Palestine Liberation Front
|Leader||Wasel Abu Yousef|
|National affiliation||Palestine Liberation Organization|
The Palestinian Liberation Front (PLF) (جبهة التحرير الفلسطينية) is a Palestinian political faction.
The PLF was founded by Ahmed Jibril and Shafiq al-Hout in 1961, and enjoyed strong Syrian backing. In 1967 the PLF merged with two other groups, the Arab Nationalist Movement-affiliated Heroes of the Return (abtal al-awda) and the Young Avengers, to form the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).
The PFLP was led by former ANM-leader George Habash, but in April 1968 Jibril split from this group to form the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command (PFLP-GC), which returned to the strongly pro-Syrian position of the former PLF.
This eventually led to a reestablishment of the PLF, as the organization broke apart after Jibril's PFLP-GC had followed Syria into battle against the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1976, during the Lebanese Civil War. Open fighting between the rival factions ensued, and only after mediation by Yassir Arafat did their relationship stabilize. On April 24, 1977, the PFLP-GC deserters formed the new PLF, under the leadership of Muhammad Zaidan (Abu Abbas) and Tal'at Ya'qub. Sporadic fighting continued between PFLP-GC and PLF, and included an August 1977 bombing of the PLF headquarters, which killed 200 people.
PLF in recent years
The leaders of the PLF were active in the PLO with Abu Abbas acting as PLF representative in the PLO's executive committee. During the years after the PLO signed the 1993 Oslo Accords, which the PLF opposes, Abu Abbas agreed to abandon terrorism and acknowledged Israel's right to exist. The movement maintained offices in the Palestinian Territories, Lebanon and Iraq, but its activities dwindled. It has a low level of support in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and its main strength lies in the Lebanese refugee camps, where it is reported to have coordinated with Fatah against various Syrian-backed factions.
In November 2001, 15 members of a PLF cell were arrested by Israeli authorities. Some of those captured had received military training in Iraq. The cell had been planning attacks in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and the Ben Gurion airport. The cell had already been involved in other terrorist activities including the murder of Israeli civilian Yuri Gushstein.
During the US-led Operation Iraqi Freedom, Abu Abbas was captured in April 2003, by US forces. He died while in US custody in Iraq, reportedly of natural causes, on March 9, 2004.
The Achille Lauro attack
One notorious incident was the hijacking of the Italian cruise ship MS Achille Lauro on October 7, 1985. The hijackers' original aim was to use the ship to slip into Israel. However, crew members discovered them cleaning weapons, and the group then seized control of the ship, murdering an elderly wheelchair-dependent Jewish New Yorker, Leon Klinghoffer.
US fighter planes later forced down the Egyptian aircraft in which Abbas was escaping following a negotiated end of the hijacking, and forced it to land at a USAF base on Sigonella, Sicily. The Italians let Abbas go, but subsequently sentenced him to five life sentences in absentia. Abbas was expelled from Tunisia and established his headquarters in Baghdad, Iraq.
The United States could have brought its own charges against Abbas, although a criminal complaint filed against him in 1986 was dropped a short time later without an indictment. As of 2015, the PLF is designated as a terrorist organization by the United States.
1990 beach raid
In May 1990, the PLF launched an attack on Israel's Nizanim beach, near Tel-Aviv, urged on by Iraq to torpedo the moves towards a negotiated solution between the PLO and Israel. The attackers had intended to kill tourists and Israeli civilians, but this was prevented. However, the action was significant, in that the failure of Yasser Arafat to condemn this attack led to the United States backing out of the American-Palestinian dialogue that had begun in 1988. Despite Arafat's official silence on the issue, the PLF suffered heavy internal criticism within the PLO, and Abu Abbas had to step down from his seat on the executive committee.
- 1979 Nahariya attack
- Palestinian Liberation Front (Abu Nidal Ashqar wing)
- Palestinian political violence
- "Terrorism". cdi.org.
- Rubenberg, C.A. (2010) The Encyclopedia Of The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Lynne Rienner, Publishers.
- "CNN.com - U.S. mulls legal options after Abbas capture - Apr. 17, 2003".
- "Foreign Terrorist Organizations". the U.S. State Department. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1990 - Middle East Overview". fas.org.
Media related to Palestine Liberation Front at Wikimedia Commons