Varang Kshiti

Varang Kshiti
or Warang Citi
Languages Ho
Creator Lako Bodra
Parent systems
original invention
  • Varang Kshiti
    or Warang Citi
Direction Left-to-right
ISO 15924 Wara, 262
Unicode alias
Warang Citi


Final Accepted Script Proposal

Varang Kshiti (IPA: /wʌrʌŋ ʧɪθɪ/) is an abugida invented by Lako Bodra, used in primary and adult education and in various publications. It is used to write Ho, a language used in the Indian states of Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Bihar, Chattisgarh and Assam.[1]

Community leader Bodra invented it as an alternative to the writing systems devised by Christian missionaries. He claims that the alphabet was invented in the 13th century by Deowan Turi, and that it was rediscovered in a shamanistic vision and modernized by Lako Bodra.

Bodra authored the following books in Varang Kshiti:

  1. Ela Al Etu Uta
  2. Sala Sule Sagen
  3. Ba Buru Bonga Buru
  4. Pompo
  5. Sahar Hora (8 Volumes)
  6. Raghu Vansha
  7. Hitahasa
  8. Bakana
  9. Aida Hola Sevasala
  10. Pitika
  11. Kol Rule

The script begins with the letter Ong, the first sound for the creation of the universe and has 32 letters in total with capital and small letters. It is written from left to right in horizontal lines, and each consonant has an inherent vowel, usually /a/ but sometimes /o/ or /e/.

Varang Kshiti uses its own set of digits.[2]

It has mainly gained acceptance among the easternmost group of speakers and is more prevalent among those who have been educated in it. Many other speakers prefer oral transmission of knowledge, Devanagari, or even Latin, but it holds prestige among many Ho speakers.


It is classified formally as an abugida, but it has many features of a proper alphabet. It follows capitalization rules as are done in English and follows English punctuation. Vowels are added after consonants like in alphabets, but consonants may have the inherent vowel that is present in most Indic languages, so it is ambiguous. There are few ligatures that combine to form new sounds, and there are conjunct consonants that are used as well by stacking in some cases.


Varang Kshiti was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0.

The Unicode block for Varang Kshiti, called Warang Citi, is U+118A0U+118FF. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points:

Warang Citi[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+118Ax 𑢠 𑢡 𑢢 𑢣 𑢤 𑢥 𑢦 𑢧 𑢨 𑢩 𑢪 𑢫 𑢬 𑢭 𑢮 𑢯
U+118Bx 𑢰 𑢱 𑢲 𑢳 𑢴 𑢵 𑢶 𑢷 𑢸 𑢹 𑢺 𑢻 𑢼 𑢽 𑢾 𑢿
U+118Cx 𑣀 𑣁 𑣂 𑣃 𑣄 𑣅 𑣆 𑣇 𑣈 𑣉 𑣊 𑣋 𑣌 𑣍 𑣎 𑣏
U+118Dx 𑣐 𑣑 𑣒 𑣓 𑣔 𑣕 𑣖 𑣗 𑣘 𑣙 𑣚 𑣛 𑣜 𑣝 𑣞 𑣟
U+118Ex 𑣠 𑣡 𑣢 𑣣 𑣤 𑣥 𑣦 𑣧 𑣨 𑣩 𑣪 𑣫 𑣬 𑣭 𑣮 𑣯
U+118Fx 𑣰 𑣱 𑣲 𑣿
1.^ As of Unicode version 9.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points


  1. Ager, Simon. "Varang Kshiti alphabet".
  2. Everson, Michael (2012-04-19). "N4259: Final proposal for encoding the Warang Citi script in the SMP of the UCS" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-08-20.

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