some sections of track. Acela travels between Boston and New York in about three and a half hours (an improvement of half an hour); New York to Washington runs take two hours and forty-five minutes. These schedules, as well as the relative convenience of rail as opposed to air travel especially after September 11, 2001, and direct downtown-to-downtown service have made the Acela Express more competitive with the air shuttles.
Platform track speeds
Along most of their route, Acela trains do not pass near the platforms of local stations at high speeds except in two locations. At Kingston Station in Rhode Island, the trains zip through the platform tracks at 150 mph (241 km/h). Mansfield station in Massachusetts, which also serves MBTA commuter rail, has two platform tracks which are also used by Acela at 120 mph (193 km/h).
Commuters and politicians were concerned over inadequate warnings and safeguards. The two-foot wide yellow platform markings may not be wide enough to keep commuters away from the edge when Acela trainsets pass though at high speed. Suggestions include the installation of platform safety barriers, or using different announcements between approaching MBTA and Acela trains. In 2011, federal transportation grants were awarded to improve Kingston station, including the construction of a third track to be used by the Acela as a through track to bypass the station, helping to alleviate safety concerns.
In August 2002, shortly after their introduction, Acela trainsets were briefly removed from service when the brackets that connected truck (bogie) dampers (shocks) to the powerunit carbodies ("yaw dampers") were found to be cracking. The Acela returned to service when a program of frequent inspections was instituted. The damper brackets have since been redesigned and old brackets replaced by the newer design.
On April 15, 2005, the Acela was removed from service when cracks were found in the disc brakes of many passenger coaches. The Bombardier-Alstom consortium replaced the discs under warranty. Limited service resumed in July 2005, as a portion of the fleet operated with new brake discs. Metroliner trains, which the Acela Express was intended to replace, filled in during the outage. Amtrak announced on September 21, 2005, that all 20 trainsets had been returned to full operation.
|Designation||Power||Business Class||Business Class||Cafe||Business Class|| Business Class|
|Weight (US ton)||102.0||71.0||69.5||68.5||69.5||69.5||71.0||102.0|
The Acela Express trainset consists of two power cars, a café car, a first class car, and four business class cars, semi-permanently coupled together. It has fewer seats than regional service counterparts. The first class car has 44 seats, being three seats across (one on one side, two on the other side) and four seat tables. There are 260 business class seats on each trainset; these cars have four seats across (two on each side) and four-seat tables. The car adjacent to first class is designated as the quiet car, where passengers are asked to refrain from loud talking and mobile phone conversations.
Automatic sliding doors provide access between cars throughout the length of the train and reduce noise. Baggage may be stowed in overhead luggage compartments, or underneath the passenger's seat. Reservations guarantee seating but seats themselves are not assigned. Acela trains are also wheelchair-accessible. Passenger cars and the cafe car have one or two toilets each, with one being ADA compliant.
Staffing and operation
Generally Amtrak train crews consist of an engineer, a conductor, and at least one assistant conductor. Acela trains also have an On-Board Service crew consisting of two First Class attendants and a Cafe Car attendant. In addition to the food service provided in the Cafe Car, on most trains an attendant will also provide at seat cart service, serving refreshments throughout the train. First Class passengers are served meals at their seats on all services.
At Amtrak, the On-Board Service crew is considered separate and subordinate to the Train and Engine crews. Acela maintenance is generally taken care of at the Ivy City facility in Washington, DC; Sunnyside Yard in Queens, New York; or Southampton Street Yard in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Acela trainsets underwent minor refurbishments between mid-2009 and 2010 at Penn Coach Yard, next to 30th Street Station in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. These refurbishments included new blue leather seats throughout the trainset.
Wireless Internet station service began in 2004, originally through AT&T Wireless. In March 2007, Amtrak's vice president for marketing and product management announced that the Northeast Corridor would soon get wireless Internet service. On October 29, 2009, Amtrak announced that it would begin deploying Wi-Fi on the Acela line with access being free, for the time being, then possibly roll Wi-Fi out to other Amtrak trains in its five-year plan. The GBS Group was selected to design the network and Nomad Digital to supply the hardware for the new Wi-Fi service branded as AmtrakConnect. On March 1, 2010, Amtrak deployed AmtrakConnect on all 20 Acela trains. AmtrakConnect (SSID AmtrakConnectAcela) supports 802.11 a/b/g/n, 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz and supports the use of standard VPN connections.
On September 27, 2005, a southbound train became the first Acela Express to be involved in a collision at a grade crossing when it struck a car at Miner Lane in Waterford, Connecticut, one of the few remaining grade crossings on the Northeast Corridor. The train was approaching the crossing at approximately 70 miles per hour (110 km/h) when the car reportedly rolled under the crossing gate arms at a low speed and was struck by the train and dragged 1,000 feet (300 m). The driver, a 62-year-old woman, and her 8-year-old grandson, were killed instantly; a 4-year-old girl survived and was airlifted to a hospital where she died nine days later. The gates were later inspected and declared to have been functioning properly at the time of the incident. The incident drew much criticism from the public about the 11 remaining grade crossings along Amtrak's busy Northeast Corridor.
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- Jay Jochnowitz (March 10, 1999). "New Amtrak trains on fast track". Times Union (Albany). p. A1.
- "Acela". Corporate Design Foundation. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
- Vantuono, William (April 1, 1999). "Amtrak's vision: Today, the Northeast. Tomorrow America". Railway Age. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- "Amtrak begins Phila-Boston service that's 45 minutes faster "Acela Regionals" go into service as the first step in improvements on the Northeast Corridor line". Philadelphia Inquirer. February 1, 2000. Retrieved 2009-08-30.
- Bob Johnston, Amtrak opens Boston electrification, Trains April 2000
- Ron Newman, Acela Regional starts January 31, 2000, misc.transport.rail.americas January 27, 2000
- Arnold, Laurence (March 5, 2003). "Amtrak will use name 'Acela' to describe high-speed trains only". Associated Press.
- "All Acela Power Car's on this site". Rrpicturearchives.net. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved 2012-06-18.
- R. Clifford Black (March 2005). The Acela Express. Japan Railway & Transport Review. http://www.jrtr.net/jrtr40/pdf/f18_bla.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- "TGVweb - Acela Express". Trainweb.org. Retrieved 2012-06-18.
- Perren, Brian. TGV Handbook, Including Eurostar. 2nd ed. Harrow Weald (United Kingdom) : Capital Transport Publishing. p156.
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- Philips, Don (January 2010). "Now it seems to be official: Freight rail is the future". Trains. 70 (1): 10.
When the train was being tested at the technology center in Pueblo, Colo., I had lunch one day out on the ballast with the French and Canadian crews doing the testing. The conversation turned to the weight of the Acela, which the crews considered laughably too heavy. At one point, a French engineer confided that the crews called the train "le cochon", meaning "the pig". The man and his supervisor immediately realized he had said too much. They asked me to keep that a secret, and I did for many years until I was sure everyone on the program had moved on to other jobs.
- James Dao; Matthew L. Wald; Don Philips (April 24, 2005). "Acela, Built to Be Rail's Savior, Bedevils Amtrak at Every Turn". The New York Times.
Before the first train was built, the Federal Railroad Administration required it to meet crash safety standards that senior Amtrak officials considered too strict. That forced the manufacturers, Bombardier Inc. of Canada and GEC Alstom of France, to make the trains twice as heavy as European models. Workers dubbed the trains le cochon -- the pig.
- "Bombardier unveils new JetTrain locomotive". International Railway Journal. November 2002.
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- "US Code Title 49 § 26105 – Definitions". US Code Title 49. Archived from the original on March 17, 2012. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
- The timetable gives 2 hours and 45 minutes, minimum, between New York and Washington. Dividing that into 224.7 miles (361.6 km) (89.0 miles from New York Penn Station to Philadelphia + 134.6 to Washington, DC + 1.1 to Washington's Union Station) gives 81.7 mph.
- The timetable gives 3 hours and 25 minutes, minimum, between Boston and New York. Dividing that into 228.7 route miles gives 66.9 mph.
- The timetable gives 6 hours and 30 minutes, minimum. Dividing that into 464.5 route miles (228.7 miles Boston South Station to New York Penn Station + 224.7 to Washington Union Station) gives 69.75 mph.
- "Northeast Corridor Employee Timetable #5" (PDF). National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak). 6 October 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 3, 2016 – via National Transportation Safety Board.
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- "Metro-North Railroad EMPLOYEE TIMETABLE No. 4" (PDF). Metro-North Railroad. June 21, 2010 [February 5, 2006]. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2012. Retrieved 2013-12-29. This notes, on p.41, that the 90 mph section is from MP [MilePost] 17.2 to MP 21.4; that begins midway between New Rochelle and Larchmont, and ends between Mamaroneck and Harrison.
- "High wire to efficiency". Railway Age. March 1, 1992. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
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- "Moynihan Station". empire.state.ny.us. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
- Jane Dee (March 29, 1999). "Rail crossings safety concern for Amtrak". Hartford Courant. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- "U.S. DOT: America's first "smart" highway-rail crossing is dedicated in Groton, Connecticut". M2 Presswire. August 27, 1998. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- "Inside the Acela". The Washington Post. November 30, 2000. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- "Acela Article". railfaneurope.net. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- "TGV Pages – Acela". Trainweb.org. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- Laurence Arnold (December 11, 2001). "Fast train begins service with Washington-Boston roundtrip". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. Retrieved 2006-11-13.
- Heppner, Frank (2012). Railroads of Rhode Island : shaping the Ocean State's railways. Charleston, SC: History Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-60949-333-2.
- Smith, Nell (January 17, 2013). "Mansfield sounds Acela warning". The Sun Chronicle. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
- Shields, Bill (January 18, 2013). "Mansfield Raises Concerns Over Amtrak Acela Warning System". CBS Boston. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
- Riordan, Lisa M. (May 12, 2011). "Federal Grants Will Help Build Line For Acela To Bypass Kingston Station". Narragansett Patch. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
- "Discovery of hairline cracks causes more problems for Amtrak's Acela Express". USA Today. August 20, 2002. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- Daniel, Mac (August 14, 2002). "Flaws Shut Down Amtrak's Acela Express Line". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- "Service Alert: Acela Express – Amtrak Cancels All Friday and Saturday Acela Express Service Due to Brake Problem". Amtrak. Retrieved 2005-04-15.
- Hauser, Kristine (April 15, 2005). "Amtrak Suspends Acela Trains After Finding Brake Problems". The New York Times. Retrieved 2005-04-15.
- Reed, Keith (June 10, 2005). "Acela's return expected in July". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2009-08-29.
- TGVweb - Acela Express
- Glenn Fleishman (July 8, 2004). "Behind the Curve; Access on Metro-North or Amtrak Cars? Not So Fast". New York Times.
- Eric Anderson (March 11, 2007). "Amtrak expects to boost services: Wireless Internet, new leather seats among possible perks". Times Union (Albany, NY).
- Clabaugh, Jeff (October 29, 2009). "Amtrak plans Wi-Fi, more security". washington.bizjournals.com. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- "Amtrak Launches Wi-Fi Service" (PDF) (Press release). Amtrak. March 1, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-27.
- McGeehan, Patrick; Wald, Matthew L. (September 30, 2005). "High-Tech Gates Fail to Avert Car-Train Crash". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-02.
- "Investigators Seek Answers In Fatal Crash That Killed Two; Cause of Waterford car-train accident may never be known". The New London Day. September 30, 2005. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved 2007-05-22.
- "Family sues over fatal car crash on railroad tracks". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. December 27, 2006. Archived from the original on December 27, 2008. Retrieved 2007-05-22.
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- Solomon, Brian (2004). Amtrak. Saint Paul, MN: MBI. ISBN 0-760-31765-8. OCLC 56490949.
- Vranich, Joseph (2004). End of the line: the failure of Amtrak reform and the future of America's passenger trains. AEI Press. ISBN 978-0-8447-4203-8.
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