Operation Inherent Resolve
|Operation Inherent Resolve|
|Part of the War on ISIL, the War in Iraq, the Syrian Civil War|
U.S. military F/A-18F Super Hornets of VFA-22 take off from USS Carl Vinson to support U.S. efforts for Operation Inherent Resolve in October 2014.
|Commanders and leaders|
Barack Obama (President of the United States)|
Ashton Carter (United States Secretary of Defense)
Lieutenant General Stephen J. Townsend (Commanding General CJTF-OIR)
Major General Gary J. Volesky
(Commander of Ground Forces CJTF-OIR)
Major General Scott A. Kindsvater
(Deputy Commander-Operations and Intelligence CJTF-OIR)
Major General Rupert Jones (Deputy Commander-Strategy and Support CJTF-OIR)
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (Leader of ISIL)
Abu Mohammad al-Julani (Leader of the al-Nusra Front)
Abu Jaber † (2014–2015)
Abu Yahia al-Hamawi (2015–present)
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant:
|Casualties and losses|
6,365+ civilians killed by ISIL|
Between 1,513 and 4,527 civilians killed by Coalition airstrikes in Syria and Iraq(per Airwars)
Over 970,000 civilians in Iraq and Syria displaced, or fled to Turkey and other countries
Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) is the U.S. military's operational name for the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, in the vernacular, Daesh), including both the campaign in Iraq and the campaign in Syria. Effective 21 August 2016, U.S. Army XVIII Airborne Corps is responsible for Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF-OIR).
Unlike their coalition partners, and unlike previous combat operations, no name was initially given to the conflict against ISIL by the U.S. government. The decision to keep the conflict nameless drew considerable media criticism.
The U.S. decided in October 2014 to name its military efforts against ISIL as "Operation Inherent Resolve"; the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) news release announcing the name noted that:
According to CENTCOM officials, the name INHERENT RESOLVE is intended to reflect the unwavering resolve and deep commitment of the U.S. and partner nations in the region and around the globe to eliminate the terrorist group ISIL and the threat they pose to Iraq, the region and the wider international community. It also symbolizes the willingness and dedication of coalition members to work closely with our friends in the region and apply all available dimensions of national power necessary—diplomatic, informational, military, economic—to degrade and ultimately destroy ISIL.
The Defense Department announced at the end of October 2014 that troops operating in support of Operation Inherent Resolve after 15 June were eligible for the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal. Service areas are: Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates, as well as troops supporting the operation in the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea east of 25 degrees longitude. The medal is approved retroactively beginning 15 June, the Pentagon said.
On 22 October 2015, a U.S. Master Sergeant, Joshua L. Wheeler, was shot dead when he, with about 30 other U.S. special operations soldiers and a peshmerga unit, conducted a prison break near Hawija, in which about 70 hostages were rescued, five ISIL members were captured and "a number" were killed or wounded. The Kurdistan Regional Government said after the raid that none of the 15 prisoners it was intended to rescue were found.
As of 9 March 2016, nearly 11,000 airstrikes have been launched on ISIL (and occasionally Al-Nusra), killing over 27,000 fighters and striking over 22,000 targets, including 139 tanks, 371 Humvees, and 1,216 pieces of oil infrastructure. Approximately 80% of these airstrikes have been conducted by American forces, with the remaining 20% being launched by other members of the coalition, such as the United Kingdom and Australia. 7,268 strikes hit targets in Iraq, while 3,602 hit targets in Syria. On 12 June 2016, it was reported that 120 Islamic State leaders, commanders, propagandists, recruiters and other high-value individuals were killed so far this year.
Until March 2016, U.S. military members were ineligible for Campaign Medals and other service decorations due to the continuing ambiguous nature of the continuing U.S. involvement in Iraq. However, on 30 March 2016, U.S. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter announced the creation of a new medal, named "Inherent Resolve Campaign Medal".
On 16 June 2016, AV-8B II+ Harriers of the 13th MEU flying off the USS Boxer began airstrikes against the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria the first time the U.S. Navy has used ship-based aircraft from both the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf at the same time during Operation Inherent Resolve (aircraft from the USS Harry S. Truman began airstrikes on IS targets from the Mediterranean on 3 June).
As of 27 July 2016, U.S. and coalition partners conducted more than 14,000 airstrikes in Iraq and Syria: Nearly 11,000 of those strikes were from U.S. aircraft and the majority of the strikes (more than 9,000) were in Iraq. Of the 26,374 targets hit, nearly 8,000 were against ISIS fighting positions, while approximately 6,500 hit buildings; ISIS staging areas and oil infrastructure were each hit around 1,600 times.
- USS George H.W. Bush carrier strike group (June 2014 – late October 2014)
- DESRON-22 using Arleigh Burke-class destroyers.
- Strike Fighter Squadron 213 (VFA-213) using Boeing F/A-18F Super Hornets
- VFA-87 using McDonnell Douglas F/A-18C Hornets.
- VFA-31 using Boeing F/A-18E Super Hornets.
- VFA-15 using McDonnell Douglas F/A-18C Hornets.
- VAQ-134 using Northrop Grumman EA-6B Prowler.
- USS Carl Vinson carrier strike group (late October 2014 – late March 2015)
- USS Theodore Roosevelt carrier strike group (late March 2015 – 13 October 2015)
- DESRON-2 using Arleigh Burke-class destroyers.
- VMFA-251 Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 251 (VMFA-251) "Thunderbolts" using McDonnell Douglas F/A-18C(N) Hornets. (USMC Unit)
- VFA-211 using Boeing F/A-18F Super Hornets.
- VFA-136 using Boeing F/A-18E Super Hornets.
- VFA-11 using Boeing F/A-18F Super Hornets.
- USS Harry S. Truman carrier strike group (December 2015 – July 2016)
- USS Dwight D. Eisenhower carrier strike group (June 2016 – present)
- DESRON-26 using Arleigh Burke-class destroyers.
- VFA-32 using Boeing F/A-18F Super Hornets.
- VFA-86 using McDonnell Douglas F/A-18E Hornets.
- VFA-105 using Boeing F/A-18E Super Hornets.
- VFA-131 using Boeing F/A-18C Hornets.
- VAW-123 using Northrop Grumman E-2 Hawkeyes.
- VAQ-130 using Boeing EA-18G Growlers.
- VRC-40 using Grumman C-2 Greyhounds.
- HSC-7 using Sikorsky MH-60S Knighthawks.
- HSM-74 using Sikorsky MH-60R Seahawks.
- Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF)
- Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force – Crisis Response – Central Command
- 1st Infantry Division
- 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division (January – September 2015).
- 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division
- 1st Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division (September 2015 – June 2016).
- 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) (June 2016 – present).
U.S. and coalition forces are training Iraqi forces at four sites: in al-Asad in Anbar province, Erbil in the north, and Taji and Besmayah in the Baghdad area.
- Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve, commander headquarters of ongoing operations
- Operation Shader, name for similar British operations
- Opération Chammal, name for similar French operations
- Operation Impact, name for similar Canadian operations
- Operation Okra, name for similar Australian operations
- Operation Martyr Yalçın, name for similar Turkish operation against ISIL
- Operation Tidal Wave II, name of a sub operation against ISIL oil infrastructure
- German intervention against ISIL, also named Operation Counter Daesh, related German operations
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- At least 20,000 civilians displaced during the Al-Hasakah offensive (February–March 2015); 5,000+ in the Khabur Valley region, and 15,000+ in the Tell Hamis region
- Pentagon Briefing On Operation Inherent Resolve against Daesh, minute 1:20 / 32:56
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- Operation Inherent Resolve – Official Website
- Global Coalition – Official Website
- Media related to Operation Inherent Resolve at Wikimedia Commons