Transport in England
English railway transport is largely based on services originating from one of London's rail termini operating in all directions on tracks mostly owned by Network Rail. Internal intercity services include:
- Abellio Greater Anglia
- Virgin Trains East Coast
- Virgin Trains
- Great Western Railway
- South West Trains
- London Waterloo to the west
- Chiltern Railways
- Grand Central Railway
- East Midlands Trains
Short distance travel that doesn't pass through London is generally referred to as cross country travel. Most services are operated by CrossCountry and often terminate in South East Wales or Scotland. The Oxford to Cambridge or Varsity Line is due to be rebuilt to enable journeys avoiding London and Birmingham.
Regional train services are also operated by these, and other, train companies, and focus on the major cities, several of which have developed commuter and urban rail networks.
Many cities in England have rapid transit systems. Most well known is the London Underground (commonly known as the Tube), the oldest and longest rapid transit system in the world. Also in London are the separate Docklands Light Railway (though this is integrated with the Underground in many ways), and the London Overground. Outside of London, there is the Tyne and Wear Metro, focused on Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead and Sunderland, and Merseyrail, which operates in and around Liverpool.
Trams and light rail
Tram systems were popular in England in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. However, with the rise of the motor bus and later the car they began to be widely dismantled in the 1950s. By 1962, only Blackpool tramway remained. However, in recent years trams have seen a revival, as in other countries, as have light rail systems. Examples of this second generation of tram systems and light rail include:
- Docklands Light Railway in east London.
- Manchester Metrolink in Greater Manchester.
- Sheffield Supertram in Sheffield.
- Midland Metro in the West Midlands.
- Tramlink in Croydon.
- NET in Nottingham.
Rail links with adjacent countries
- Wales; yes.
- Scotland; yes.
- France; yes; via Channel Tunnel.
- Belgium; yes; via Channel Tunnel and France.
- Ireland; no (except by ferry); proposed via an Irish Sea Tunnel.
The Motorways and major roads in England are managed by Highways England.
|Motorway||From||To||Major destinations||Year most recent stretch opened|
|M25||London Orbital||London Orbital||n/a||1986|
|M6 Toll||National Exhibition Centre||Wolverhampton||Birmingham||2003|
|M60||Manchester Orbital||Manchester Orbital||n/a||2000|
Note: There is no definition of a major motorway. Those in the table are particularly important due to their destinations, and other motorways exist. Where a major city (such as London) is given as a destination it is usually to give a general idea of the location, as most (London) motorways end outside the actual city (for example, the M40 actually ends in Buckinghamshire).
Buses play a major role in the public transport of England, as well as seeing extensive private use. While rail transport has increased over the past twenty years due to road congestion, the same does not apply to buses, which have generally been used less, apart from in London where their use has increased significantly. Bus transport is heavily subsidised, especially in London. In 2014/15, there were 4.65 billion bus journeys in England, 2.4 billion of which were in London.